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The Religion Paradox: If Religion Makes People Happy, Why Are So Many Dropping Out?

As we estimate here, 68% of human beings—4.6 billion people—would say that religion is important in their daily lives. Past studies have found that the religious, on average, have higher subjective well-being (SWB). Yet, people are rapidly leaving organized religion in economically developed nations... Full description

Journal Title: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 2011, Vol.101(6), pp.1278-1290
Main Author: Diener, Ed
Other Authors: Tay, Louis , Myers, David G.
Format: Electronic Article Electronic Article
Language: English
Subjects:
ID: ISSN: 0022-3514 ; E-ISSN: 1939-1315 ; DOI: 10.1037/a0024402
Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0024402
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recordid: apa_articles10.1037/a0024402
title: The Religion Paradox: If Religion Makes People Happy, Why Are So Many Dropping Out?
format: Article
creator:
  • Diener, Ed
  • Tay, Louis
  • Myers, David G.
subjects:
  • Religiosity
  • Religion
  • Subjective Well-Being
  • Happiness
  • Culture
ispartof: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2011, Vol.101(6), pp.1278-1290
description: As we estimate here, 68% of human beings—4.6 billion people—would say that religion is important in their daily lives. Past studies have found that the religious, on average, have higher subjective well-being (SWB). Yet, people are rapidly leaving organized religion in economically developed nations where religious freedom is high. Why would people leave religion if it enhances their happiness? After controlling for circumstances in both the United States and world samples, we found that religiosity is associated with slightly higher SWB, and similarly so across four major world religions. The associations of religiosity and SWB were mediated by social support, feeling respected, and purpose or meaning in life. However, there was an interaction underlying the general trend such that the association of religion and well-being is conditional on societal circumstances. Nations and states with more difficult life conditions (e.g., widespread hunger and low life expectancy) were much more likely to be highly religious. In these nations, religiosity was associated with greater social support, respect, purpose or meaning, and all three types of SWB. In societies with more favorable circumstances, religiosity is less prevalent and religious and nonreligious individuals experience similar levels of SWB. There was also a person–culture fit effect such that religious people had higher SWB in religious nations but not in nonreligious nations. Thus, it appears that the benefits of religion for social relationships and SWB depend on the characteristics of the society.
language: eng
source:
identifier: ISSN: 0022-3514 ; E-ISSN: 1939-1315 ; DOI: 10.1037/a0024402
fulltext: fulltext
issn:
  • 0022-3514
  • 00223514
  • 1939-1315
  • 19391315
url: Link


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descriptionAs we estimate here, 68% of human beings—4.6 billion people—would say that religion is important in their daily lives. Past studies have found that the religious, on average, have higher subjective well-being (SWB). Yet, people are rapidly leaving organized religion in economically developed nations where religious freedom is high. Why would people leave religion if it enhances their happiness? After controlling for circumstances in both the United States and world samples, we found that religiosity is associated with slightly higher SWB, and similarly so across four major world religions. The associations of religiosity and SWB were mediated by social support, feeling respected, and purpose or meaning in life. However, there was an interaction underlying the general trend such that the association of religion and well-being is conditional on societal circumstances. Nations and states with more difficult life conditions (e.g., widespread hunger and low life expectancy) were much more likely to be highly religious. In these nations, religiosity was associated with greater social support, respect, purpose or meaning, and all three types of SWB. In societies with more favorable circumstances, religiosity is less prevalent and religious and nonreligious individuals experience similar levels of SWB. There was also a person–culture fit effect such that religious people had higher SWB in religious nations but not in nonreligious nations. Thus, it appears that the benefits of religion for social relationships and SWB depend on the characteristics of the society.
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abstractAs we estimate here, 68% of human beings—4.6 billion people—would say that religion is important in their daily lives. Past studies have found that the religious, on average, have higher subjective well-being (SWB). Yet, people are rapidly leaving organized religion in economically developed nations where religious freedom is high. Why would people leave religion if it enhances their happiness? After controlling for circumstances in both the United States and world samples, we found that religiosity is associated with slightly higher SWB, and similarly so across four major world religions. The associations of religiosity and SWB were mediated by social support, feeling respected, and purpose or meaning in life. However, there was an interaction underlying the general trend such that the association of religion and well-being is conditional on societal circumstances. Nations and states with more difficult life conditions (e.g., widespread hunger and low life expectancy) were much more likely to be highly religious. In these nations, religiosity was associated with greater social support, respect, purpose or meaning, and all three types of SWB. In societies with more favorable circumstances, religiosity is less prevalent and religious and nonreligious individuals experience similar levels of SWB. There was also a person–culture fit effect such that religious people had higher SWB in religious nations but not in nonreligious nations. Thus, it appears that the benefits of religion for social relationships and SWB depend on the characteristics of the society.
pubAmerican Psychological Association
doi10.1037/a0024402
date2011-12