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Reactivity to Stressor Pile-Up in Adulthood: Effects on Daily Negative and Positive Affect

This study used data from a 30-day diary study with 289 adults (age range 18–89 years) to model the effects of stressor pile-up on individuals’ daily negative affect (NA) and positive affect (PA) and to test for age differences in these effects. Specifically, we developed a new approach to operation... Full description

Journal Title: Psychology and Aging 2014, Vol.29(1), pp.72-83
Main Author: Schilling, Oliver K.
Other Authors: Diehl, Manfred
Format: Electronic Article Electronic Article
Language: English
Subjects:
ID: ISSN: 0882-7974 ; E-ISSN: 1939-1498 ; DOI: 10.1037/a0035500
Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0035500
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recordid: apa_articles10.1037/a0035500
title: Reactivity to Stressor Pile-Up in Adulthood: Effects on Daily Negative and Positive Affect
format: Article
creator:
  • Schilling, Oliver K.
  • Diehl, Manfred
subjects:
  • Age Differences
  • Daily Affect
  • Generalized Linear Mixed Models
  • Stressor Pile-Up
ispartof: Psychology and Aging, 2014, Vol.29(1), pp.72-83
description: This study used data from a 30-day diary study with 289 adults (age range 18–89 years) to model the effects of stressor pile-up on individuals’ daily negative affect (NA) and positive affect (PA) and to test for age differences in these effects. Specifically, we developed a new approach to operationalize and model stressor pile-up and evaluated this approach using generalized mixed models, taking into account the gamma response distribution of the highly skewed daily NA data. Findings showed that pile-up of stressors over a 1-week period was significantly coupled with increases in individuals’ daily NA above and beyond the effect of concurrent stressors. Findings also showed that the effects of stressor accumulation and concurrent stress were additive rather than multiplicative. Age interacted significantly with stressor accumulation so that a higher age was associated with less NA reactivity to stressor pile-up. Yet, we did not find such an age-related association for NA reactivity to concurrent daily stressors. Daily PA was not associated with daily stress or with stressor pile-up. The operational definition of stressor pile-up presented in this study contributes to the literature by providing a new approach to model the dynamic effects of stress, and by providing new ways of separating the effects of acute stressors from the effects of stressor pile-up. The age differences found in the present study suggest that older adults develop effective emotion regulation skills for handling stressor pile-up, but that they react to acute daily stressors in a similar way than younger adults.
language: eng
source:
identifier: ISSN: 0882-7974 ; E-ISSN: 1939-1498 ; DOI: 10.1037/a0035500
fulltext: fulltext
issn:
  • 0882-7974
  • 08827974
  • 1939-1498
  • 19391498
url: Link


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titleReactivity to Stressor Pile-Up in Adulthood: Effects on Daily Negative and Positive Affect
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subjectAge Differences ; Daily Affect ; Generalized Linear Mixed Models ; Stressor Pile-Up
descriptionThis study used data from a 30-day diary study with 289 adults (age range 18–89 years) to model the effects of stressor pile-up on individuals’ daily negative affect (NA) and positive affect (PA) and to test for age differences in these effects. Specifically, we developed a new approach to operationalize and model stressor pile-up and evaluated this approach using generalized mixed models, taking into account the gamma response distribution of the highly skewed daily NA data. Findings showed that pile-up of stressors over a 1-week period was significantly coupled with increases in individuals’ daily NA above and beyond the effect of concurrent stressors. Findings also showed that the effects of stressor accumulation and concurrent stress were additive rather than multiplicative. Age interacted significantly with stressor accumulation so that a higher age was associated with less NA reactivity to stressor pile-up. Yet, we did not find such an age-related association for NA reactivity to concurrent daily stressors. Daily PA was not associated with daily stress or with stressor pile-up. The operational definition of stressor pile-up presented in this study contributes to the literature by providing a new approach to model the dynamic effects of stress, and by providing new ways of separating the effects of acute stressors from the effects of stressor pile-up. The age differences found in the present study suggest that older adults develop effective emotion regulation skills for handling stressor pile-up, but that they react to acute daily stressors in a similar way than younger adults.
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abstractThis study used data from a 30-day diary study with 289 adults (age range 18–89 years) to model the effects of stressor pile-up on individuals’ daily negative affect (NA) and positive affect (PA) and to test for age differences in these effects. Specifically, we developed a new approach to operationalize and model stressor pile-up and evaluated this approach using generalized mixed models, taking into account the gamma response distribution of the highly skewed daily NA data. Findings showed that pile-up of stressors over a 1-week period was significantly coupled with increases in individuals’ daily NA above and beyond the effect of concurrent stressors. Findings also showed that the effects of stressor accumulation and concurrent stress were additive rather than multiplicative. Age interacted significantly with stressor accumulation so that a higher age was associated with less NA reactivity to stressor pile-up. Yet, we did not find such an age-related association for NA reactivity to concurrent daily stressors. Daily PA was not associated with daily stress or with stressor pile-up. The operational definition of stressor pile-up presented in this study contributes to the literature by providing a new approach to model the dynamic effects of stress, and by providing new ways of separating the effects of acute stressors from the effects of stressor pile-up. The age differences found in the present study suggest that older adults develop effective emotion regulation skills for handling stressor pile-up, but that they react to acute daily stressors in a similar way than younger adults.
pubAmerican Psychological Association
doi10.1037/a0035500
date2014-03