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The Second-Parameter Effect in Metal-Rich Globular Clusters

Recent Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations by Rich et al. (1997) have shown that the metal-rich globular clusters (GCs) NGC 6388 and NGC 6441 exhibit a pronounced 2nd parameter effect. Ordinarily metal-rich GCs have only a red horizontal-branch (HB) clump. However, NGC 6388 and NGC 6441 also p... Full description

Main Author: Sweigart, Allen V.
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Quelle: Cornell University
ID: Arxiv ID: astro-ph/9909384
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title: The Second-Parameter Effect in Metal-Rich Globular Clusters
format: Article
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  • Sweigart, Allen V.
subjects:
  • Astrophysics
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description: Recent Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations by Rich et al. (1997) have shown that the metal-rich globular clusters (GCs) NGC 6388 and NGC 6441 exhibit a pronounced 2nd parameter effect. Ordinarily metal-rich GCs have only a red horizontal-branch (HB) clump. However, NGC 6388 and NGC 6441 also possess an unexpected population of blue HB stars, indicating that some 2nd parameter is operating in these clusters. Quite remarkably, the HBs in both clusters slope upward with decreasing B - V from the red clump to the top of the blue tail. We review the results of ongoing stellar evolution calculations which indicate 1) that NGC 6388 and NGC 6441 might provide a crucial diagnostic for understanding the origin of the 2nd parameter effect, 2) that differences in age or mass loss along the red-giant branch (RGB) - the two most prominent 2nd parameter candidates - cannot explain the HB morphology of these GCs, and 3) that noncanonical effects involving an enhanced helium abundance or rotation can produce upward sloping HBs. Finally we suggest a new metal-depletion scenario which might help to resolve a baffling conundrum concerning the surface gravities of the blue HB stars in these clusters. Comment: 10 pages, 3 figures, to appear in the PASP Conference Proceedings series of the Workshop on "Spectrophotometric Dating of Stars and Galaxies", Annapolis, Maryland (USA), eds. I. Hubeny, S. Heap, and R. Cornett
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source: Cornell University
identifier: Arxiv ID: astro-ph/9909384
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descriptionRecent Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations by Rich et al. (1997) have shown that the metal-rich globular clusters (GCs) NGC 6388 and NGC 6441 exhibit a pronounced 2nd parameter effect. Ordinarily metal-rich GCs have only a red horizontal-branch (HB) clump. However, NGC 6388 and NGC 6441 also possess an unexpected population of blue HB stars, indicating that some 2nd parameter is operating in these clusters. Quite remarkably, the HBs in both clusters slope upward with decreasing B - V from the red clump to the top of the blue tail. We review the results of ongoing stellar evolution calculations which indicate 1) that NGC 6388 and NGC 6441 might provide a crucial diagnostic for understanding the origin of the 2nd parameter effect, 2) that differences in age or mass loss along the red-giant branch (RGB) - the two most prominent 2nd parameter candidates - cannot explain the HB morphology of these GCs, and 3) that noncanonical effects involving an enhanced helium abundance or rotation can produce upward sloping HBs. Finally we suggest a new metal-depletion scenario which might help to resolve a baffling conundrum concerning the surface gravities of the blue HB stars in these clusters. Comment: 10 pages, 3 figures, to appear in the PASP Conference Proceedings series of the Workshop on "Spectrophotometric Dating of Stars and Galaxies", Annapolis, Maryland (USA), eds. I. Hubeny, S. Heap, and R. Cornett
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titleThe Second-Parameter Effect in Metal-Rich Globular Clusters
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0Recent Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations by Rich et al. (1997) have shown that the metal-rich globular clusters (GCs) NGC 6388 and NGC 6441 exhibit a pronounced 2nd parameter effect. Ordinarily metal-rich GCs have only a red horizontal-branch (HB) clump. However, NGC 6388 and NGC 6441 also possess an unexpected population of blue HB stars, indicating that some 2nd parameter is operating in these clusters. Quite remarkably, the HBs in both clusters slope upward with decreasing B - V from the red clump to the top of the blue tail. We review the results of ongoing stellar evolution calculations which indicate 1) that NGC 6388 and NGC 6441 might provide a crucial diagnostic for understanding the origin of the 2nd parameter effect, 2) that differences in age or mass loss along the red-giant branch (RGB) - the two most prominent 2nd parameter candidates - cannot explain the HB morphology of these GCs, and 3) that noncanonical effects involving an enhanced helium abundance or rotation can produce upward sloping HBs. Finally we suggest a new metal-depletion scenario which might help to resolve a baffling conundrum concerning the surface gravities of the blue HB stars in these clusters.
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titleThe Second-Parameter Effect in Metal-Rich Globular Clusters
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abstractRecent Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations by Rich et al. (1997) have shown that the metal-rich globular clusters (GCs) NGC 6388 and NGC 6441 exhibit a pronounced 2nd parameter effect. Ordinarily metal-rich GCs have only a red horizontal-branch (HB) clump. However, NGC 6388 and NGC 6441 also possess an unexpected population of blue HB stars, indicating that some 2nd parameter is operating in these clusters. Quite remarkably, the HBs in both clusters slope upward with decreasing B - V from the red clump to the top of the blue tail. We review the results of ongoing stellar evolution calculations which indicate 1) that NGC 6388 and NGC 6441 might provide a crucial diagnostic for understanding the origin of the 2nd parameter effect, 2) that differences in age or mass loss along the red-giant branch (RGB) - the two most prominent 2nd parameter candidates - cannot explain the HB morphology of these GCs, and 3) that noncanonical effects involving an enhanced helium abundance or rotation can produce upward sloping HBs. Finally we suggest a new metal-depletion scenario which might help to resolve a baffling conundrum concerning the surface gravities of the blue HB stars in these clusters.
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date1999-09-22