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REINFORCED MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF FUNCTIONALIZED SILICA AND EGGSHELL FILLED GUAYULE NATURAL RUBBER COMPOSITES

ABSTRACT Replacing synthetic fillers, which are commonly used to reinforce rubber, with bio-fillers has potential to improve the sustainability of rubber products. Eggshell (ES) (a powder with a maximum particle diameter of 9.4 μm and a median of 1.1 μm) was added to guayule natural rubber (GNR) com... Full description

Journal Title: Rubber chemistry and technology 2019-10-01, Vol.92 (4), p.687-708
Main Author: Ren, Xianjie
Other Authors: Geng, Yang , Soboyejo, Alfred B. O. , Cornish, Katrina
Format: Electronic Article Electronic Article
Language: English
Quelle: Alma/SFX Local Collection
ID: ISSN: 0035-9475
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recordid: cdi_crossref_primary_10_5254_rct_19_81485
title: REINFORCED MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF FUNCTIONALIZED SILICA AND EGGSHELL FILLED GUAYULE NATURAL RUBBER COMPOSITES
format: Article
creator:
  • Ren, Xianjie
  • Geng, Yang
  • Soboyejo, Alfred B. O.
  • Cornish, Katrina
ispartof: Rubber chemistry and technology, 2019-10-01, Vol.92 (4), p.687-708
description: ABSTRACT Replacing synthetic fillers, which are commonly used to reinforce rubber, with bio-fillers has potential to improve the sustainability of rubber products. Eggshell (ES) (a powder with a maximum particle diameter of 9.4 μm and a median of 1.1 μm) was added to guayule natural rubber (GNR) composites to partially or fully replace bifunctionally silanized, high surface area, precipitated silica (BSS). The mixing energy consumption, mechanical properties, cross-link density, filler dispersion and final particle size, fracture surface morphology, and dyeability of GNR composites were characterized. ES filler effectively reinforced vulcanized GNR compared with unfilled vulcanized GNR. Energy consumption, modulus at 300% strain (M300), and hardness generally decreased with increasing ES fraction (decreasing BSS), but tensile strength, gel fraction, and elongation at break increased even where cross-link density and M300 were similar. Thus, composite cross-link density was not solely influenced by silane content as the ratio and loading of ES and BSS changed. The production of the composites reduced particle size to submicron size. Even a small amount of ES improved the dispersion of BSS filler particles in the composites and hence the mechanical properties. The contributions of the two fillers to the composite properties are explained. Linear mixed models were built to predict the mechanical properties of a broader range of GNR–ES–BSS composites, and r2 (the quality of the model predictability) was above 0.9 for all models. ES filled GNR, with or without BSS, can be dyed different colors for specific applications. The lower-cost, renewability, dyeability, and excellent performance of ES–GNR composites addresses the need for sustainable rubber products with low carbon footprint.
language: eng
source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
identifier: ISSN: 0035-9475
fulltext: fulltext
issn:
  • 0035-9475
  • 1943-4804
url: Link


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descriptionABSTRACT Replacing synthetic fillers, which are commonly used to reinforce rubber, with bio-fillers has potential to improve the sustainability of rubber products. Eggshell (ES) (a powder with a maximum particle diameter of 9.4 μm and a median of 1.1 μm) was added to guayule natural rubber (GNR) composites to partially or fully replace bifunctionally silanized, high surface area, precipitated silica (BSS). The mixing energy consumption, mechanical properties, cross-link density, filler dispersion and final particle size, fracture surface morphology, and dyeability of GNR composites were characterized. ES filler effectively reinforced vulcanized GNR compared with unfilled vulcanized GNR. Energy consumption, modulus at 300% strain (M300), and hardness generally decreased with increasing ES fraction (decreasing BSS), but tensile strength, gel fraction, and elongation at break increased even where cross-link density and M300 were similar. Thus, composite cross-link density was not solely influenced by silane content as the ratio and loading of ES and BSS changed. The production of the composites reduced particle size to submicron size. Even a small amount of ES improved the dispersion of BSS filler particles in the composites and hence the mechanical properties. The contributions of the two fillers to the composite properties are explained. Linear mixed models were built to predict the mechanical properties of a broader range of GNR–ES–BSS composites, and r2 (the quality of the model predictability) was above 0.9 for all models. ES filled GNR, with or without BSS, can be dyed different colors for specific applications. The lower-cost, renewability, dyeability, and excellent performance of ES–GNR composites addresses the need for sustainable rubber products with low carbon footprint.
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abstractABSTRACT Replacing synthetic fillers, which are commonly used to reinforce rubber, with bio-fillers has potential to improve the sustainability of rubber products. Eggshell (ES) (a powder with a maximum particle diameter of 9.4 μm and a median of 1.1 μm) was added to guayule natural rubber (GNR) composites to partially or fully replace bifunctionally silanized, high surface area, precipitated silica (BSS). The mixing energy consumption, mechanical properties, cross-link density, filler dispersion and final particle size, fracture surface morphology, and dyeability of GNR composites were characterized. ES filler effectively reinforced vulcanized GNR compared with unfilled vulcanized GNR. Energy consumption, modulus at 300% strain (M300), and hardness generally decreased with increasing ES fraction (decreasing BSS), but tensile strength, gel fraction, and elongation at break increased even where cross-link density and M300 were similar. Thus, composite cross-link density was not solely influenced by silane content as the ratio and loading of ES and BSS changed. The production of the composites reduced particle size to submicron size. Even a small amount of ES improved the dispersion of BSS filler particles in the composites and hence the mechanical properties. The contributions of the two fillers to the composite properties are explained. Linear mixed models were built to predict the mechanical properties of a broader range of GNR–ES–BSS composites, and r2 (the quality of the model predictability) was above 0.9 for all models. ES filled GNR, with or without BSS, can be dyed different colors for specific applications. The lower-cost, renewability, dyeability, and excellent performance of ES–GNR composites addresses the need for sustainable rubber products with low carbon footprint.
doi10.5254/rct.19.81485