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Contribution of smoking- and alcohol-related deaths to the gender gap in mortality: evidence from 30 European countries

Background Women now outlive men throughout the globe, a mortality advantage which is very longstanding in developed European countries. Debate continues about the causes of the gender gap, although smoking is known to have been a major contributor to the difference in earlier decades. Objectives To... Full description

Journal Title: Tobacco control 2011, Vol.20 (2), p.166
Main Author: McCartney, Gerry
Other Authors: Mahmood, Lamia , Leyland, Alastair H , Batty, G David , Hunt, Kate
Format: Electronic Article Electronic Article
Language: English
Subjects:
Quelle: Alma/SFX Local Collection
Publisher: BMJ Publishing Group
ID: ISSN: 0964-4563
Link: https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00599969
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title: Contribution of smoking- and alcohol-related deaths to the gender gap in mortality: evidence from 30 European countries
format: Article
creator:
  • McCartney, Gerry
  • Mahmood, Lamia
  • Leyland, Alastair H
  • Batty, G David
  • Hunt, Kate
subjects:
  • Smoking Caused Disease
ispartof: Tobacco control, 2011, Vol.20 (2), p.166
description: Background Women now outlive men throughout the globe, a mortality advantage which is very longstanding in developed European countries. Debate continues about the causes of the gender gap, although smoking is known to have been a major contributor to the difference in earlier decades. Objectives To compare the magnitude of the gender gap in all-cause mortality in 30 European countries, and assess the contribution of smoking-related and alcohol-related deaths. Methods Data on all-cause mortality, smoking-related mortality and alcohol-related mortality for 30 European countries were extracted from the World Health Organisation-Health for All database for the year closest to 2005. Rates were standardised by the direct method using the European population standard, and were for all age groups. The proportion of the gender gap in all-cause mortality attributable to smoking-related and alcohol-related deaths was calculated. Results There was considerable variation in the magnitude of the male 'excess' of all-cause mortality across Europe, ranging from 188 per 100,000 per year in Iceland to 942 per 100,000 per year in Ukraine. Smoking-related deaths accounted for around 40% to 60% of the gender gap, whilst alcohol-related mortality typically accounted for 20-30% of the gender gap in Eastern Europe and 10- 20% elsewhere in Europe. Discussion Smoking continues to be the most important cause of gender differences in mortality across Europe, but its importance as an explanation for this difference is often overshadowed by presumptions about other explanations. Changes in smoking patterns by gender suggest that the gender gap in mortality will diminish in coming decades.
language: eng
source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
identifier: ISSN: 0964-4563
fulltext: fulltext
issn:
  • 0964-4563
  • 1468-3318
url: Link


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titleContribution of smoking- and alcohol-related deaths to the gender gap in mortality: evidence from 30 European countries
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descriptionBackground Women now outlive men throughout the globe, a mortality advantage which is very longstanding in developed European countries. Debate continues about the causes of the gender gap, although smoking is known to have been a major contributor to the difference in earlier decades. Objectives To compare the magnitude of the gender gap in all-cause mortality in 30 European countries, and assess the contribution of smoking-related and alcohol-related deaths. Methods Data on all-cause mortality, smoking-related mortality and alcohol-related mortality for 30 European countries were extracted from the World Health Organisation-Health for All database for the year closest to 2005. Rates were standardised by the direct method using the European population standard, and were for all age groups. The proportion of the gender gap in all-cause mortality attributable to smoking-related and alcohol-related deaths was calculated. Results There was considerable variation in the magnitude of the male 'excess' of all-cause mortality across Europe, ranging from 188 per 100,000 per year in Iceland to 942 per 100,000 per year in Ukraine. Smoking-related deaths accounted for around 40% to 60% of the gender gap, whilst alcohol-related mortality typically accounted for 20-30% of the gender gap in Eastern Europe and 10- 20% elsewhere in Europe. Discussion Smoking continues to be the most important cause of gender differences in mortality across Europe, but its importance as an explanation for this difference is often overshadowed by presumptions about other explanations. Changes in smoking patterns by gender suggest that the gender gap in mortality will diminish in coming decades.
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abstractBackground Women now outlive men throughout the globe, a mortality advantage which is very longstanding in developed European countries. Debate continues about the causes of the gender gap, although smoking is known to have been a major contributor to the difference in earlier decades. Objectives To compare the magnitude of the gender gap in all-cause mortality in 30 European countries, and assess the contribution of smoking-related and alcohol-related deaths. Methods Data on all-cause mortality, smoking-related mortality and alcohol-related mortality for 30 European countries were extracted from the World Health Organisation-Health for All database for the year closest to 2005. Rates were standardised by the direct method using the European population standard, and were for all age groups. The proportion of the gender gap in all-cause mortality attributable to smoking-related and alcohol-related deaths was calculated. Results There was considerable variation in the magnitude of the male 'excess' of all-cause mortality across Europe, ranging from 188 per 100,000 per year in Iceland to 942 per 100,000 per year in Ukraine. Smoking-related deaths accounted for around 40% to 60% of the gender gap, whilst alcohol-related mortality typically accounted for 20-30% of the gender gap in Eastern Europe and 10- 20% elsewhere in Europe. Discussion Smoking continues to be the most important cause of gender differences in mortality across Europe, but its importance as an explanation for this difference is often overshadowed by presumptions about other explanations. Changes in smoking patterns by gender suggest that the gender gap in mortality will diminish in coming decades.
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