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Competition with winter crops induces deeper rooting of walnut trees in a Mediterranean alley cropping agroforestry system

Background and aims Characterising the spatial distribution of tree fine roots (diameter≤2 mm) is fundamental for a better understanding of belowground functioning when tree are grown with associated crops in agroforestry systems. Our aim was to compare fine root distributions and orientations in tr... Full description

Journal Title: Plant and soil 2015, Vol.391 (1/2), p.219-235
Main Author: Cardinael, Rémi
Other Authors: Mao, Zhun , Prieto, Iván , Stokes, Alexia , Dupraz, Christian , Kim, John H , Jourdan, Christophe
Format: Electronic Article Electronic Article
Language: English
Subjects:
aos
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Publisher: Cham: Springer
ID: ISSN: 0032-079X
Link: https://hal.umontpellier.fr/hal-02195970
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recordid: cdi_hal_primary_oai_HAL_hal_02195970v1
title: Competition with winter crops induces deeper rooting of walnut trees in a Mediterranean alley cropping agroforestry system
format: Article
creator:
  • Cardinael, Rémi
  • Mao, Zhun
  • Prieto, Iván
  • Stokes, Alexia
  • Dupraz, Christian
  • Kim, John H
  • Jourdan, Christophe
subjects:
  • Agroforesterie
  • Agroforestry
  • agrovoc
  • aims
  • Analysis
  • Anisotropy
  • aos
  • Biodiversity
  • Biodiversity and Ecology
  • Biomedical and Life Sciences
  • Botanics
  • c_16034
  • c_16147
  • c_207
  • c_2190
  • c_3061
  • c_3081
  • c_35927
  • c_4059
  • c_4060
  • c_4915
  • c_6649
  • c_7958
  • c_917
  • Compétition biologique
  • croissance et développement
  • Cropping systems
  • Crops
  • Culture associée
  • Deep roots
  • Ecology
  • Ecology, environment
  • Ecosystems
  • Enracinement
  • environment
  • Environmental Sciences
  • fao
  • Fine roots
  • Forestry
  • http
  • Intercropping
  • Juglans
  • Juglans nigra
  • Juglans regia
  • Juglans sp
  • Life Sciences
  • Monoculture
  • org
  • Phylogenetics
  • Physiological aspects
  • Physiologie végétale
  • Plant Physiology
  • Plant Sciences
  • Production forestière
  • Profondeur
  • Regular Article
  • Relation plante eau
  • Root anisotropy
  • Root intersection density
  • Root length density
  • Root mapping
  • Soil Science & Conservation
  • Specific root length
  • Systematics
  • Systematics, Phylogenetics and taxonomy
  • Système racinaire
  • Systèmes et modes de culture
  • taxonomy
  • Trees
  • Triticum aestivum
  • Triticum turgidum
  • Vegetal Biology
  • Walnut
  • Winter
ispartof: Plant and soil, 2015, Vol.391 (1/2), p.219-235
description: Background and aims Characterising the spatial distribution of tree fine roots (diameter≤2 mm) is fundamental for a better understanding of belowground functioning when tree are grown with associated crops in agroforestry systems. Our aim was to compare fine root distributions and orientations in trees grown in an alley cropping agroforestry stand with those in a tree monoculture. Methods Fieldwork was conducted in two adjacent 17 year old hybrid walnut (Juglans regia×nigra L.) stands in southern France: the agroforestry stand was intercropped with durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. subsp. durum) whereas the tree monoculture had a natural understorey. Root intercepts were mapped to a depth of 150 cm on trench walls in both stands, and to a depth of 400 cm in the agroforestry stand in order to characterise tree root distribution below the crop's maximum rooting depth. Soil cubes were then extracted to assess three dimensional root orientation and to establish a predictive model of root length densities (RLD) derived from root intersection densities (RID). Results In the tree monoculture, root mapping demonstrated a very high tree RID in the top 50 cm and a slight decrease in RID with increasing soil depth. However, in the agroforestry stand, RID was significantly lower at 50 cm, tree roots colonized deeper soil layers and were more vertically oriented. In the agroforestry stand, RID and RLD were greater within the tree row than in the inter-row. Conclusions Fine roots of intercropped walnut trees grew significantly deeper, indicating a strong plasticity in root distribution. This plasticity reduced direct root competition from the crop, enabling trees to access deeper water tables not available to crop roots.
language: eng
source:
identifier: ISSN: 0032-079X
fulltext: no_fulltext
issn:
  • 0032-079X
  • 1573-5036
url: Link


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titleCompetition with winter crops induces deeper rooting of walnut trees in a Mediterranean alley cropping agroforestry system
creatorCardinael, Rémi ; Mao, Zhun ; Prieto, Iván ; Stokes, Alexia ; Dupraz, Christian ; Kim, John H ; Jourdan, Christophe
creatorcontribCardinael, Rémi ; Mao, Zhun ; Prieto, Iván ; Stokes, Alexia ; Dupraz, Christian ; Kim, John H ; Jourdan, Christophe
descriptionBackground and aims Characterising the spatial distribution of tree fine roots (diameter≤2 mm) is fundamental for a better understanding of belowground functioning when tree are grown with associated crops in agroforestry systems. Our aim was to compare fine root distributions and orientations in trees grown in an alley cropping agroforestry stand with those in a tree monoculture. Methods Fieldwork was conducted in two adjacent 17 year old hybrid walnut (Juglans regia×nigra L.) stands in southern France: the agroforestry stand was intercropped with durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. subsp. durum) whereas the tree monoculture had a natural understorey. Root intercepts were mapped to a depth of 150 cm on trench walls in both stands, and to a depth of 400 cm in the agroforestry stand in order to characterise tree root distribution below the crop's maximum rooting depth. Soil cubes were then extracted to assess three dimensional root orientation and to establish a predictive model of root length densities (RLD) derived from root intersection densities (RID). Results In the tree monoculture, root mapping demonstrated a very high tree RID in the top 50 cm and a slight decrease in RID with increasing soil depth. However, in the agroforestry stand, RID was significantly lower at 50 cm, tree roots colonized deeper soil layers and were more vertically oriented. In the agroforestry stand, RID and RLD were greater within the tree row than in the inter-row. Conclusions Fine roots of intercropped walnut trees grew significantly deeper, indicating a strong plasticity in root distribution. This plasticity reduced direct root competition from the crop, enabling trees to access deeper water tables not available to crop roots.
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1EISSN: 1573-5036
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languageeng
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subjectAgroforesterie ; Agroforestry ; agrovoc ; aims ; Analysis ; Anisotropy ; aos ; Biodiversity ; Biodiversity and Ecology ; Biomedical and Life Sciences ; Botanics ; c_16034 ; c_16147 ; c_207 ; c_2190 ; c_3061 ; c_3081 ; c_35927 ; c_4059 ; c_4060 ; c_4915 ; c_6649 ; c_7958 ; c_917 ; Compétition biologique ; croissance et développement ; Cropping systems ; Crops ; Culture associée ; Deep roots ; Ecology ; Ecology, environment ; Ecosystems ; Enracinement ; environment ; Environmental Sciences ; fao ; Fine roots ; Forestry ; http ; Intercropping ; Juglans ; Juglans nigra ; Juglans regia ; Juglans sp ; Life Sciences ; Monoculture ; org ; Phylogenetics ; Physiological aspects ; Physiologie végétale ; Plant Physiology ; Plant Sciences ; Production forestière ; Profondeur ; Regular Article ; Relation plante eau ; Root anisotropy ; Root intersection density ; Root length density ; Root mapping ; Soil Science & Conservation ; Specific root length ; Systematics ; Systematics, Phylogenetics and taxonomy ; Système racinaire ; Systèmes et modes de culture ; taxonomy ; Trees ; Triticum aestivum ; Triticum turgidum ; Vegetal Biology ; Walnut ; Winter
ispartofPlant and soil, 2015, Vol.391 (1/2), p.219-235
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3Stokes, Alexia
4Dupraz, Christian
5Kim, John H
6Jourdan, Christophe
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0Competition with winter crops induces deeper rooting of walnut trees in a Mediterranean alley cropping agroforestry system
1Plant and soil
addtitlePlant Soil
descriptionBackground and aims Characterising the spatial distribution of tree fine roots (diameter≤2 mm) is fundamental for a better understanding of belowground functioning when tree are grown with associated crops in agroforestry systems. Our aim was to compare fine root distributions and orientations in trees grown in an alley cropping agroforestry stand with those in a tree monoculture. Methods Fieldwork was conducted in two adjacent 17 year old hybrid walnut (Juglans regia×nigra L.) stands in southern France: the agroforestry stand was intercropped with durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. subsp. durum) whereas the tree monoculture had a natural understorey. Root intercepts were mapped to a depth of 150 cm on trench walls in both stands, and to a depth of 400 cm in the agroforestry stand in order to characterise tree root distribution below the crop's maximum rooting depth. Soil cubes were then extracted to assess three dimensional root orientation and to establish a predictive model of root length densities (RLD) derived from root intersection densities (RID). Results In the tree monoculture, root mapping demonstrated a very high tree RID in the top 50 cm and a slight decrease in RID with increasing soil depth. However, in the agroforestry stand, RID was significantly lower at 50 cm, tree roots colonized deeper soil layers and were more vertically oriented. In the agroforestry stand, RID and RLD were greater within the tree row than in the inter-row. Conclusions Fine roots of intercropped walnut trees grew significantly deeper, indicating a strong plasticity in root distribution. This plasticity reduced direct root competition from the crop, enabling trees to access deeper water tables not available to crop roots.
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51Plant Physiology
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53Production forestière
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titleCompetition with winter crops induces deeper rooting of walnut trees in a Mediterranean alley cropping agroforestry system
authorCardinael, Rémi ; Mao, Zhun ; Prieto, Iván ; Stokes, Alexia ; Dupraz, Christian ; Kim, John H ; Jourdan, Christophe
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9Biomedical and Life Sciences
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abstractBackground and aims Characterising the spatial distribution of tree fine roots (diameter≤2 mm) is fundamental for a better understanding of belowground functioning when tree are grown with associated crops in agroforestry systems. Our aim was to compare fine root distributions and orientations in trees grown in an alley cropping agroforestry stand with those in a tree monoculture. Methods Fieldwork was conducted in two adjacent 17 year old hybrid walnut (Juglans regia×nigra L.) stands in southern France: the agroforestry stand was intercropped with durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. subsp. durum) whereas the tree monoculture had a natural understorey. Root intercepts were mapped to a depth of 150 cm on trench walls in both stands, and to a depth of 400 cm in the agroforestry stand in order to characterise tree root distribution below the crop's maximum rooting depth. Soil cubes were then extracted to assess three dimensional root orientation and to establish a predictive model of root length densities (RLD) derived from root intersection densities (RID). Results In the tree monoculture, root mapping demonstrated a very high tree RID in the top 50 cm and a slight decrease in RID with increasing soil depth. However, in the agroforestry stand, RID was significantly lower at 50 cm, tree roots colonized deeper soil layers and were more vertically oriented. In the agroforestry stand, RID and RLD were greater within the tree row than in the inter-row. Conclusions Fine roots of intercropped walnut trees grew significantly deeper, indicating a strong plasticity in root distribution. This plasticity reduced direct root competition from the crop, enabling trees to access deeper water tables not available to crop roots.
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