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Alcohol consumption and cancer of the gastrointestinal tract

Excessive alcohol consumption and heavy smoking are the main risk factors for upper digestive tract cancers. Cancer risk is dose-dependent and alcohol and smoking have synergistic effects. Alcohol is not carcinogenic. However, its first metabolite—acetaldehyde—has recently been shown to be a local c... Full description

Journal Title: Baillière's best practice & research. Clinical gastroenterology 2003, Vol.17 (4), p.679-694
Main Author: Salaspuro, Mikko P
Format: Electronic Article Electronic Article
Language: English
Subjects:
Publisher: Netherlands: Elsevier Ltd
ID: ISSN: 1521-6918
Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12828962
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title: Alcohol consumption and cancer of the gastrointestinal tract
format: Article
creator:
  • Salaspuro, Mikko P
subjects:
  • acetaldehyde
  • Acetaldehyde - metabolism
  • Acetaldehyde - toxicity
  • Alcohol
  • alcohol dehydrogenase
  • Alcohol Dehydrogenase - genetics
  • Alcohol Drinking - adverse effects
  • Alcohol Drinking - epidemiology
  • Alcoholism
  • aldehyde dehydrogenase
  • Aldehyde Dehydrogenase - deficiency
  • Aldehyde Dehydrogenase - genetics
  • Animals
  • atrophic gastritis
  • bacteria
  • Cancer
  • Carcinogens
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Cell culture
  • Cohort Studies
  • colon cancer
  • Consumption
  • Digestive System - metabolism
  • Digestive System - microbiology
  • Digestive System Neoplasms - epidemiology
  • Digestive System Neoplasms - etiology
  • Digestive System Neoplasms - prevention & control
  • digestive tract
  • Disease prevention
  • Enzymes
  • Epidemiology
  • Ethanol
  • Ethanol - metabolism
  • Ethanol - toxicity
  • gastric cancer
  • Genotype
  • Genotype & phenotype
  • gut flora
  • Health risk assessment
  • Humans
  • Hygiene
  • microbes
  • Mutation
  • oesophageal cancer
  • oral cancer
  • Oral Hygiene
  • Probiotics
  • Risk
  • Risk Factors
  • Saliva - metabolism
  • Smoking
  • Smoking - adverse effects
  • Temperance
  • Tumors
ispartof: Baillière's best practice & research. Clinical gastroenterology, 2003, Vol.17 (4), p.679-694
description: Excessive alcohol consumption and heavy smoking are the main risk factors for upper digestive tract cancers. Cancer risk is dose-dependent and alcohol and smoking have synergistic effects. Alcohol is not carcinogenic. However, its first metabolite—acetaldehyde—has recently been shown to be a local carcinogen in humans. Microbes representing normal human gut flora are able to produce acetaldehyde from ethanol. This results in high local acetaldehyde concentrations in the saliva and contents of the large intestine. Asian heavy drinkers with a genetic deficiency for detoxifying acetaldehyde form an exceptional human ‘knockout’ model for long-term acetaldehyde exposure. The risk of alcohol-related digestive tract cancers is particularly high among this population. All mechanisms that have an effect on salivary or intracolonic acetaldehyde concentration are of importance. The message for prevention is that one should take care to have good oral hygiene and to avoid smoking, heavy drinking and drinking to intoxication.
language: eng
source:
identifier: ISSN: 1521-6918
fulltext: no_fulltext
issn:
  • 1521-6918
  • 1532-1916
url: Link


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descriptionExcessive alcohol consumption and heavy smoking are the main risk factors for upper digestive tract cancers. Cancer risk is dose-dependent and alcohol and smoking have synergistic effects. Alcohol is not carcinogenic. However, its first metabolite—acetaldehyde—has recently been shown to be a local carcinogen in humans. Microbes representing normal human gut flora are able to produce acetaldehyde from ethanol. This results in high local acetaldehyde concentrations in the saliva and contents of the large intestine. Asian heavy drinkers with a genetic deficiency for detoxifying acetaldehyde form an exceptional human ‘knockout’ model for long-term acetaldehyde exposure. The risk of alcohol-related digestive tract cancers is particularly high among this population. All mechanisms that have an effect on salivary or intracolonic acetaldehyde concentration are of importance. The message for prevention is that one should take care to have good oral hygiene and to avoid smoking, heavy drinking and drinking to intoxication.
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subjectacetaldehyde ; Acetaldehyde - metabolism ; Acetaldehyde - toxicity ; Alcohol ; alcohol dehydrogenase ; Alcohol Dehydrogenase - genetics ; Alcohol Drinking - adverse effects ; Alcohol Drinking - epidemiology ; Alcoholism ; aldehyde dehydrogenase ; Aldehyde Dehydrogenase - deficiency ; Aldehyde Dehydrogenase - genetics ; Animals ; atrophic gastritis ; bacteria ; Cancer ; Carcinogens ; Case-Control Studies ; Cell culture ; Cohort Studies ; colon cancer ; Consumption ; Digestive System - metabolism ; Digestive System - microbiology ; Digestive System Neoplasms - epidemiology ; Digestive System Neoplasms - etiology ; Digestive System Neoplasms - prevention & control ; digestive tract ; Disease prevention ; Enzymes ; Epidemiology ; Ethanol ; Ethanol - metabolism ; Ethanol - toxicity ; gastric cancer ; Genotype ; Genotype & phenotype ; gut flora ; Health risk assessment ; Humans ; Hygiene ; microbes ; Mutation ; oesophageal cancer ; oral cancer ; Oral Hygiene ; Probiotics ; Risk ; Risk Factors ; Saliva - metabolism ; Smoking ; Smoking - adverse effects ; Temperance ; Tumors
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abstractExcessive alcohol consumption and heavy smoking are the main risk factors for upper digestive tract cancers. Cancer risk is dose-dependent and alcohol and smoking have synergistic effects. Alcohol is not carcinogenic. However, its first metabolite—acetaldehyde—has recently been shown to be a local carcinogen in humans. Microbes representing normal human gut flora are able to produce acetaldehyde from ethanol. This results in high local acetaldehyde concentrations in the saliva and contents of the large intestine. Asian heavy drinkers with a genetic deficiency for detoxifying acetaldehyde form an exceptional human ‘knockout’ model for long-term acetaldehyde exposure. The risk of alcohol-related digestive tract cancers is particularly high among this population. All mechanisms that have an effect on salivary or intracolonic acetaldehyde concentration are of importance. The message for prevention is that one should take care to have good oral hygiene and to avoid smoking, heavy drinking and drinking to intoxication.
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