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Avian and simian malaria: do they have a cancer connection?

It has been claimed that infectious agents transmitted by mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) may have a greater connection to cancer then hitherto supposed and that the immune system struggles to recognize and fight some of these infectious agents. One of the claims made is that there is a connection b... Full description

Journal Title: Parasitology research (1987) 2016-12-26, Vol.116 (3), p.839-845
Main Author: Ward, Martin
Other Authors: Benelli, Giovanni
Format: Electronic Article Electronic Article
Language: English
Subjects:
Publisher: Berlin/Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
ID: ISSN: 0932-0113
Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28019000
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recordid: cdi_proquest_journals_1880772246
title: Avian and simian malaria: do they have a cancer connection?
format: Article
creator:
  • Ward, Martin
  • Benelli, Giovanni
subjects:
  • Analysis
  • Animals
  • Biomedical and Life Sciences
  • Biomedicine
  • Birds
  • Cancer
  • Culicidae - parasitology
  • Humans
  • Immune system
  • Immunology
  • Infection control
  • Lymphoma
  • Malaria
  • Malaria - parasitology
  • Malaria - transmission
  • Malaria, Avian - parasitology
  • Malaria, Avian - transmission
  • Medical Microbiology
  • Microbiology
  • Mosquitoes
  • Neoplasms - parasitology
  • Parasitemia
  • Parasites
  • Plasmodium knowlesi - genetics
  • Plasmodium knowlesi - isolation & purification
  • Plasmodium knowlesi - physiology
  • Review
  • Risk factors
ispartof: Parasitology research (1987), 2016-12-26, Vol.116 (3), p.839-845
description: It has been claimed that infectious agents transmitted by mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) may have a greater connection to cancer then hitherto supposed and that the immune system struggles to recognize and fight some of these infectious agents. One of the claims made is that there is a connection between human malaria and brain cancers in the USA. However, the USA declared itself free of human malaria in the last century, yet cancer incidences remain high, suggesting any overall cancer connection is slight. Two fundamental questions arise from the possible mosquito-cancer connection. Firstly, if mosquitoes are able to vector some pathogens and parasites linked with cancer pathogenesis, why has the fact not been discovered decades ago? Secondly, if there is a connection (other than in relation to Burkett’s lymphoma), what is its extent? The answers may well lie with the various types of malarias known to exist. The discovery in humans of the simian malaria, caused by Plasmodium knowlesi , suggests that other forms of simian or even avian malaria may be capable of survival in humans, albeit at low levels of parasitemia, and humans may be a dead-end host. Other carcinogenic infectious agents transmitted by mosquitoes may also go undetected because either no one is looking for them, or they are looking in wrong anatomical locations and/or with inadequate tools. Research on false negative test results with respect to many infectious agents is sadly lacking, so its extent is unknown. However, electronic and other media provide numerous instances of patients failing to be diagnosed for both human malaria and Lyme’s disease, to take just two examples. This review suggests that to shed light on a potential mosquito-cancer connection, more research is required to establish whether other simian and avian forms of malaria play a part. If so, then they potentially provide unique markers for early cancer detection.
language: eng
source:
identifier: ISSN: 0932-0113
fulltext: no_fulltext
issn:
  • 0932-0113
  • 1432-1955
url: Link


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descriptionIt has been claimed that infectious agents transmitted by mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) may have a greater connection to cancer then hitherto supposed and that the immune system struggles to recognize and fight some of these infectious agents. One of the claims made is that there is a connection between human malaria and brain cancers in the USA. However, the USA declared itself free of human malaria in the last century, yet cancer incidences remain high, suggesting any overall cancer connection is slight. Two fundamental questions arise from the possible mosquito-cancer connection. Firstly, if mosquitoes are able to vector some pathogens and parasites linked with cancer pathogenesis, why has the fact not been discovered decades ago? Secondly, if there is a connection (other than in relation to Burkett’s lymphoma), what is its extent? The answers may well lie with the various types of malarias known to exist. The discovery in humans of the simian malaria, caused by Plasmodium knowlesi , suggests that other forms of simian or even avian malaria may be capable of survival in humans, albeit at low levels of parasitemia, and humans may be a dead-end host. Other carcinogenic infectious agents transmitted by mosquitoes may also go undetected because either no one is looking for them, or they are looking in wrong anatomical locations and/or with inadequate tools. Research on false negative test results with respect to many infectious agents is sadly lacking, so its extent is unknown. However, electronic and other media provide numerous instances of patients failing to be diagnosed for both human malaria and Lyme’s disease, to take just two examples. This review suggests that to shed light on a potential mosquito-cancer connection, more research is required to establish whether other simian and avian forms of malaria play a part. If so, then they potentially provide unique markers for early cancer detection.
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subjectAnalysis ; Animals ; Biomedical and Life Sciences ; Biomedicine ; Birds ; Cancer ; Culicidae - parasitology ; Humans ; Immune system ; Immunology ; Infection control ; Lymphoma ; Malaria ; Malaria - parasitology ; Malaria - transmission ; Malaria, Avian - parasitology ; Malaria, Avian - transmission ; Medical Microbiology ; Microbiology ; Mosquitoes ; Neoplasms - parasitology ; Parasitemia ; Parasites ; Plasmodium knowlesi - genetics ; Plasmodium knowlesi - isolation & purification ; Plasmodium knowlesi - physiology ; Review ; Risk factors
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descriptionIt has been claimed that infectious agents transmitted by mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) may have a greater connection to cancer then hitherto supposed and that the immune system struggles to recognize and fight some of these infectious agents. One of the claims made is that there is a connection between human malaria and brain cancers in the USA. However, the USA declared itself free of human malaria in the last century, yet cancer incidences remain high, suggesting any overall cancer connection is slight. Two fundamental questions arise from the possible mosquito-cancer connection. Firstly, if mosquitoes are able to vector some pathogens and parasites linked with cancer pathogenesis, why has the fact not been discovered decades ago? Secondly, if there is a connection (other than in relation to Burkett’s lymphoma), what is its extent? The answers may well lie with the various types of malarias known to exist. The discovery in humans of the simian malaria, caused by Plasmodium knowlesi , suggests that other forms of simian or even avian malaria may be capable of survival in humans, albeit at low levels of parasitemia, and humans may be a dead-end host. Other carcinogenic infectious agents transmitted by mosquitoes may also go undetected because either no one is looking for them, or they are looking in wrong anatomical locations and/or with inadequate tools. Research on false negative test results with respect to many infectious agents is sadly lacking, so its extent is unknown. However, electronic and other media provide numerous instances of patients failing to be diagnosed for both human malaria and Lyme’s disease, to take just two examples. This review suggests that to shed light on a potential mosquito-cancer connection, more research is required to establish whether other simian and avian forms of malaria play a part. If so, then they potentially provide unique markers for early cancer detection.
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abstractIt has been claimed that infectious agents transmitted by mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) may have a greater connection to cancer then hitherto supposed and that the immune system struggles to recognize and fight some of these infectious agents. One of the claims made is that there is a connection between human malaria and brain cancers in the USA. However, the USA declared itself free of human malaria in the last century, yet cancer incidences remain high, suggesting any overall cancer connection is slight. Two fundamental questions arise from the possible mosquito-cancer connection. Firstly, if mosquitoes are able to vector some pathogens and parasites linked with cancer pathogenesis, why has the fact not been discovered decades ago? Secondly, if there is a connection (other than in relation to Burkett’s lymphoma), what is its extent? The answers may well lie with the various types of malarias known to exist. The discovery in humans of the simian malaria, caused by Plasmodium knowlesi , suggests that other forms of simian or even avian malaria may be capable of survival in humans, albeit at low levels of parasitemia, and humans may be a dead-end host. Other carcinogenic infectious agents transmitted by mosquitoes may also go undetected because either no one is looking for them, or they are looking in wrong anatomical locations and/or with inadequate tools. Research on false negative test results with respect to many infectious agents is sadly lacking, so its extent is unknown. However, electronic and other media provide numerous instances of patients failing to be diagnosed for both human malaria and Lyme’s disease, to take just two examples. This review suggests that to shed light on a potential mosquito-cancer connection, more research is required to establish whether other simian and avian forms of malaria play a part. If so, then they potentially provide unique markers for early cancer detection.
copBerlin/Heidelberg
pubSpringer Berlin Heidelberg
pmid28019000
doi10.1007/s00436-016-5352-3