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Very high plant stanol intake and serum plant stanols and non-cholesterol sterols

Background Today, consumers meet abundant supply of functional foods with plant stanol increments for serum cholesterol lowering purposes. However, efficacy and safety of plant stanols intake beyond 4 g/day have remained unexplored. Aim of the study We evaluated the effects of very high daily intake... Full description

Journal Title: European journal of nutrition 2009-09-23, Vol.49 (2), p.111-117
Main Author: Gylling, Helena
Other Authors: Hallikainen, Maarit , Nissinen, Markku J , Simonen, Piia , Miettinen, Tatu A
Format: Electronic Article Electronic Article
Language: English
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Publisher: Berlin/Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag
ID: ISSN: 1436-6207
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title: Very high plant stanol intake and serum plant stanols and non-cholesterol sterols
format: Article
creator:
  • Gylling, Helena
  • Hallikainen, Maarit
  • Nissinen, Markku J
  • Simonen, Piia
  • Miettinen, Tatu A
subjects:
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Anticholesteremic agents
  • Anticholesteremic Agents - administration & dosage
  • Anticholesteremic Agents - blood
  • Anticholesteremic Agents - therapeutic use
  • Biological and medical sciences
  • Biomarkers - blood
  • Blood lipids
  • Chemistry
  • Chemistry and Materials Science
  • Cholesterol
  • Cholesterol - blood
  • Cholesterol - metabolism
  • Double-Blind Method
  • Esters
  • Esters - therapeutic use
  • Feeding. Feeding behavior
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Food, Formulated
  • Functional foods
  • Fundamental and applied biological sciences. Psychology
  • Humans
  • Hypercholesterolemia
  • Hypercholesterolemia - drug therapy
  • Intestinal Absorption
  • Lipids - blood
  • Lipoproteins - blood
  • Low density lipoproteins
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Nutrition
  • Original Contribution
  • Physiological aspects
  • Phytosterols
  • Phytosterols - blood
  • Phytotherapy
  • Sitosterols - administration & dosage
  • Sitosterols - blood
  • Sitosterols - therapeutic use
  • Time Factors
  • Trans fatty acids
  • Vertebrates: anatomy and physiology, studies on body, several organs or systems
ispartof: European journal of nutrition, 2009-09-23, Vol.49 (2), p.111-117
description: Background Today, consumers meet abundant supply of functional foods with plant stanol increments for serum cholesterol lowering purposes. However, efficacy and safety of plant stanols intake beyond 4 g/day have remained unexplored. Aim of the study We evaluated the effects of very high daily intake of plant stanols (8.8 g/day) as esters on cholesterol metabolism, and serum levels of plant sterols and stanols. Methods In a randomized, double-blind, parallel study of 49 hypercholesterolemic subjects (mean age 62 years, range 41–73) consumed a test diet without (control, n  = 24), and with added plant stanol esters (staest, n  = 25) over 10 weeks followed by 4 weeks on home diet. Serum lipids, lipoprotein lipids, and non-cholesterol sterols were determined at baseline, during intervention, and 4 weeks afterwards. Cholesterol precursor sterol lathosterol reflected cholesterol synthesis, and serum plant sterols and cholestanol mirrored cholesterol absorption. Results When compared with controls, 8.8 g/day of plant stanols reduced serum and LDL cholesterol by 12 and 17% ( P  
language: eng
source:
identifier: ISSN: 1436-6207
fulltext: no_fulltext
issn:
  • 1436-6207
  • 1436-6215
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titleVery high plant stanol intake and serum plant stanols and non-cholesterol sterols
creatorGylling, Helena ; Hallikainen, Maarit ; Nissinen, Markku J ; Simonen, Piia ; Miettinen, Tatu A
creatorcontribGylling, Helena ; Hallikainen, Maarit ; Nissinen, Markku J ; Simonen, Piia ; Miettinen, Tatu A
descriptionBackground Today, consumers meet abundant supply of functional foods with plant stanol increments for serum cholesterol lowering purposes. However, efficacy and safety of plant stanols intake beyond 4 g/day have remained unexplored. Aim of the study We evaluated the effects of very high daily intake of plant stanols (8.8 g/day) as esters on cholesterol metabolism, and serum levels of plant sterols and stanols. Methods In a randomized, double-blind, parallel study of 49 hypercholesterolemic subjects (mean age 62 years, range 41–73) consumed a test diet without (control, n  = 24), and with added plant stanol esters (staest, n  = 25) over 10 weeks followed by 4 weeks on home diet. Serum lipids, lipoprotein lipids, and non-cholesterol sterols were determined at baseline, during intervention, and 4 weeks afterwards. Cholesterol precursor sterol lathosterol reflected cholesterol synthesis, and serum plant sterols and cholestanol mirrored cholesterol absorption. Results When compared with controls, 8.8 g/day of plant stanols reduced serum and LDL cholesterol by 12 and 17% ( P  < 0.01 for both). Synthesis marker lathosterol was increased by 30%, while absorption markers decreased up to 62% when compared with controls ( P  < 0.001 for both). Serum plant stanols increased slightly, but significantly compared with controls (serum sitostanol during intervention, controls: 16 ± 1 μg/dL, staest: 37 ± 2 μg/dL, serum campestanol during intervention, controls: 0.5 ± 0 μg/dL, staest: 9 ± 1 μg/dL, P  < 0.001 for both). Changes in serum cholesterol, non-cholesterol sterols, and plant stanols were normalized during post-treatment weeks. Conclusions Serum plant stanol levels remained at comparable low levels as in studies with daily intake of 2–3 g, and were normalized in 4 weeks suggesting that daily intake of 8.8 g of plant stanols might not increase systemic availability of plant stanols, but reduces effectively serum cholesterol and plant sterol levels.
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languageeng
publisherBerlin/Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag
subjectAdult ; Aged ; Anticholesteremic agents ; Anticholesteremic Agents - administration & dosage ; Anticholesteremic Agents - blood ; Anticholesteremic Agents - therapeutic use ; Biological and medical sciences ; Biomarkers - blood ; Blood lipids ; Chemistry ; Chemistry and Materials Science ; Cholesterol ; Cholesterol - blood ; Cholesterol - metabolism ; Double-Blind Method ; Esters ; Esters - therapeutic use ; Feeding. Feeding behavior ; Female ; Follow-Up Studies ; Food, Formulated ; Functional foods ; Fundamental and applied biological sciences. Psychology ; Humans ; Hypercholesterolemia ; Hypercholesterolemia - drug therapy ; Intestinal Absorption ; Lipids - blood ; Lipoproteins - blood ; Low density lipoproteins ; Male ; Middle Aged ; Nutrition ; Original Contribution ; Physiological aspects ; Phytosterols ; Phytosterols - blood ; Phytotherapy ; Sitosterols - administration & dosage ; Sitosterols - blood ; Sitosterols - therapeutic use ; Time Factors ; Trans fatty acids ; Vertebrates: anatomy and physiology, studies on body, several organs or systems
ispartofEuropean journal of nutrition, 2009-09-23, Vol.49 (2), p.111-117
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1Hallikainen, Maarit
2Nissinen, Markku J
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descriptionBackground Today, consumers meet abundant supply of functional foods with plant stanol increments for serum cholesterol lowering purposes. However, efficacy and safety of plant stanols intake beyond 4 g/day have remained unexplored. Aim of the study We evaluated the effects of very high daily intake of plant stanols (8.8 g/day) as esters on cholesterol metabolism, and serum levels of plant sterols and stanols. Methods In a randomized, double-blind, parallel study of 49 hypercholesterolemic subjects (mean age 62 years, range 41–73) consumed a test diet without (control, n  = 24), and with added plant stanol esters (staest, n  = 25) over 10 weeks followed by 4 weeks on home diet. Serum lipids, lipoprotein lipids, and non-cholesterol sterols were determined at baseline, during intervention, and 4 weeks afterwards. Cholesterol precursor sterol lathosterol reflected cholesterol synthesis, and serum plant sterols and cholestanol mirrored cholesterol absorption. Results When compared with controls, 8.8 g/day of plant stanols reduced serum and LDL cholesterol by 12 and 17% ( P  < 0.01 for both). Synthesis marker lathosterol was increased by 30%, while absorption markers decreased up to 62% when compared with controls ( P  < 0.001 for both). Serum plant stanols increased slightly, but significantly compared with controls (serum sitostanol during intervention, controls: 16 ± 1 μg/dL, staest: 37 ± 2 μg/dL, serum campestanol during intervention, controls: 0.5 ± 0 μg/dL, staest: 9 ± 1 μg/dL, P  < 0.001 for both). Changes in serum cholesterol, non-cholesterol sterols, and plant stanols were normalized during post-treatment weeks. Conclusions Serum plant stanol levels remained at comparable low levels as in studies with daily intake of 2–3 g, and were normalized in 4 weeks suggesting that daily intake of 8.8 g of plant stanols might not increase systemic availability of plant stanols, but reduces effectively serum cholesterol and plant sterol levels.
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1Aged
2Anticholesteremic agents
3Anticholesteremic Agents - administration & dosage
4Anticholesteremic Agents - blood
5Anticholesteremic Agents - therapeutic use
6Biological and medical sciences
7Biomarkers - blood
8Blood lipids
9Chemistry
10Chemistry and Materials Science
11Cholesterol
12Cholesterol - blood
13Cholesterol - metabolism
14Double-Blind Method
15Esters
16Esters - therapeutic use
17Feeding. Feeding behavior
18Female
19Follow-Up Studies
20Food, Formulated
21Functional foods
22Fundamental and applied biological sciences. Psychology
23Humans
24Hypercholesterolemia
25Hypercholesterolemia - drug therapy
26Intestinal Absorption
27Lipids - blood
28Lipoproteins - blood
29Low density lipoproteins
30Male
31Middle Aged
32Nutrition
33Original Contribution
34Physiological aspects
35Phytosterols
36Phytosterols - blood
37Phytotherapy
38Sitosterols - administration & dosage
39Sitosterols - blood
40Sitosterols - therapeutic use
41Time Factors
42Trans fatty acids
43Vertebrates: anatomy and physiology, studies on body, several organs or systems
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5Anticholesteremic Agents - therapeutic use
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37Phytotherapy
38Sitosterols - administration & dosage
39Sitosterols - blood
40Sitosterols - therapeutic use
41Time Factors
42Trans fatty acids
43Vertebrates: anatomy and physiology, studies on body, several organs or systems
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atitleVery high plant stanol intake and serum plant stanols and non-cholesterol sterols
jtitleEuropean journal of nutrition
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date2009-09-23
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volume49
issue2
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pages111-117
issn1436-6207
eissn1436-6215
abstractBackground Today, consumers meet abundant supply of functional foods with plant stanol increments for serum cholesterol lowering purposes. However, efficacy and safety of plant stanols intake beyond 4 g/day have remained unexplored. Aim of the study We evaluated the effects of very high daily intake of plant stanols (8.8 g/day) as esters on cholesterol metabolism, and serum levels of plant sterols and stanols. Methods In a randomized, double-blind, parallel study of 49 hypercholesterolemic subjects (mean age 62 years, range 41–73) consumed a test diet without (control, n  = 24), and with added plant stanol esters (staest, n  = 25) over 10 weeks followed by 4 weeks on home diet. Serum lipids, lipoprotein lipids, and non-cholesterol sterols were determined at baseline, during intervention, and 4 weeks afterwards. Cholesterol precursor sterol lathosterol reflected cholesterol synthesis, and serum plant sterols and cholestanol mirrored cholesterol absorption. Results When compared with controls, 8.8 g/day of plant stanols reduced serum and LDL cholesterol by 12 and 17% ( P  < 0.01 for both). Synthesis marker lathosterol was increased by 30%, while absorption markers decreased up to 62% when compared with controls ( P  < 0.001 for both). Serum plant stanols increased slightly, but significantly compared with controls (serum sitostanol during intervention, controls: 16 ± 1 μg/dL, staest: 37 ± 2 μg/dL, serum campestanol during intervention, controls: 0.5 ± 0 μg/dL, staest: 9 ± 1 μg/dL, P  < 0.001 for both). Changes in serum cholesterol, non-cholesterol sterols, and plant stanols were normalized during post-treatment weeks. Conclusions Serum plant stanol levels remained at comparable low levels as in studies with daily intake of 2–3 g, and were normalized in 4 weeks suggesting that daily intake of 8.8 g of plant stanols might not increase systemic availability of plant stanols, but reduces effectively serum cholesterol and plant sterol levels.
copBerlin/Heidelberg
pubSpringer-Verlag
pmid19774436
doi10.1007/s00394-009-0055-5