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Nitrogen-Vacancy Centers in Diamond: Nanoscale Sensors for Physics and Biology

Crystal defects in diamond have emerged as unique objects for a variety of applications, both because they are very stable and because they have interesting optical properties. Embedded in nanocrystals, they can serve, for example, as robust single-photon sources or as fluorescent biomarkers of unli... Full description

Journal Title: Annual Reviews in Physical Chemistry 2014, Vol.65 (1), p.83-105
Main Author: Schirhagl, Romana
Other Authors: Chang, Kevin , Loretz, Michael , Degen, Christian L
Format: Electronic Article Electronic Article
Language: English
Subjects:
Quelle: Alma/SFX Local Collection
Publisher: United States: Annual Reviews, Inc
ID: ISSN: 0066-426X
Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24274702
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recordid: cdi_proquest_miscellaneous_1512560301
title: Nitrogen-Vacancy Centers in Diamond: Nanoscale Sensors for Physics and Biology
format: Article
creator:
  • Schirhagl, Romana
  • Chang, Kevin
  • Loretz, Michael
  • Degen, Christian L
subjects:
  • Analysis
  • Biosensing Techniques - methods
  • Biosensors
  • Diamond - chemistry
  • Diamond crystals
  • Diamonds
  • Electric fields
  • Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy - methods
  • Fluorescent Dyes - chemistry
  • Ions - analysis
  • Magnetic resonance
  • Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy - methods
  • Magnetics - methods
  • Measurement
  • Membrane Potentials
  • Membranes
  • Models, Molecular
  • Nanocrystals
  • Nanoparticles - chemistry
  • Nanoparticles - ultrastructure
  • Nanotechnology - methods
  • Nitrogen - chemistry
  • Optical properties
  • Quantum physics
  • Thermometry - methods
ispartof: Annual Reviews in Physical Chemistry, 2014, Vol.65 (1), p.83-105
description: Crystal defects in diamond have emerged as unique objects for a variety of applications, both because they are very stable and because they have interesting optical properties. Embedded in nanocrystals, they can serve, for example, as robust single-photon sources or as fluorescent biomarkers of unlimited photostability and low cytotoxicity. The most fascinating aspect, however, is the ability of some crystal defects, most prominently the nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center, to locally detect and measure a number of physical quantities, such as magnetic and electric fields. This metrology capacity is based on the quantum mechanical interactions of the defect's spin state. In this review, we introduce the new and rapidly evolving field of nanoscale sensing based on single NV centers in diamond. We give a concise overview of the basic properties of diamond, from synthesis to electronic and magnetic properties of embedded NV centers. We describe in detail how single NV centers can be harnessed for nanoscale sensing, including the physical quantities that may be detected, expected sensitivities, and the most common measurement protocols. We conclude by highlighting a number of the diverse and exciting applications that may be enabled by these novel sensors, ranging from measurements of ion concentrations and membrane potentials to nanoscale thermometry and single-spin nuclear magnetic resonance.
language: eng
source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
identifier: ISSN: 0066-426X
fulltext: fulltext
issn:
  • 0066-426X
  • 1545-1593
url: Link


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descriptionCrystal defects in diamond have emerged as unique objects for a variety of applications, both because they are very stable and because they have interesting optical properties. Embedded in nanocrystals, they can serve, for example, as robust single-photon sources or as fluorescent biomarkers of unlimited photostability and low cytotoxicity. The most fascinating aspect, however, is the ability of some crystal defects, most prominently the nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center, to locally detect and measure a number of physical quantities, such as magnetic and electric fields. This metrology capacity is based on the quantum mechanical interactions of the defect's spin state. In this review, we introduce the new and rapidly evolving field of nanoscale sensing based on single NV centers in diamond. We give a concise overview of the basic properties of diamond, from synthesis to electronic and magnetic properties of embedded NV centers. We describe in detail how single NV centers can be harnessed for nanoscale sensing, including the physical quantities that may be detected, expected sensitivities, and the most common measurement protocols. We conclude by highlighting a number of the diverse and exciting applications that may be enabled by these novel sensors, ranging from measurements of ion concentrations and membrane potentials to nanoscale thermometry and single-spin nuclear magnetic resonance.
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subjectAnalysis ; Biosensing Techniques - methods ; Biosensors ; Diamond - chemistry ; Diamond crystals ; Diamonds ; Electric fields ; Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy - methods ; Fluorescent Dyes - chemistry ; Ions - analysis ; Magnetic resonance ; Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy - methods ; Magnetics - methods ; Measurement ; Membrane Potentials ; Membranes ; Models, Molecular ; Nanocrystals ; Nanoparticles - chemistry ; Nanoparticles - ultrastructure ; Nanotechnology - methods ; Nitrogen - chemistry ; Optical properties ; Quantum physics ; Thermometry - methods
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descriptionCrystal defects in diamond have emerged as unique objects for a variety of applications, both because they are very stable and because they have interesting optical properties. Embedded in nanocrystals, they can serve, for example, as robust single-photon sources or as fluorescent biomarkers of unlimited photostability and low cytotoxicity. The most fascinating aspect, however, is the ability of some crystal defects, most prominently the nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center, to locally detect and measure a number of physical quantities, such as magnetic and electric fields. This metrology capacity is based on the quantum mechanical interactions of the defect's spin state. In this review, we introduce the new and rapidly evolving field of nanoscale sensing based on single NV centers in diamond. We give a concise overview of the basic properties of diamond, from synthesis to electronic and magnetic properties of embedded NV centers. We describe in detail how single NV centers can be harnessed for nanoscale sensing, including the physical quantities that may be detected, expected sensitivities, and the most common measurement protocols. We conclude by highlighting a number of the diverse and exciting applications that may be enabled by these novel sensors, ranging from measurements of ion concentrations and membrane potentials to nanoscale thermometry and single-spin nuclear magnetic resonance.
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1Biosensing Techniques - methods
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6Electric fields
7Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy - methods
8Fluorescent Dyes - chemistry
9Ions - analysis
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12Magnetics - methods
13Measurement
14Membrane Potentials
15Membranes
16Models, Molecular
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18Nanoparticles - chemistry
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abstractCrystal defects in diamond have emerged as unique objects for a variety of applications, both because they are very stable and because they have interesting optical properties. Embedded in nanocrystals, they can serve, for example, as robust single-photon sources or as fluorescent biomarkers of unlimited photostability and low cytotoxicity. The most fascinating aspect, however, is the ability of some crystal defects, most prominently the nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center, to locally detect and measure a number of physical quantities, such as magnetic and electric fields. This metrology capacity is based on the quantum mechanical interactions of the defect's spin state. In this review, we introduce the new and rapidly evolving field of nanoscale sensing based on single NV centers in diamond. We give a concise overview of the basic properties of diamond, from synthesis to electronic and magnetic properties of embedded NV centers. We describe in detail how single NV centers can be harnessed for nanoscale sensing, including the physical quantities that may be detected, expected sensitivities, and the most common measurement protocols. We conclude by highlighting a number of the diverse and exciting applications that may be enabled by these novel sensors, ranging from measurements of ion concentrations and membrane potentials to nanoscale thermometry and single-spin nuclear magnetic resonance.
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