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Urinary caffeine metabolites in man: age-dependent changes and pattern in various clinical situations

In an exploratory study the 24-h urinary excretion pattern of caffeine and 14 of its major metabolites was studied in 32 volunteers (adults, adolescents and children), 14 patients either with end stage renal disease or liver cirrhosis, 7 heavy smokers and 27 patients on therapy with cimetidine, allo... Full description

Journal Title: European journal of clinical pharmacology 1992, Vol.43 (2), p.167-172
Main Author: ULLRICH, D
Other Authors: COMPAGNONE, D , MÜNCH, B , BRANDES, A , HILLE, H , BIRCHER, J
Format: Electronic Article Electronic Article
Language: English
Subjects:
Publisher: Heidelberg: Springer
ID: ISSN: 0031-6970
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recordid: cdi_proquest_miscellaneous_16802722
title: Urinary caffeine metabolites in man: age-dependent changes and pattern in various clinical situations
format: Article
creator:
  • ULLRICH, D
  • COMPAGNONE, D
  • MÜNCH, B
  • BRANDES, A
  • HILLE, H
  • BIRCHER, J
subjects:
  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Age Factors
  • Allopurinol - pharmacology
  • Biological and medical sciences
  • Caffeine - analogs & derivatives
  • Caffeine - antagonists & inhibitors
  • Caffeine - urine
  • Child
  • Cimetidine - pharmacology
  • Drug Interactions
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic - urine
  • Liver Cirrhosis - urine
  • Male
  • Medical sciences
  • Neuropharmacology
  • Pharmacology. Drug treatments
  • Phenytoin - pharmacology
  • Psychoanaleptics: cns stimulant, antidepressant agent, nootropic agent, mood stabilizer..., (alzheimer disease)
  • Psychology. Psychoanalysis. Psychiatry
  • Psychopharmacology
  • Smoking
  • Theophylline - pharmacology
ispartof: European journal of clinical pharmacology, 1992, Vol.43 (2), p.167-172
description: In an exploratory study the 24-h urinary excretion pattern of caffeine and 14 of its major metabolites was studied in 32 volunteers (adults, adolescents and children), 14 patients either with end stage renal disease or liver cirrhosis, 7 heavy smokers and 27 patients on therapy with cimetidine, allopurinol, theophylline or phenytoin. Caffeine and its metabolites were quantified by UV-absorption after liquid/liquid-extraction and HPLC-separation, which ensured proper analysis of 1-methyluric acid. In adults the renal excretion of caffeine derivatives corresponded to an intake of 509 mg caffeine/day, with 1-methyluric acid as the predominant metabolite. About 69% of caffeine was degraded by the paraxanthine pathway, and theobromine- (19%) and the theophylline pathway (14%) were less important. The ratio of paraxanthine formation to urinary caffeine concentration (= clearance equivalent) was about 2.2 ml.min-1.kg-1 in adults, and the corresponding ratios for theophylline and theobromine were 0.43 ml.min-1.kg-1 and 0.59 ml.min-1.kg-1, respectively. As expected, caffeine degradation was impaired in patients with cirrhosis and was increased in persons who smoked heavily or who were on phenytoin therapy. The results document the possibility of noninvasively investigating gross differences in caffeine disposition by analysis of the urinary pattern of its metabolites.
language: eng
source:
identifier: ISSN: 0031-6970
fulltext: no_fulltext
issn:
  • 0031-6970
  • 1432-1041
url: Link


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titleUrinary caffeine metabolites in man: age-dependent changes and pattern in various clinical situations
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creatorcontribULLRICH, D ; COMPAGNONE, D ; MÜNCH, B ; BRANDES, A ; HILLE, H ; BIRCHER, J
descriptionIn an exploratory study the 24-h urinary excretion pattern of caffeine and 14 of its major metabolites was studied in 32 volunteers (adults, adolescents and children), 14 patients either with end stage renal disease or liver cirrhosis, 7 heavy smokers and 27 patients on therapy with cimetidine, allopurinol, theophylline or phenytoin. Caffeine and its metabolites were quantified by UV-absorption after liquid/liquid-extraction and HPLC-separation, which ensured proper analysis of 1-methyluric acid. In adults the renal excretion of caffeine derivatives corresponded to an intake of 509 mg caffeine/day, with 1-methyluric acid as the predominant metabolite. About 69% of caffeine was degraded by the paraxanthine pathway, and theobromine- (19%) and the theophylline pathway (14%) were less important. The ratio of paraxanthine formation to urinary caffeine concentration (= clearance equivalent) was about 2.2 ml.min-1.kg-1 in adults, and the corresponding ratios for theophylline and theobromine were 0.43 ml.min-1.kg-1 and 0.59 ml.min-1.kg-1, respectively. As expected, caffeine degradation was impaired in patients with cirrhosis and was increased in persons who smoked heavily or who were on phenytoin therapy. The results document the possibility of noninvasively investigating gross differences in caffeine disposition by analysis of the urinary pattern of its metabolites.
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subjectAdolescent ; Adult ; Age Factors ; Allopurinol - pharmacology ; Biological and medical sciences ; Caffeine - analogs & derivatives ; Caffeine - antagonists & inhibitors ; Caffeine - urine ; Child ; Cimetidine - pharmacology ; Drug Interactions ; Female ; Humans ; Kidney Failure, Chronic - urine ; Liver Cirrhosis - urine ; Male ; Medical sciences ; Neuropharmacology ; Pharmacology. Drug treatments ; Phenytoin - pharmacology ; Psychoanaleptics: cns stimulant, antidepressant agent, nootropic agent, mood stabilizer..., (alzheimer disease) ; Psychology. Psychoanalysis. Psychiatry ; Psychopharmacology ; Smoking ; Theophylline - pharmacology
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descriptionIn an exploratory study the 24-h urinary excretion pattern of caffeine and 14 of its major metabolites was studied in 32 volunteers (adults, adolescents and children), 14 patients either with end stage renal disease or liver cirrhosis, 7 heavy smokers and 27 patients on therapy with cimetidine, allopurinol, theophylline or phenytoin. Caffeine and its metabolites were quantified by UV-absorption after liquid/liquid-extraction and HPLC-separation, which ensured proper analysis of 1-methyluric acid. In adults the renal excretion of caffeine derivatives corresponded to an intake of 509 mg caffeine/day, with 1-methyluric acid as the predominant metabolite. About 69% of caffeine was degraded by the paraxanthine pathway, and theobromine- (19%) and the theophylline pathway (14%) were less important. The ratio of paraxanthine formation to urinary caffeine concentration (= clearance equivalent) was about 2.2 ml.min-1.kg-1 in adults, and the corresponding ratios for theophylline and theobromine were 0.43 ml.min-1.kg-1 and 0.59 ml.min-1.kg-1, respectively. As expected, caffeine degradation was impaired in patients with cirrhosis and was increased in persons who smoked heavily or who were on phenytoin therapy. The results document the possibility of noninvasively investigating gross differences in caffeine disposition by analysis of the urinary pattern of its metabolites.
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1Adult
2Age Factors
3Allopurinol - pharmacology
4Biological and medical sciences
5Caffeine - analogs & derivatives
6Caffeine - antagonists & inhibitors
7Caffeine - urine
8Child
9Cimetidine - pharmacology
10Drug Interactions
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12Humans
13Kidney Failure, Chronic - urine
14Liver Cirrhosis - urine
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16Medical sciences
17Neuropharmacology
18Pharmacology. Drug treatments
19Phenytoin - pharmacology
20Psychoanaleptics: cns stimulant, antidepressant agent, nootropic agent, mood stabilizer..., (alzheimer disease)
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7Caffeine - urine
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12Humans
13Kidney Failure, Chronic - urine
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23Smoking
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abstractIn an exploratory study the 24-h urinary excretion pattern of caffeine and 14 of its major metabolites was studied in 32 volunteers (adults, adolescents and children), 14 patients either with end stage renal disease or liver cirrhosis, 7 heavy smokers and 27 patients on therapy with cimetidine, allopurinol, theophylline or phenytoin. Caffeine and its metabolites were quantified by UV-absorption after liquid/liquid-extraction and HPLC-separation, which ensured proper analysis of 1-methyluric acid. In adults the renal excretion of caffeine derivatives corresponded to an intake of 509 mg caffeine/day, with 1-methyluric acid as the predominant metabolite. About 69% of caffeine was degraded by the paraxanthine pathway, and theobromine- (19%) and the theophylline pathway (14%) were less important. The ratio of paraxanthine formation to urinary caffeine concentration (= clearance equivalent) was about 2.2 ml.min-1.kg-1 in adults, and the corresponding ratios for theophylline and theobromine were 0.43 ml.min-1.kg-1 and 0.59 ml.min-1.kg-1, respectively. As expected, caffeine degradation was impaired in patients with cirrhosis and was increased in persons who smoked heavily or who were on phenytoin therapy. The results document the possibility of noninvasively investigating gross differences in caffeine disposition by analysis of the urinary pattern of its metabolites.
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