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What's in an Outgroup? The Impact of Outgroup Choice on the Phylogenetic Position of Thalattosuchia (Crocodylomorpha) and the Origin of Crocodyliformes

Outgroup sampling is a central issue in phylogenetic analysis. However, good justification is rarely given for outgroup selection in published analyses. Recent advances in our understanding of archosaur phylogeny suggest that many previous studies of crocodylomorph and crocodyliform relationships ha... Full description

Journal Title: Systematic biology 2015-07-01, Vol.64 (4), p.621-637
Main Author: Wilberg, Eric W
Format: Electronic Article Electronic Article
Language: English
Subjects:
Quelle: Alma/SFX Local Collection
Publisher: England: Oxford University Press
ID: ISSN: 1063-5157
Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25840332
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recordid: cdi_proquest_miscellaneous_1689844798
title: What's in an Outgroup? The Impact of Outgroup Choice on the Phylogenetic Position of Thalattosuchia (Crocodylomorpha) and the Origin of Crocodyliformes
format: Article
creator:
  • Wilberg, Eric W
subjects:
  • Animals
  • Dinosaurs
  • Evolutionary biology
  • Fossils
  • Geological time
  • Phylogenetics
  • Phylogeny
  • Reptiles - classification
  • Taxonomy
ispartof: Systematic biology, 2015-07-01, Vol.64 (4), p.621-637
description: Outgroup sampling is a central issue in phylogenetic analysis. However, good justification is rarely given for outgroup selection in published analyses. Recent advances in our understanding of archosaur phylogeny suggest that many previous studies of crocodylomorph and crocodyliform relationships have rooted trees on outgroup taxa that are only very distantly related to the ingroup (e.g., Gracilisuchus stipanicicorum), or might actually belong within the ingroup. Thalattosuchia, a group of Mesozoic marine crocodylomorphs, has a controversial phylogenetic position—they are recovered as either the sister group to Crocodyliformes, in a basal position within Crocodyliformes, or nested high in the crocodyliform tree. Thalattosuchians lack several crocodyliform apomorphies, but share several character states with derived long-snouted forms with a similar ecological habit, suggesting their derived position may be the result of convergent evolution. Several of these "shared" characters may result from ambiguously worded character state definitions—structures that are superficially similar but anatomically different in detail are identically coded. A new analysis of crocodylomorphs with increased outgroup sampling recovers Thalattosuchia as the sister group to Crocodyliformes, distantly related to long-snouted crocodyliforms. I also demonstrate that expanding the outgroup sampling of previously published matrices results in the recovery of thalattosuchians as sister to Crocodyliformes. The exclusion of thalattosuchians from Crocodyliformes has numerous implications for large-scale evolutionary trends within the group, including extensive convergence in the evolution of the secondary palate characteristic of the group. These results demonstrate the importance of careful outgroup sampling and character construction, and their profound effect on the position of labile clades.
language: eng
source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
identifier: ISSN: 1063-5157
fulltext: fulltext
issn:
  • 1063-5157
  • 1076-836X
url: Link


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descriptionOutgroup sampling is a central issue in phylogenetic analysis. However, good justification is rarely given for outgroup selection in published analyses. Recent advances in our understanding of archosaur phylogeny suggest that many previous studies of crocodylomorph and crocodyliform relationships have rooted trees on outgroup taxa that are only very distantly related to the ingroup (e.g., Gracilisuchus stipanicicorum), or might actually belong within the ingroup. Thalattosuchia, a group of Mesozoic marine crocodylomorphs, has a controversial phylogenetic position—they are recovered as either the sister group to Crocodyliformes, in a basal position within Crocodyliformes, or nested high in the crocodyliform tree. Thalattosuchians lack several crocodyliform apomorphies, but share several character states with derived long-snouted forms with a similar ecological habit, suggesting their derived position may be the result of convergent evolution. Several of these "shared" characters may result from ambiguously worded character state definitions—structures that are superficially similar but anatomically different in detail are identically coded. A new analysis of crocodylomorphs with increased outgroup sampling recovers Thalattosuchia as the sister group to Crocodyliformes, distantly related to long-snouted crocodyliforms. I also demonstrate that expanding the outgroup sampling of previously published matrices results in the recovery of thalattosuchians as sister to Crocodyliformes. The exclusion of thalattosuchians from Crocodyliformes has numerous implications for large-scale evolutionary trends within the group, including extensive convergence in the evolution of the secondary palate characteristic of the group. These results demonstrate the importance of careful outgroup sampling and character construction, and their profound effect on the position of labile clades.
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subjectAnimals ; Dinosaurs ; Evolutionary biology ; Fossils ; Geological time ; Phylogenetics ; Phylogeny ; Reptiles - classification ; Taxonomy
ispartofSystematic biology, 2015-07-01, Vol.64 (4), p.621-637
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descriptionOutgroup sampling is a central issue in phylogenetic analysis. However, good justification is rarely given for outgroup selection in published analyses. Recent advances in our understanding of archosaur phylogeny suggest that many previous studies of crocodylomorph and crocodyliform relationships have rooted trees on outgroup taxa that are only very distantly related to the ingroup (e.g., Gracilisuchus stipanicicorum), or might actually belong within the ingroup. Thalattosuchia, a group of Mesozoic marine crocodylomorphs, has a controversial phylogenetic position—they are recovered as either the sister group to Crocodyliformes, in a basal position within Crocodyliformes, or nested high in the crocodyliform tree. Thalattosuchians lack several crocodyliform apomorphies, but share several character states with derived long-snouted forms with a similar ecological habit, suggesting their derived position may be the result of convergent evolution. Several of these "shared" characters may result from ambiguously worded character state definitions—structures that are superficially similar but anatomically different in detail are identically coded. A new analysis of crocodylomorphs with increased outgroup sampling recovers Thalattosuchia as the sister group to Crocodyliformes, distantly related to long-snouted crocodyliforms. I also demonstrate that expanding the outgroup sampling of previously published matrices results in the recovery of thalattosuchians as sister to Crocodyliformes. The exclusion of thalattosuchians from Crocodyliformes has numerous implications for large-scale evolutionary trends within the group, including extensive convergence in the evolution of the secondary palate characteristic of the group. These results demonstrate the importance of careful outgroup sampling and character construction, and their profound effect on the position of labile clades.
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abstractOutgroup sampling is a central issue in phylogenetic analysis. However, good justification is rarely given for outgroup selection in published analyses. Recent advances in our understanding of archosaur phylogeny suggest that many previous studies of crocodylomorph and crocodyliform relationships have rooted trees on outgroup taxa that are only very distantly related to the ingroup (e.g., Gracilisuchus stipanicicorum), or might actually belong within the ingroup. Thalattosuchia, a group of Mesozoic marine crocodylomorphs, has a controversial phylogenetic position—they are recovered as either the sister group to Crocodyliformes, in a basal position within Crocodyliformes, or nested high in the crocodyliform tree. Thalattosuchians lack several crocodyliform apomorphies, but share several character states with derived long-snouted forms with a similar ecological habit, suggesting their derived position may be the result of convergent evolution. Several of these "shared" characters may result from ambiguously worded character state definitions—structures that are superficially similar but anatomically different in detail are identically coded. A new analysis of crocodylomorphs with increased outgroup sampling recovers Thalattosuchia as the sister group to Crocodyliformes, distantly related to long-snouted crocodyliforms. I also demonstrate that expanding the outgroup sampling of previously published matrices results in the recovery of thalattosuchians as sister to Crocodyliformes. The exclusion of thalattosuchians from Crocodyliformes has numerous implications for large-scale evolutionary trends within the group, including extensive convergence in the evolution of the secondary palate characteristic of the group. These results demonstrate the importance of careful outgroup sampling and character construction, and their profound effect on the position of labile clades.
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