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Capnocytophaga canimorsus: an emerging cause of sepsis, meningitis, and post-splenectomy infection after dog bites

Newly named in 1989, Capnocytophaga canimorsus is a bacterial pathogen found in the saliva of healthy dogs and cats, and is transmitted to humans principally by dog bites. This review compiled all laboratory-confirmed cases, animal sources, and virulence attributes to describe its epidemiology, clin... Full description

Journal Title: European journal of clinical microbiology & infectious diseases 2015-04-01, Vol.34 (7), p.1271-1280
Main Author: Butler, T
Format: Electronic Article Electronic Article
Language: English
Subjects:
Publisher: Berlin/Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
ID: ISSN: 0934-9723
Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25828064
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title: Capnocytophaga canimorsus: an emerging cause of sepsis, meningitis, and post-splenectomy infection after dog bites
format: Article
creator:
  • Butler, T
subjects:
  • Alcoholism
  • Animals
  • Bacteremia - diagnosis
  • Bacteremia - epidemiology
  • Bacteremia - microbiology
  • Biomedical and Life Sciences
  • Biomedicine
  • Bites and Stings
  • Capnocytophaga
  • Capnocytophaga canimorsus
  • Cats
  • Cephaloridine
  • Cephalosporins
  • Disease Reservoirs - microbiology
  • Dogs
  • Endocarditis
  • Health aspects
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Internal Medicine
  • Medical colleges
  • Medical Microbiology
  • Meningitis
  • Meningitis, Bacterial - diagnosis
  • Meningitis, Bacterial - epidemiology
  • Meningitis, Bacterial - microbiology
  • Moxalactam
  • Postoperative Complications - diagnosis
  • Postoperative Complications - epidemiology
  • Postoperative Complications - microbiology
  • Prevalence
  • Review
  • Sepsis - diagnosis
  • Sepsis - epidemiology
  • Sepsis - microbiology
  • Septic shock
  • Spleen
  • Splenectomy - adverse effects
  • Surgery
  • Virulence (Microbiology)
  • Virulence Factors
ispartof: European journal of clinical microbiology & infectious diseases, 2015-04-01, Vol.34 (7), p.1271-1280
description: Newly named in 1989, Capnocytophaga canimorsus is a bacterial pathogen found in the saliva of healthy dogs and cats, and is transmitted to humans principally by dog bites. This review compiled all laboratory-confirmed cases, animal sources, and virulence attributes to describe its epidemiology, clinical features, and pathogenesis. An estimated 484 patients with a median age of 55 years were reported, two-thirds of which were male. The case-fatality rate was about 26 %. Its clinical presentations included severe sepsis and fatal septic shock, gangrene of the digits or extremities, high-grade bacteremia, meningitis, endocarditis, and eye infections. Predispositions were prior splenectomy in 59 patients and alcoholism in 58 patients. Dog bites before illness occurred in 60 %; additionally, in 27 %, there were scratches, licking, or other contact with dogs or cats. Patients with meningitis showed more advanced ages, higher male preponderance, lower mortality, and longer incubation periods after dog bites than patients with sepsis ( p  
language: eng
source:
identifier: ISSN: 0934-9723
fulltext: no_fulltext
issn:
  • 0934-9723
  • 1435-4373
url: Link


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titleCapnocytophaga canimorsus: an emerging cause of sepsis, meningitis, and post-splenectomy infection after dog bites
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descriptionNewly named in 1989, Capnocytophaga canimorsus is a bacterial pathogen found in the saliva of healthy dogs and cats, and is transmitted to humans principally by dog bites. This review compiled all laboratory-confirmed cases, animal sources, and virulence attributes to describe its epidemiology, clinical features, and pathogenesis. An estimated 484 patients with a median age of 55 years were reported, two-thirds of which were male. The case-fatality rate was about 26 %. Its clinical presentations included severe sepsis and fatal septic shock, gangrene of the digits or extremities, high-grade bacteremia, meningitis, endocarditis, and eye infections. Predispositions were prior splenectomy in 59 patients and alcoholism in 58 patients. Dog bites before illness occurred in 60 %; additionally, in 27 %, there were scratches, licking, or other contact with dogs or cats. Patients with meningitis showed more advanced ages, higher male preponderance, lower mortality, and longer incubation periods after dog bites than patients with sepsis ( p  < 0.05). Patients with prior splenectomy presented more frequently with high-grade bacteremia than patients with intact spleens ( p  < 0.05). The organism possesses virulence attributes of catalase and sialidase production, gliding motility, cytotoxin production, and resistance to killing by serum complement due to its unique lipopolysaccharide. Penicillin is the drug of choice, but some practitioners prefer third-generation cephalosporins or beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations. C. canimorsus has emerged as a leading cause of sepsis, particularly post-splenectomy sepsis, and meningitis after dog bites.
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subjectAlcoholism ; Animals ; Bacteremia - diagnosis ; Bacteremia - epidemiology ; Bacteremia - microbiology ; Biomedical and Life Sciences ; Biomedicine ; Bites and Stings ; Capnocytophaga ; Capnocytophaga canimorsus ; Cats ; Cephaloridine ; Cephalosporins ; Disease Reservoirs - microbiology ; Dogs ; Endocarditis ; Health aspects ; Humans ; Incidence ; Internal Medicine ; Medical colleges ; Medical Microbiology ; Meningitis ; Meningitis, Bacterial - diagnosis ; Meningitis, Bacterial - epidemiology ; Meningitis, Bacterial - microbiology ; Moxalactam ; Postoperative Complications - diagnosis ; Postoperative Complications - epidemiology ; Postoperative Complications - microbiology ; Prevalence ; Review ; Sepsis - diagnosis ; Sepsis - epidemiology ; Sepsis - microbiology ; Septic shock ; Spleen ; Splenectomy - adverse effects ; Surgery ; Virulence (Microbiology) ; Virulence Factors
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descriptionNewly named in 1989, Capnocytophaga canimorsus is a bacterial pathogen found in the saliva of healthy dogs and cats, and is transmitted to humans principally by dog bites. This review compiled all laboratory-confirmed cases, animal sources, and virulence attributes to describe its epidemiology, clinical features, and pathogenesis. An estimated 484 patients with a median age of 55 years were reported, two-thirds of which were male. The case-fatality rate was about 26 %. Its clinical presentations included severe sepsis and fatal septic shock, gangrene of the digits or extremities, high-grade bacteremia, meningitis, endocarditis, and eye infections. Predispositions were prior splenectomy in 59 patients and alcoholism in 58 patients. Dog bites before illness occurred in 60 %; additionally, in 27 %, there were scratches, licking, or other contact with dogs or cats. Patients with meningitis showed more advanced ages, higher male preponderance, lower mortality, and longer incubation periods after dog bites than patients with sepsis ( p  < 0.05). Patients with prior splenectomy presented more frequently with high-grade bacteremia than patients with intact spleens ( p  < 0.05). The organism possesses virulence attributes of catalase and sialidase production, gliding motility, cytotoxin production, and resistance to killing by serum complement due to its unique lipopolysaccharide. Penicillin is the drug of choice, but some practitioners prefer third-generation cephalosporins or beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations. C. canimorsus has emerged as a leading cause of sepsis, particularly post-splenectomy sepsis, and meningitis after dog bites.
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1Animals
2Bacteremia - diagnosis
3Bacteremia - epidemiology
4Bacteremia - microbiology
5Biomedical and Life Sciences
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7Bites and Stings
8Capnocytophaga
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19Internal Medicine
20Medical colleges
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26Moxalactam
27Postoperative Complications - diagnosis
28Postoperative Complications - epidemiology
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30Prevalence
31Review
32Sepsis - diagnosis
33Sepsis - epidemiology
34Sepsis - microbiology
35Septic shock
36Spleen
37Splenectomy - adverse effects
38Surgery
39Virulence (Microbiology)
40Virulence Factors
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abstractNewly named in 1989, Capnocytophaga canimorsus is a bacterial pathogen found in the saliva of healthy dogs and cats, and is transmitted to humans principally by dog bites. This review compiled all laboratory-confirmed cases, animal sources, and virulence attributes to describe its epidemiology, clinical features, and pathogenesis. An estimated 484 patients with a median age of 55 years were reported, two-thirds of which were male. The case-fatality rate was about 26 %. Its clinical presentations included severe sepsis and fatal septic shock, gangrene of the digits or extremities, high-grade bacteremia, meningitis, endocarditis, and eye infections. Predispositions were prior splenectomy in 59 patients and alcoholism in 58 patients. Dog bites before illness occurred in 60 %; additionally, in 27 %, there were scratches, licking, or other contact with dogs or cats. Patients with meningitis showed more advanced ages, higher male preponderance, lower mortality, and longer incubation periods after dog bites than patients with sepsis ( p  < 0.05). Patients with prior splenectomy presented more frequently with high-grade bacteremia than patients with intact spleens ( p  < 0.05). The organism possesses virulence attributes of catalase and sialidase production, gliding motility, cytotoxin production, and resistance to killing by serum complement due to its unique lipopolysaccharide. Penicillin is the drug of choice, but some practitioners prefer third-generation cephalosporins or beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations. C. canimorsus has emerged as a leading cause of sepsis, particularly post-splenectomy sepsis, and meningitis after dog bites.
copBerlin/Heidelberg
pubSpringer Berlin Heidelberg
pmid25828064
doi10.1007/s10096-015-2360-7