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Anaplasma marginale and Anaplasma phagocytophilum: Rickettsiales pathogens of veterinary and public health significance

Anaplasma marginale and Anaplasma phagocytophilum are the most important tick-borne bacteria of veterinary and public health significance in the family Anaplasmataceae. The objective of current review is to provide knowledge on ecology and epidemiology of A. phagocytophilum and compare major similar... Full description

Journal Title: Parasitology research (1987) 2015, Vol.114 (11), p.3941-3957
Main Author: Atif, Farhan Ahmad
Format: Electronic Article Electronic Article
Language: English
Subjects:
Publisher: Berlin/Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
ID: ISSN: 0932-0113
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title: Anaplasma marginale and Anaplasma phagocytophilum: Rickettsiales pathogens of veterinary and public health significance
format: Article
creator:
  • Atif, Farhan Ahmad
subjects:
  • Anaplasma
  • Anaplasma marginale
  • Anaplasma marginale - isolation & purification
  • Anaplasma phagocytophilum
  • Anaplasma phagocytophilum - isolation & purification
  • Anaplasmosis
  • Anaplasmosis - epidemiology
  • Anaplasmosis - microbiology
  • Animals
  • Animals, Domestic
  • Animals, Wild
  • Arachnids
  • Biological control
  • Biomedical and Life Sciences
  • Biomedicine
  • Blood transfusion
  • Cattle
  • Cattle Diseases - epidemiology
  • Cattle Diseases - microbiology
  • Cattle industry
  • Chemotherapy
  • Cross-reactivity
  • Disease Reservoirs
  • Disease Vectors
  • Domestic animals
  • Ecology
  • Economic importance
  • Ehrlichiosis - epidemiology
  • Ehrlichiosis - microbiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Fever
  • Health aspects
  • Host-bacteria relationships
  • Humans
  • Identification and classification
  • Immunology
  • Livestock
  • Mammals
  • Management
  • Medical Microbiology
  • Microbiology
  • Pathogens
  • Public Health
  • Review
  • Rickettsia
  • Risk factors
  • Serological tests
  • Tetracyclines
  • Tick-borne diseases
  • Ticks - microbiology
  • Vaccination
  • Vectors
  • Veterinary Medicine
  • Zoonoses
ispartof: Parasitology research (1987), 2015, Vol.114 (11), p.3941-3957
description: Anaplasma marginale and Anaplasma phagocytophilum are the most important tick-borne bacteria of veterinary and public health significance in the family Anaplasmataceae. The objective of current review is to provide knowledge on ecology and epidemiology of A. phagocytophilum and compare major similarities and differences of A. marginale and A. phagocytophilum. Bovine anaplasmosis is globally distributed tick-borne disease of livestock with great economic importance in cattle industry. A. phagocytophilum, a cosmopolitan zoonotic tick transmitted pathogen of wide mammalian hosts. The infection in domestic animals is generally referred as tick-borne fever. Concurrent infections exist in ticks, domestic and wild animals in same geographic area. All age groups are susceptible, but the prevalence increases with age. Movement of susceptible domestic animals from tick free non-endemic regions to disease endemic regions is the major risk factor of bovine anaplasmosis and tick-borne fever. Recreational activities or any other high-risk tick exposure habits as well as blood transfusion are important risk factors of human granulocytic anaplasmosis. After infection, individuals remain life-long carriers. Clinical anaplasmosis is usually diagnosed upon examination of stained blood smears. Generally, detection of serum antibodies followed by molecular diagnosis is usually recommended. There are problems of sensitivity and cross-reactivity with both the Anaplasma species during serological tests. Tetracyclines are the drugs of choice for treatment and elimination of anaplasmosis in animals and humans. Universal vaccine is not available for either A. marginale or A. phagocytophilum, effective against geographically diverse strains. Major control measures for bovine anaplasmosis and tick-borne fever include rearing of tick-resistant breeds, endemic stability, breeding Anaplasma-free herds, identification of regional vectors, domestic/wild reservoirs and control, habitat modification, biological control, chemotherapy, and vaccinations (anaplasmosis and/or tick vaccination). Minimizing the tick exposure activities, identification and control of reservoirs are important control measures for human granulocytic anaplasmosis.
language: eng
source:
identifier: ISSN: 0932-0113
fulltext: no_fulltext
issn:
  • 0932-0113
  • 1432-1955
url: Link


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titleAnaplasma marginale and Anaplasma phagocytophilum: Rickettsiales pathogens of veterinary and public health significance
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descriptionAnaplasma marginale and Anaplasma phagocytophilum are the most important tick-borne bacteria of veterinary and public health significance in the family Anaplasmataceae. The objective of current review is to provide knowledge on ecology and epidemiology of A. phagocytophilum and compare major similarities and differences of A. marginale and A. phagocytophilum. Bovine anaplasmosis is globally distributed tick-borne disease of livestock with great economic importance in cattle industry. A. phagocytophilum, a cosmopolitan zoonotic tick transmitted pathogen of wide mammalian hosts. The infection in domestic animals is generally referred as tick-borne fever. Concurrent infections exist in ticks, domestic and wild animals in same geographic area. All age groups are susceptible, but the prevalence increases with age. Movement of susceptible domestic animals from tick free non-endemic regions to disease endemic regions is the major risk factor of bovine anaplasmosis and tick-borne fever. Recreational activities or any other high-risk tick exposure habits as well as blood transfusion are important risk factors of human granulocytic anaplasmosis. After infection, individuals remain life-long carriers. Clinical anaplasmosis is usually diagnosed upon examination of stained blood smears. Generally, detection of serum antibodies followed by molecular diagnosis is usually recommended. There are problems of sensitivity and cross-reactivity with both the Anaplasma species during serological tests. Tetracyclines are the drugs of choice for treatment and elimination of anaplasmosis in animals and humans. Universal vaccine is not available for either A. marginale or A. phagocytophilum, effective against geographically diverse strains. Major control measures for bovine anaplasmosis and tick-borne fever include rearing of tick-resistant breeds, endemic stability, breeding Anaplasma-free herds, identification of regional vectors, domestic/wild reservoirs and control, habitat modification, biological control, chemotherapy, and vaccinations (anaplasmosis and/or tick vaccination). Minimizing the tick exposure activities, identification and control of reservoirs are important control measures for human granulocytic anaplasmosis.
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subjectAnaplasma ; Anaplasma marginale ; Anaplasma marginale - isolation & purification ; Anaplasma phagocytophilum ; Anaplasma phagocytophilum - isolation & purification ; Anaplasmosis ; Anaplasmosis - epidemiology ; Anaplasmosis - microbiology ; Animals ; Animals, Domestic ; Animals, Wild ; Arachnids ; Biological control ; Biomedical and Life Sciences ; Biomedicine ; Blood transfusion ; Cattle ; Cattle Diseases - epidemiology ; Cattle Diseases - microbiology ; Cattle industry ; Chemotherapy ; Cross-reactivity ; Disease Reservoirs ; Disease Vectors ; Domestic animals ; Ecology ; Economic importance ; Ehrlichiosis - epidemiology ; Ehrlichiosis - microbiology ; Epidemiology ; Fever ; Health aspects ; Host-bacteria relationships ; Humans ; Identification and classification ; Immunology ; Livestock ; Mammals ; Management ; Medical Microbiology ; Microbiology ; Pathogens ; Public Health ; Review ; Rickettsia ; Risk factors ; Serological tests ; Tetracyclines ; Tick-borne diseases ; Ticks - microbiology ; Vaccination ; Vectors ; Veterinary Medicine ; Zoonoses
ispartofParasitology research (1987), 2015, Vol.114 (11), p.3941-3957
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descriptionAnaplasma marginale and Anaplasma phagocytophilum are the most important tick-borne bacteria of veterinary and public health significance in the family Anaplasmataceae. The objective of current review is to provide knowledge on ecology and epidemiology of A. phagocytophilum and compare major similarities and differences of A. marginale and A. phagocytophilum. Bovine anaplasmosis is globally distributed tick-borne disease of livestock with great economic importance in cattle industry. A. phagocytophilum, a cosmopolitan zoonotic tick transmitted pathogen of wide mammalian hosts. The infection in domestic animals is generally referred as tick-borne fever. Concurrent infections exist in ticks, domestic and wild animals in same geographic area. All age groups are susceptible, but the prevalence increases with age. Movement of susceptible domestic animals from tick free non-endemic regions to disease endemic regions is the major risk factor of bovine anaplasmosis and tick-borne fever. Recreational activities or any other high-risk tick exposure habits as well as blood transfusion are important risk factors of human granulocytic anaplasmosis. After infection, individuals remain life-long carriers. Clinical anaplasmosis is usually diagnosed upon examination of stained blood smears. Generally, detection of serum antibodies followed by molecular diagnosis is usually recommended. There are problems of sensitivity and cross-reactivity with both the Anaplasma species during serological tests. Tetracyclines are the drugs of choice for treatment and elimination of anaplasmosis in animals and humans. Universal vaccine is not available for either A. marginale or A. phagocytophilum, effective against geographically diverse strains. Major control measures for bovine anaplasmosis and tick-borne fever include rearing of tick-resistant breeds, endemic stability, breeding Anaplasma-free herds, identification of regional vectors, domestic/wild reservoirs and control, habitat modification, biological control, chemotherapy, and vaccinations (anaplasmosis and/or tick vaccination). Minimizing the tick exposure activities, identification and control of reservoirs are important control measures for human granulocytic anaplasmosis.
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0Anaplasma
1Anaplasma marginale
2Anaplasma marginale - isolation & purification
3Anaplasma phagocytophilum
4Anaplasma phagocytophilum - isolation & purification
5Anaplasmosis
6Anaplasmosis - epidemiology
7Anaplasmosis - microbiology
8Animals
9Animals, Domestic
10Animals, Wild
11Arachnids
12Biological control
13Biomedical and Life Sciences
14Biomedicine
15Blood transfusion
16Cattle
17Cattle Diseases - epidemiology
18Cattle Diseases - microbiology
19Cattle industry
20Chemotherapy
21Cross-reactivity
22Disease Reservoirs
23Disease Vectors
24Domestic animals
25Ecology
26Economic importance
27Ehrlichiosis - epidemiology
28Ehrlichiosis - microbiology
29Epidemiology
30Fever
31Health aspects
32Host-bacteria relationships
33Humans
34Identification and classification
35Immunology
36Livestock
37Mammals
38Management
39Medical Microbiology
40Microbiology
41Pathogens
42Public Health
43Review
44Rickettsia
45Risk factors
46Serological tests
47Tetracyclines
48Tick-borne diseases
49Ticks - microbiology
50Vaccination
51Vectors
52Veterinary Medicine
53Zoonoses
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authorAtif, Farhan Ahmad
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1Anaplasma marginale
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5Anaplasmosis
6Anaplasmosis - epidemiology
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11Arachnids
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13Biomedical and Life Sciences
14Biomedicine
15Blood transfusion
16Cattle
17Cattle Diseases - epidemiology
18Cattle Diseases - microbiology
19Cattle industry
20Chemotherapy
21Cross-reactivity
22Disease Reservoirs
23Disease Vectors
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25Ecology
26Economic importance
27Ehrlichiosis - epidemiology
28Ehrlichiosis - microbiology
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34Identification and classification
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38Management
39Medical Microbiology
40Microbiology
41Pathogens
42Public Health
43Review
44Rickettsia
45Risk factors
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47Tetracyclines
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50Vaccination
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abstractAnaplasma marginale and Anaplasma phagocytophilum are the most important tick-borne bacteria of veterinary and public health significance in the family Anaplasmataceae. The objective of current review is to provide knowledge on ecology and epidemiology of A. phagocytophilum and compare major similarities and differences of A. marginale and A. phagocytophilum. Bovine anaplasmosis is globally distributed tick-borne disease of livestock with great economic importance in cattle industry. A. phagocytophilum, a cosmopolitan zoonotic tick transmitted pathogen of wide mammalian hosts. The infection in domestic animals is generally referred as tick-borne fever. Concurrent infections exist in ticks, domestic and wild animals in same geographic area. All age groups are susceptible, but the prevalence increases with age. Movement of susceptible domestic animals from tick free non-endemic regions to disease endemic regions is the major risk factor of bovine anaplasmosis and tick-borne fever. Recreational activities or any other high-risk tick exposure habits as well as blood transfusion are important risk factors of human granulocytic anaplasmosis. After infection, individuals remain life-long carriers. Clinical anaplasmosis is usually diagnosed upon examination of stained blood smears. Generally, detection of serum antibodies followed by molecular diagnosis is usually recommended. There are problems of sensitivity and cross-reactivity with both the Anaplasma species during serological tests. Tetracyclines are the drugs of choice for treatment and elimination of anaplasmosis in animals and humans. Universal vaccine is not available for either A. marginale or A. phagocytophilum, effective against geographically diverse strains. Major control measures for bovine anaplasmosis and tick-borne fever include rearing of tick-resistant breeds, endemic stability, breeding Anaplasma-free herds, identification of regional vectors, domestic/wild reservoirs and control, habitat modification, biological control, chemotherapy, and vaccinations (anaplasmosis and/or tick vaccination). Minimizing the tick exposure activities, identification and control of reservoirs are important control measures for human granulocytic anaplasmosis.
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pubSpringer Berlin Heidelberg
pmid26346451
doi10.1007/s00436-015-4698-2
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