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Women's Work Pathways Across the Life Course

Despite numerous changes in women's employment in the latter half of the twentieth century, women's employment continues to be uneven and stalled. Drawing from data on women's weekly work hours in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79), we identify significant inequality in women's labor... Full description

Journal Title: Demography 2016-04-01, Vol.53 (2), p.365-391
Main Author: Damaske, Sarah
Other Authors: Frech, Adrianne
Format: Electronic Article Electronic Article
Language: English
Subjects:
Age
Publisher: New York: Population Association of America (Springer)
ID: ISSN: 0070-3370
Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27001314
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title: Women's Work Pathways Across the Life Course
format: Article
creator:
  • Damaske, Sarah
  • Frech, Adrianne
subjects:
  • 20th century
  • Adult
  • Adulthood
  • Adults
  • Age
  • Article
  • Baby boomers
  • Careers
  • Conflict
  • Demography
  • Educational attainment
  • Employment
  • Employment - classification
  • Employment - economics
  • Employment - trends
  • EMPLOYMENT AND INCOME
  • Families & family life
  • Family Characteristics
  • Family conflict
  • Family work relationship
  • Female
  • Females
  • Gender
  • Gender roles
  • general
  • Geography
  • Humans
  • Hypotheses
  • Ideology
  • Inequality
  • Labor
  • Labor force
  • Labor force participation
  • Labor market
  • Longitudinal Studies
  • Marital stability
  • Medicine/Public Health
  • Middle Aged
  • Part time
  • Part time employment
  • Participation
  • Pathways
  • Personnel Staffing and Scheduling - trends
  • Population Economics
  • Poverty
  • Race
  • Resources
  • Sexes
  • Social Class
  • Social environment
  • Social Sciences
  • Social stratification
  • Socio-economic aspects
  • Socioeconomic factors
  • Sociology
  • Stratification
  • Time Factors
  • Unemployment
  • United States
  • Women
  • Women, Working - classification
  • Women, Working - psychology
  • Women, Working - statistics & numerical data
  • Womens employment
  • Womens health
  • Work hours
  • Work life balance
  • Workforce
  • Working hours
  • Working women
  • Youth
ispartof: Demography, 2016-04-01, Vol.53 (2), p.365-391
description: Despite numerous changes in women's employment in the latter half of the twentieth century, women's employment continues to be uneven and stalled. Drawing from data on women's weekly work hours in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79), we identify significant inequality in women's labor force experiences across adulthood. We find two pathways of stable full-time work for women, three pathways of part-time employment, and a pathway of unpaid labor. A majority of women follow one of the two full-time work pathways, while fewer than 10 % follow a pathway of unpaid labor. Our findings provide evidence of the lasting influence of work–family conflict and early socioeconomic advantages and disadvantages on women's work pathways. Indeed, race, poverty, educational attainment, and early family characteristics significantly shaped women's work careers. Work–family opportunities and constraints also were related to women's work hours, as were a woman's gendered beliefs and expectations. We conclude that women's employment pathways are a product of both their resources and changing social environment as well as individual agency. Significantly, we point to social stratification, gender ideologies, and work–family constraints, all working in concert, as key explanations for how women are "tracked" onto work pathways from an early age.
language: eng
source:
identifier: ISSN: 0070-3370
fulltext: no_fulltext
issn:
  • 0070-3370
  • 1533-7790
url: Link


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descriptionDespite numerous changes in women's employment in the latter half of the twentieth century, women's employment continues to be uneven and stalled. Drawing from data on women's weekly work hours in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79), we identify significant inequality in women's labor force experiences across adulthood. We find two pathways of stable full-time work for women, three pathways of part-time employment, and a pathway of unpaid labor. A majority of women follow one of the two full-time work pathways, while fewer than 10 % follow a pathway of unpaid labor. Our findings provide evidence of the lasting influence of work–family conflict and early socioeconomic advantages and disadvantages on women's work pathways. Indeed, race, poverty, educational attainment, and early family characteristics significantly shaped women's work careers. Work–family opportunities and constraints also were related to women's work hours, as were a woman's gendered beliefs and expectations. We conclude that women's employment pathways are a product of both their resources and changing social environment as well as individual agency. Significantly, we point to social stratification, gender ideologies, and work–family constraints, all working in concert, as key explanations for how women are "tracked" onto work pathways from an early age.
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subject20th century ; Adult ; Adulthood ; Adults ; Age ; Article ; Baby boomers ; Careers ; Conflict ; Demography ; Educational attainment ; Employment ; Employment - classification ; Employment - economics ; Employment - trends ; EMPLOYMENT AND INCOME ; Families & family life ; Family Characteristics ; Family conflict ; Family work relationship ; Female ; Females ; Gender ; Gender roles ; general ; Geography ; Humans ; Hypotheses ; Ideology ; Inequality ; Labor ; Labor force ; Labor force participation ; Labor market ; Longitudinal Studies ; Marital stability ; Medicine/Public Health ; Middle Aged ; Part time ; Part time employment ; Participation ; Pathways ; Personnel Staffing and Scheduling - trends ; Population Economics ; Poverty ; Race ; Resources ; Sexes ; Social Class ; Social environment ; Social Sciences ; Social stratification ; Socio-economic aspects ; Socioeconomic factors ; Sociology ; Stratification ; Time Factors ; Unemployment ; United States ; Women ; Women, Working - classification ; Women, Working - psychology ; Women, Working - statistics & numerical data ; Womens employment ; Womens health ; Work hours ; Work life balance ; Workforce ; Working hours ; Working women ; Youth
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abstractDespite numerous changes in women's employment in the latter half of the twentieth century, women's employment continues to be uneven and stalled. Drawing from data on women's weekly work hours in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79), we identify significant inequality in women's labor force experiences across adulthood. We find two pathways of stable full-time work for women, three pathways of part-time employment, and a pathway of unpaid labor. A majority of women follow one of the two full-time work pathways, while fewer than 10 % follow a pathway of unpaid labor. Our findings provide evidence of the lasting influence of work–family conflict and early socioeconomic advantages and disadvantages on women's work pathways. Indeed, race, poverty, educational attainment, and early family characteristics significantly shaped women's work careers. Work–family opportunities and constraints also were related to women's work hours, as were a woman's gendered beliefs and expectations. We conclude that women's employment pathways are a product of both their resources and changing social environment as well as individual agency. Significantly, we point to social stratification, gender ideologies, and work–family constraints, all working in concert, as key explanations for how women are "tracked" onto work pathways from an early age.
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