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The relationship between leg stiffness, forces and neural control of the leg musculature during the stretch-shortening cycle is dependent on the anticipation of drop height

Purpose This study aimed at investigating how prior knowledge of drop heights affects proactive and reactive motor control in drop jumps (DJ). Methods In 22 subjects, the effect of knowledge of three different drop heights (20, 30, 40 cm) during DJs was evaluated in seven conditions: three different... Full description

Journal Title: European journal of applied physiology 2019, Vol.119 (9), p.1981-1999
Main Author: Helm, Michael
Other Authors: Freyler, Kathrin , Waldvogel, Janice , Gollhofer, Albert , Ritzmann, Ramona
Format: Electronic Article Electronic Article
Language: English
Subjects:
Hip
Leg
Publisher: Berlin/Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
ID: ISSN: 1439-6319
Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31367910
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title: The relationship between leg stiffness, forces and neural control of the leg musculature during the stretch-shortening cycle is dependent on the anticipation of drop height
format: Article
creator:
  • Helm, Michael
  • Freyler, Kathrin
  • Waldvogel, Janice
  • Gollhofer, Albert
  • Ritzmann, Ramona
subjects:
  • Adult
  • Ankle
  • Ankle - physiology
  • Ankle Joint - physiology
  • Biomechanical Phenomena - physiology
  • Biomedical and Life Sciences
  • Biomedicine
  • Body weight
  • Electromyography
  • Electromyography - methods
  • Female
  • Hip
  • Hip Joint - physiology
  • Human Physiology
  • Humans
  • Kinematics
  • Knee
  • Knee - physiology
  • Knee Joint - physiology
  • Leg
  • Leg - physiology
  • Male
  • Motor task performance
  • Movement - physiology
  • Muscle Contraction - physiology
  • Muscle Strength - physiology
  • Muscle, Skeletal - physiology
  • Muscles
  • Occupational Medicine/Industrial Medicine
  • Original Article
  • Sports Medicine
  • Thigh - physiology
  • Young Adult
ispartof: European journal of applied physiology, 2019, Vol.119 (9), p.1981-1999
description: Purpose This study aimed at investigating how prior knowledge of drop heights affects proactive and reactive motor control in drop jumps (DJ). Methods In 22 subjects, the effect of knowledge of three different drop heights (20, 30, 40 cm) during DJs was evaluated in seven conditions: three different drop heights were either known, unknown or cheated (announced 40 cm, but actual drop height was 20 cm). Peak ground reaction force ( F max ) to body weight (BW) ratio ( F max /BW) and electromyographic (EMG) activities of three shank and five thigh muscles were assessed 150 ms before and during ground contact (GC). Ankle, knee and hip joint kinematics were recorded in the sagittal plane. Results Leg stiffness, proactive and reactive EMG activity of the leg muscles diminished in unknown and cheat conditions for all drop heights (7–33% and 2–26%, respectively). Antagonistic co-activation increased in unknown (3–37%). At touchdown, increased flexion in knee (~ 5.3° ± 1.9°) and hip extension (~ 2° ± 0.6°) were observed in unknown, followed by an increased angular excursion in hip (~ 2.3° ± 0.2°) and knee joints (~ 5.6° ± 0.2°) during GC ( p  
language: eng
source:
identifier: ISSN: 1439-6319
fulltext: no_fulltext
issn:
  • 1439-6319
  • 1439-6327
url: Link


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titleThe relationship between leg stiffness, forces and neural control of the leg musculature during the stretch-shortening cycle is dependent on the anticipation of drop height
creatorHelm, Michael ; Freyler, Kathrin ; Waldvogel, Janice ; Gollhofer, Albert ; Ritzmann, Ramona
creatorcontribHelm, Michael ; Freyler, Kathrin ; Waldvogel, Janice ; Gollhofer, Albert ; Ritzmann, Ramona
descriptionPurpose This study aimed at investigating how prior knowledge of drop heights affects proactive and reactive motor control in drop jumps (DJ). Methods In 22 subjects, the effect of knowledge of three different drop heights (20, 30, 40 cm) during DJs was evaluated in seven conditions: three different drop heights were either known, unknown or cheated (announced 40 cm, but actual drop height was 20 cm). Peak ground reaction force ( F max ) to body weight (BW) ratio ( F max /BW) and electromyographic (EMG) activities of three shank and five thigh muscles were assessed 150 ms before and during ground contact (GC). Ankle, knee and hip joint kinematics were recorded in the sagittal plane. Results Leg stiffness, proactive and reactive EMG activity of the leg muscles diminished in unknown and cheat conditions for all drop heights (7–33% and 2–26%, respectively). Antagonistic co-activation increased in unknown (3–37%). At touchdown, increased flexion in knee (~ 5.3° ± 1.9°) and hip extension (~ 2° ± 0.6°) were observed in unknown, followed by an increased angular excursion in hip (~ 2.3° ± 0.2°) and knee joints (~ 5.6° ± 0.2°) during GC ( p  < 0.05). Correlations between changes in activation intensities, joint kinematics, leg stiffness and F max /BW ( p  < 0.05) indicate that anticipation changes the neuromechanical coupling of DJs. No dropouts were recorded. Conclusion These findings underline that anticipation influences timing and adjustment of motor responses. It is argued that proactive and reactive modulations associated with diminished activation intensities in leg extensors are functionally relevant in explaining changes in leg stiffness and subsequent decline in performance.
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subjectAdult ; Ankle ; Ankle - physiology ; Ankle Joint - physiology ; Biomechanical Phenomena - physiology ; Biomedical and Life Sciences ; Biomedicine ; Body weight ; Electromyography ; Electromyography - methods ; Female ; Hip ; Hip Joint - physiology ; Human Physiology ; Humans ; Kinematics ; Knee ; Knee - physiology ; Knee Joint - physiology ; Leg ; Leg - physiology ; Male ; Motor task performance ; Movement - physiology ; Muscle Contraction - physiology ; Muscle Strength - physiology ; Muscle, Skeletal - physiology ; Muscles ; Occupational Medicine/Industrial Medicine ; Original Article ; Sports Medicine ; Thigh - physiology ; Young Adult
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descriptionPurpose This study aimed at investigating how prior knowledge of drop heights affects proactive and reactive motor control in drop jumps (DJ). Methods In 22 subjects, the effect of knowledge of three different drop heights (20, 30, 40 cm) during DJs was evaluated in seven conditions: three different drop heights were either known, unknown or cheated (announced 40 cm, but actual drop height was 20 cm). Peak ground reaction force ( F max ) to body weight (BW) ratio ( F max /BW) and electromyographic (EMG) activities of three shank and five thigh muscles were assessed 150 ms before and during ground contact (GC). Ankle, knee and hip joint kinematics were recorded in the sagittal plane. Results Leg stiffness, proactive and reactive EMG activity of the leg muscles diminished in unknown and cheat conditions for all drop heights (7–33% and 2–26%, respectively). Antagonistic co-activation increased in unknown (3–37%). At touchdown, increased flexion in knee (~ 5.3° ± 1.9°) and hip extension (~ 2° ± 0.6°) were observed in unknown, followed by an increased angular excursion in hip (~ 2.3° ± 0.2°) and knee joints (~ 5.6° ± 0.2°) during GC ( p  < 0.05). Correlations between changes in activation intensities, joint kinematics, leg stiffness and F max /BW ( p  < 0.05) indicate that anticipation changes the neuromechanical coupling of DJs. No dropouts were recorded. Conclusion These findings underline that anticipation influences timing and adjustment of motor responses. It is argued that proactive and reactive modulations associated with diminished activation intensities in leg extensors are functionally relevant in explaining changes in leg stiffness and subsequent decline in performance.
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titleThe relationship between leg stiffness, forces and neural control of the leg musculature during the stretch-shortening cycle is dependent on the anticipation of drop height
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jtitleEuropean journal of applied physiology
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abstractPurpose This study aimed at investigating how prior knowledge of drop heights affects proactive and reactive motor control in drop jumps (DJ). Methods In 22 subjects, the effect of knowledge of three different drop heights (20, 30, 40 cm) during DJs was evaluated in seven conditions: three different drop heights were either known, unknown or cheated (announced 40 cm, but actual drop height was 20 cm). Peak ground reaction force ( F max ) to body weight (BW) ratio ( F max /BW) and electromyographic (EMG) activities of three shank and five thigh muscles were assessed 150 ms before and during ground contact (GC). Ankle, knee and hip joint kinematics were recorded in the sagittal plane. Results Leg stiffness, proactive and reactive EMG activity of the leg muscles diminished in unknown and cheat conditions for all drop heights (7–33% and 2–26%, respectively). Antagonistic co-activation increased in unknown (3–37%). At touchdown, increased flexion in knee (~ 5.3° ± 1.9°) and hip extension (~ 2° ± 0.6°) were observed in unknown, followed by an increased angular excursion in hip (~ 2.3° ± 0.2°) and knee joints (~ 5.6° ± 0.2°) during GC ( p  < 0.05). Correlations between changes in activation intensities, joint kinematics, leg stiffness and F max /BW ( p  < 0.05) indicate that anticipation changes the neuromechanical coupling of DJs. No dropouts were recorded. Conclusion These findings underline that anticipation influences timing and adjustment of motor responses. It is argued that proactive and reactive modulations associated with diminished activation intensities in leg extensors are functionally relevant in explaining changes in leg stiffness and subsequent decline in performance.
copBerlin/Heidelberg
pubSpringer Berlin Heidelberg
pmid31367910
doi10.1007/s00421-019-04186-7