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Potential of adult mammalian lumbosacral spinal cord to execute and acquire improved locomotion in the absence of supraspinal input

The neural circuitry of the lumbar spinal cord can generate alternating extension and flexion of the hindlimbs. The hindlimbs of adult cats with complete transection of the spinal cord at a low thoracic level (T12-T13) can perform full weight-supporting locomotion on a treadmill belt moving at a ran... Full description

Journal Title: Journal of neurotrauma 1992-03-01, Vol.9 Suppl 1 (MAR), p.S119-S128
Main Author: Edgerton, V. R.
Other Authors: Roy, R. R. , Hodgson, J. A. , Prober, R. J. , de Guzman, C. P. , de Leon, R.
Format: Electronic Article Electronic Article
Language: English
Subjects:
Publisher: Legacy CDMS: Liebert
ID: ISSN: 0897-7151
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recordid: cdi_proquest_miscellaneous_72958180
title: Potential of adult mammalian lumbosacral spinal cord to execute and acquire improved locomotion in the absence of supraspinal input
format: Article
creator:
  • Edgerton, V. R.
  • Roy, R. R.
  • Hodgson, J. A.
  • Prober, R. J.
  • de Guzman, C. P.
  • de Leon, R.
subjects:
  • Animals
  • Biological and medical sciences
  • Cats
  • Clonidine - pharmacology
  • Electromyography
  • Female
  • Life Sciences (General)
  • Locomotion - physiology
  • Medical sciences
  • Motor Activity - physiology
  • Muscles - drug effects
  • Muscles - physiology
  • Nervous system involvement in other diseases. Miscellaneous
  • Neurology
  • Space life sciences
  • Spinal Cord - physiology
  • Spinal Cord - physiopathology
  • Spinal Cord Injuries - physiopathology
  • Time Factors
ispartof: Journal of neurotrauma, 1992-03-01, Vol.9 Suppl 1 (MAR), p.S119-S128
description: The neural circuitry of the lumbar spinal cord can generate alternating extension and flexion of the hindlimbs. The hindlimbs of adult cats with complete transection of the spinal cord at a low thoracic level (T12-T13) can perform full weight-supporting locomotion on a treadmill belt moving at a range of speeds. Some limitations in the locomotor capacity can be associated with a deficit in the recruitment level of the fast extensors during the stance phase and the flexors during the swing phase of a step cycle. The level of locomotor performance, however, can be enhanced by daily training on a treadmill while emphasizing full weight-support stepping and by providing appropriately timed sensory stimulation, loading, and/or pharmacologic stimulation of the hindlimb neuromuscular apparatus. Furthermore, there appears to be an interactive effect of these interventions. For example, the maximum treadmill speed that a spinal adult cat can attain and maintain is significantly improved with daily full weight-supporting treadmill training, but progressive recruitment of fast extensors becomes apparent only when the hindlimbs are loaded by gently pulling down on the tail during the stepping. Stimulation of the sural nerve at the initiation of the flexion phase of the step cycle can likewise markedly improve the locomotor capability. Administration of clonidine, in particular in combination with an elevated load, resulted in the most distinct and consistent alternating bursts of electromyographic activity during spinal stepping. These data indicate that the spinal cord has the ability to execute alternating activation of the extensor and flexor musculature of the hindlimbs (stepping) and that this ability can be improved by several interventions such as training, sensory stimulation, and use of some pharmacologic agents. Thus, it appears that the spinal cord, without supraspinal input, is highly plastic and has the potential to "learn," that is, to acquire and improve its ability to execute full weight-supporting locomotion on a treadmill belt.
language: eng
source:
identifier: ISSN: 0897-7151
fulltext: no_fulltext
issn:
  • 0897-7151
  • 1557-9042
url: Link


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titlePotential of adult mammalian lumbosacral spinal cord to execute and acquire improved locomotion in the absence of supraspinal input
creatorEdgerton, V. R. ; Roy, R. R. ; Hodgson, J. A. ; Prober, R. J. ; de Guzman, C. P. ; de Leon, R.
creatorcontribEdgerton, V. R. ; Roy, R. R. ; Hodgson, J. A. ; Prober, R. J. ; de Guzman, C. P. ; de Leon, R.
descriptionThe neural circuitry of the lumbar spinal cord can generate alternating extension and flexion of the hindlimbs. The hindlimbs of adult cats with complete transection of the spinal cord at a low thoracic level (T12-T13) can perform full weight-supporting locomotion on a treadmill belt moving at a range of speeds. Some limitations in the locomotor capacity can be associated with a deficit in the recruitment level of the fast extensors during the stance phase and the flexors during the swing phase of a step cycle. The level of locomotor performance, however, can be enhanced by daily training on a treadmill while emphasizing full weight-support stepping and by providing appropriately timed sensory stimulation, loading, and/or pharmacologic stimulation of the hindlimb neuromuscular apparatus. Furthermore, there appears to be an interactive effect of these interventions. For example, the maximum treadmill speed that a spinal adult cat can attain and maintain is significantly improved with daily full weight-supporting treadmill training, but progressive recruitment of fast extensors becomes apparent only when the hindlimbs are loaded by gently pulling down on the tail during the stepping. Stimulation of the sural nerve at the initiation of the flexion phase of the step cycle can likewise markedly improve the locomotor capability. Administration of clonidine, in particular in combination with an elevated load, resulted in the most distinct and consistent alternating bursts of electromyographic activity during spinal stepping. These data indicate that the spinal cord has the ability to execute alternating activation of the extensor and flexor musculature of the hindlimbs (stepping) and that this ability can be improved by several interventions such as training, sensory stimulation, and use of some pharmacologic agents. Thus, it appears that the spinal cord, without supraspinal input, is highly plastic and has the potential to "learn," that is, to acquire and improve its ability to execute full weight-supporting locomotion on a treadmill belt.
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subjectAnimals ; Biological and medical sciences ; Cats ; Clonidine - pharmacology ; Electromyography ; Female ; Life Sciences (General) ; Locomotion - physiology ; Medical sciences ; Motor Activity - physiology ; Muscles - drug effects ; Muscles - physiology ; Nervous system involvement in other diseases. Miscellaneous ; Neurology ; Space life sciences ; Spinal Cord - physiology ; Spinal Cord - physiopathology ; Spinal Cord Injuries - physiopathology ; Time Factors
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0Potential of adult mammalian lumbosacral spinal cord to execute and acquire improved locomotion in the absence of supraspinal input
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descriptionThe neural circuitry of the lumbar spinal cord can generate alternating extension and flexion of the hindlimbs. The hindlimbs of adult cats with complete transection of the spinal cord at a low thoracic level (T12-T13) can perform full weight-supporting locomotion on a treadmill belt moving at a range of speeds. Some limitations in the locomotor capacity can be associated with a deficit in the recruitment level of the fast extensors during the stance phase and the flexors during the swing phase of a step cycle. The level of locomotor performance, however, can be enhanced by daily training on a treadmill while emphasizing full weight-support stepping and by providing appropriately timed sensory stimulation, loading, and/or pharmacologic stimulation of the hindlimb neuromuscular apparatus. Furthermore, there appears to be an interactive effect of these interventions. For example, the maximum treadmill speed that a spinal adult cat can attain and maintain is significantly improved with daily full weight-supporting treadmill training, but progressive recruitment of fast extensors becomes apparent only when the hindlimbs are loaded by gently pulling down on the tail during the stepping. Stimulation of the sural nerve at the initiation of the flexion phase of the step cycle can likewise markedly improve the locomotor capability. Administration of clonidine, in particular in combination with an elevated load, resulted in the most distinct and consistent alternating bursts of electromyographic activity during spinal stepping. These data indicate that the spinal cord has the ability to execute alternating activation of the extensor and flexor musculature of the hindlimbs (stepping) and that this ability can be improved by several interventions such as training, sensory stimulation, and use of some pharmacologic agents. Thus, it appears that the spinal cord, without supraspinal input, is highly plastic and has the potential to "learn," that is, to acquire and improve its ability to execute full weight-supporting locomotion on a treadmill belt.
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1Biological and medical sciences
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3Clonidine - pharmacology
4Electromyography
5Female
6Life Sciences (General)
7Locomotion - physiology
8Medical sciences
9Motor Activity - physiology
10Muscles - drug effects
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14Space life sciences
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titlePotential of adult mammalian lumbosacral spinal cord to execute and acquire improved locomotion in the absence of supraspinal input
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14Space life sciences
15Spinal Cord - physiology
16Spinal Cord - physiopathology
17Spinal Cord Injuries - physiopathology
18Time Factors
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abstractThe neural circuitry of the lumbar spinal cord can generate alternating extension and flexion of the hindlimbs. The hindlimbs of adult cats with complete transection of the spinal cord at a low thoracic level (T12-T13) can perform full weight-supporting locomotion on a treadmill belt moving at a range of speeds. Some limitations in the locomotor capacity can be associated with a deficit in the recruitment level of the fast extensors during the stance phase and the flexors during the swing phase of a step cycle. The level of locomotor performance, however, can be enhanced by daily training on a treadmill while emphasizing full weight-support stepping and by providing appropriately timed sensory stimulation, loading, and/or pharmacologic stimulation of the hindlimb neuromuscular apparatus. Furthermore, there appears to be an interactive effect of these interventions. For example, the maximum treadmill speed that a spinal adult cat can attain and maintain is significantly improved with daily full weight-supporting treadmill training, but progressive recruitment of fast extensors becomes apparent only when the hindlimbs are loaded by gently pulling down on the tail during the stepping. Stimulation of the sural nerve at the initiation of the flexion phase of the step cycle can likewise markedly improve the locomotor capability. Administration of clonidine, in particular in combination with an elevated load, resulted in the most distinct and consistent alternating bursts of electromyographic activity during spinal stepping. These data indicate that the spinal cord has the ability to execute alternating activation of the extensor and flexor musculature of the hindlimbs (stepping) and that this ability can be improved by several interventions such as training, sensory stimulation, and use of some pharmacologic agents. Thus, it appears that the spinal cord, without supraspinal input, is highly plastic and has the potential to "learn," that is, to acquire and improve its ability to execute full weight-supporting locomotion on a treadmill belt.
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