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Rhythmic growth explained by coincidence between internal and external cues

Most organisms use circadian oscillators to coordinate physiological and developmental processes such as growth with predictable daily environmental changes like sunrise and sunset. The importance of such coordination is highlighted by studies showing that circadian dysfunction causes reduced fitnes... Full description

Journal Title: Nature 2007-07-19, Vol.448 (7151), p.358-361
Main Author: Covington, Michael F
Other Authors: Nozue, Kazunari , Harmer, Stacey L , Lorrain, Séverine , Duek, Paula D , Fankhauser, Christian , Maloof, Julin N
Format: Electronic Article Electronic Article
Language: English
Subjects:
Publisher: London: Nature Publishing
ID: ISSN: 0028-0836
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recordid: cdi_proquest_miscellaneous_743415402
title: Rhythmic growth explained by coincidence between internal and external cues
format: Article
creator:
  • Covington, Michael F
  • Nozue, Kazunari
  • Harmer, Stacey L
  • Lorrain, Séverine
  • Duek, Paula D
  • Fankhauser, Christian
  • Maloof, Julin N
subjects:
  • Analysis
  • Arabidopsis - genetics
  • Arabidopsis - growth & development
  • Arabidopsis - radiation effects
  • Arabidopsis Proteins - genetics
  • Arabidopsis Proteins - metabolism
  • Bacteria
  • Biological and medical sciences
  • Biological Clocks - physiology
  • Biological Clocks - radiation effects
  • Circadian Rhythm - physiology
  • Circadian Rhythm - radiation effects
  • Clocks
  • Cues
  • Darkness
  • DNA microarrays
  • Fundamental and applied biological sciences. Psychology
  • Gene expression
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Plant
  • Genes
  • Genes, Plant - genetics
  • Genetic aspects
  • Growth
  • Hypocotyl - genetics
  • Hypocotyl - growth & development
  • Hypocotyl - radiation effects
  • Light
  • Mutation - genetics
  • Oscillators
  • Plant cells and tissues
  • Plant growth. Development of the storage organs
  • Plant physiology and development
  • Proteins
  • Seedlings - genetics
  • Seedlings - growth & development
  • Seedlings - radiation effects
  • Signalling
  • Sleep
  • Sunset
  • Time Factors
  • Vegetative apparatus, growth and morphogenesis. Senescence
ispartof: Nature, 2007-07-19, Vol.448 (7151), p.358-361
description: Most organisms use circadian oscillators to coordinate physiological and developmental processes such as growth with predictable daily environmental changes like sunrise and sunset. The importance of such coordination is highlighted by studies showing that circadian dysfunction causes reduced fitness in bacteria and plants, as well as sleep and psychological disorders in humans. Plant cell growth requires energy and water-factors that oscillate owing to diurnal environmental changes. Indeed, two important factors controlling stem growth are the internal circadian oscillator and external light levels. However, most circadian studies have been performed in constant conditions, precluding mechanistic study of interactions between the clock and diurnal variation in the environment. Studies of stem elongation in diurnal conditions have revealed complex growth patterns, but no mechanism has been described. Here we show that the growth phase of Arabidopsis seedlings in diurnal light conditions is shifted 8-12 h relative to plants in continuous light, and we describe a mechanism underlying this environmental response. We find that the clock regulates transcript levels of two basic helix-loop-helix genes, phytochrome-interacting factor 4 (PIF4) and PIF5, whereas light regulates their protein abundance. These genes function as positive growth regulators; the coincidence of high transcript levels (by the clock) and protein accumulation (in the dark) allows them to promote plant growth at the end of the night. Thus, these two genes integrate clock and light signalling, and their coordinated regulation explains the observed diurnal growth rhythms. This interaction may serve as a paradigm for understanding how endogenous and environmental signals cooperate to control other processes.
language: eng
source:
identifier: ISSN: 0028-0836
fulltext: no_fulltext
issn:
  • 0028-0836
  • 1476-4687
  • 1476-4679
url: Link


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descriptionMost organisms use circadian oscillators to coordinate physiological and developmental processes such as growth with predictable daily environmental changes like sunrise and sunset. The importance of such coordination is highlighted by studies showing that circadian dysfunction causes reduced fitness in bacteria and plants, as well as sleep and psychological disorders in humans. Plant cell growth requires energy and water-factors that oscillate owing to diurnal environmental changes. Indeed, two important factors controlling stem growth are the internal circadian oscillator and external light levels. However, most circadian studies have been performed in constant conditions, precluding mechanistic study of interactions between the clock and diurnal variation in the environment. Studies of stem elongation in diurnal conditions have revealed complex growth patterns, but no mechanism has been described. Here we show that the growth phase of Arabidopsis seedlings in diurnal light conditions is shifted 8-12 h relative to plants in continuous light, and we describe a mechanism underlying this environmental response. We find that the clock regulates transcript levels of two basic helix-loop-helix genes, phytochrome-interacting factor 4 (PIF4) and PIF5, whereas light regulates their protein abundance. These genes function as positive growth regulators; the coincidence of high transcript levels (by the clock) and protein accumulation (in the dark) allows them to promote plant growth at the end of the night. Thus, these two genes integrate clock and light signalling, and their coordinated regulation explains the observed diurnal growth rhythms. This interaction may serve as a paradigm for understanding how endogenous and environmental signals cooperate to control other processes.
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subjectAnalysis ; Arabidopsis - genetics ; Arabidopsis - growth & development ; Arabidopsis - radiation effects ; Arabidopsis Proteins - genetics ; Arabidopsis Proteins - metabolism ; Bacteria ; Biological and medical sciences ; Biological Clocks - physiology ; Biological Clocks - radiation effects ; Circadian Rhythm - physiology ; Circadian Rhythm - radiation effects ; Clocks ; Cues ; Darkness ; DNA microarrays ; Fundamental and applied biological sciences. Psychology ; Gene expression ; Gene Expression Regulation, Plant ; Genes ; Genes, Plant - genetics ; Genetic aspects ; Growth ; Hypocotyl - genetics ; Hypocotyl - growth & development ; Hypocotyl - radiation effects ; Light ; Mutation - genetics ; Oscillators ; Plant cells and tissues ; Plant growth. Development of the storage organs ; Plant physiology and development ; Proteins ; Seedlings - genetics ; Seedlings - growth & development ; Seedlings - radiation effects ; Signalling ; Sleep ; Sunset ; Time Factors ; Vegetative apparatus, growth and morphogenesis. Senescence
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descriptionMost organisms use circadian oscillators to coordinate physiological and developmental processes such as growth with predictable daily environmental changes like sunrise and sunset. The importance of such coordination is highlighted by studies showing that circadian dysfunction causes reduced fitness in bacteria and plants, as well as sleep and psychological disorders in humans. Plant cell growth requires energy and water-factors that oscillate owing to diurnal environmental changes. Indeed, two important factors controlling stem growth are the internal circadian oscillator and external light levels. However, most circadian studies have been performed in constant conditions, precluding mechanistic study of interactions between the clock and diurnal variation in the environment. Studies of stem elongation in diurnal conditions have revealed complex growth patterns, but no mechanism has been described. Here we show that the growth phase of Arabidopsis seedlings in diurnal light conditions is shifted 8-12 h relative to plants in continuous light, and we describe a mechanism underlying this environmental response. We find that the clock regulates transcript levels of two basic helix-loop-helix genes, phytochrome-interacting factor 4 (PIF4) and PIF5, whereas light regulates their protein abundance. These genes function as positive growth regulators; the coincidence of high transcript levels (by the clock) and protein accumulation (in the dark) allows them to promote plant growth at the end of the night. Thus, these two genes integrate clock and light signalling, and their coordinated regulation explains the observed diurnal growth rhythms. This interaction may serve as a paradigm for understanding how endogenous and environmental signals cooperate to control other processes.
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34Seedlings - growth & development
35Seedlings - radiation effects
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37Sleep
38Sunset
39Time Factors
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37Sleep
38Sunset
39Time Factors
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abstractMost organisms use circadian oscillators to coordinate physiological and developmental processes such as growth with predictable daily environmental changes like sunrise and sunset. The importance of such coordination is highlighted by studies showing that circadian dysfunction causes reduced fitness in bacteria and plants, as well as sleep and psychological disorders in humans. Plant cell growth requires energy and water-factors that oscillate owing to diurnal environmental changes. Indeed, two important factors controlling stem growth are the internal circadian oscillator and external light levels. However, most circadian studies have been performed in constant conditions, precluding mechanistic study of interactions between the clock and diurnal variation in the environment. Studies of stem elongation in diurnal conditions have revealed complex growth patterns, but no mechanism has been described. Here we show that the growth phase of Arabidopsis seedlings in diurnal light conditions is shifted 8-12 h relative to plants in continuous light, and we describe a mechanism underlying this environmental response. We find that the clock regulates transcript levels of two basic helix-loop-helix genes, phytochrome-interacting factor 4 (PIF4) and PIF5, whereas light regulates their protein abundance. These genes function as positive growth regulators; the coincidence of high transcript levels (by the clock) and protein accumulation (in the dark) allows them to promote plant growth at the end of the night. Thus, these two genes integrate clock and light signalling, and their coordinated regulation explains the observed diurnal growth rhythms. This interaction may serve as a paradigm for understanding how endogenous and environmental signals cooperate to control other processes.
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