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Pyrrolidone derivatives

The pyrrolidone (2-oxopyrrolidine) family of chemicals has been the subject of research for more than three decades. Experimental and clinical work first focused on their so-called nootropic effects; later came the possibilities for neuroprotection after stroke and use as antiepileptic agents. Pirac... Full description

Journal Title: The Lancet (British edition) 2001-12-01, Vol.358 (9296), p.1885-1892
Main Author: Shorvon, Simon
Format: Electronic Article Electronic Article
Language: English
Subjects:
Quelle: Alma/SFX Local Collection
Publisher: London: Elsevier Ltd
ID: ISSN: 0140-6736
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recordid: cdi_proquest_miscellaneous_764137967
title: Pyrrolidone derivatives
format: Article
creator:
  • Shorvon, Simon
subjects:
  • Abridged Index Medicus
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Alzheimer's disease
  • Alzheimers disease
  • Amnesia
  • Animal cognition
  • Animals
  • Anticonvulsants - pharmacokinetics
  • Anticonvulsants - therapeutic use
  • Biological and medical sciences
  • Brain damage
  • Calcium
  • Chemicals
  • Cholinergics
  • Cognitive ability
  • Cognitive enhancement
  • Convulsions
  • Cytochromes
  • Dementia
  • Drugs
  • Epilepsy
  • Glycolysis
  • Half-Life
  • Humans
  • Intestinal Absorption
  • Kinases
  • Learning
  • Licenses
  • Licensing
  • Medical sciences
  • Memory
  • Neurology
  • Neuroprotective Agents - pharmacokinetics
  • Neuroprotective Agents - therapeutic use
  • Nitric oxide
  • Nootropic Agents - pharmacokinetics
  • Nootropic Agents - therapeutic use
  • Pharmaceutical industry
  • Pharmaceuticals
  • Pharmacology
  • Proteins
  • Pyrrolidinones - classification
  • Pyrrolidinones - pharmacokinetics
  • Pyrrolidinones - therapeutic use
  • Receptors
  • Resistance
  • Rodents
  • Screening
  • Seizures
  • Stroke
  • Stroke (Disease)
  • Structure-Activity Relationship
  • Tissue Distribution
  • Vascular diseases and vascular malformations of the nervous system
ispartof: The Lancet (British edition), 2001-12-01, Vol.358 (9296), p.1885-1892
description: The pyrrolidone (2-oxopyrrolidine) family of chemicals has been the subject of research for more than three decades. Experimental and clinical work first focused on their so-called nootropic effects; later came the possibilities for neuroprotection after stroke and use as antiepileptic agents. Piracetam, the first of the class, was developed by pioneering research by C Giurgea in the late 1960s, and it was he who coined the term "nootropic", to mean enhancement of learning and memory. The term is sometimes extended to include other actions such as neuroprotection. These properties, together with the lack of other generally adverse psychopharmacological actions (eg, sedation, analgesia, or motor or behavioural changes), distinguish the pyrrolidones from other psychoactive drug classes. The mechanisms of action of these drugs are still not fully established; indeed, different compounds in this class may have different modes of action. Interest in this drug class has recently been reawakened by the licensing of levetiracetam as a potentially major new antiepileptic drug and of piracetam for its antimyoclonic action and effects after stroke and in mild cognitive impairment. Other drugs in this class are currently at an advanced stage of development, and the renewal of interest in this therapeutic area is likely to mean not only that more pyrrolidones will enter clinical practice in the next few years but also that the clinical indications of drugs already licensed will widen.
language: eng
source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
identifier: ISSN: 0140-6736
fulltext: fulltext
issn:
  • 0140-6736
  • 1474-547X
url: Link


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descriptionThe pyrrolidone (2-oxopyrrolidine) family of chemicals has been the subject of research for more than three decades. Experimental and clinical work first focused on their so-called nootropic effects; later came the possibilities for neuroprotection after stroke and use as antiepileptic agents. Piracetam, the first of the class, was developed by pioneering research by C Giurgea in the late 1960s, and it was he who coined the term "nootropic", to mean enhancement of learning and memory. The term is sometimes extended to include other actions such as neuroprotection. These properties, together with the lack of other generally adverse psychopharmacological actions (eg, sedation, analgesia, or motor or behavioural changes), distinguish the pyrrolidones from other psychoactive drug classes. The mechanisms of action of these drugs are still not fully established; indeed, different compounds in this class may have different modes of action. Interest in this drug class has recently been reawakened by the licensing of levetiracetam as a potentially major new antiepileptic drug and of piracetam for its antimyoclonic action and effects after stroke and in mild cognitive impairment. Other drugs in this class are currently at an advanced stage of development, and the renewal of interest in this therapeutic area is likely to mean not only that more pyrrolidones will enter clinical practice in the next few years but also that the clinical indications of drugs already licensed will widen.
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subjectAbridged Index Medicus ; Adult ; Aged ; Alzheimer's disease ; Alzheimers disease ; Amnesia ; Animal cognition ; Animals ; Anticonvulsants - pharmacokinetics ; Anticonvulsants - therapeutic use ; Biological and medical sciences ; Brain damage ; Calcium ; Chemicals ; Cholinergics ; Cognitive ability ; Cognitive enhancement ; Convulsions ; Cytochromes ; Dementia ; Drugs ; Epilepsy ; Glycolysis ; Half-Life ; Humans ; Intestinal Absorption ; Kinases ; Learning ; Licenses ; Licensing ; Medical sciences ; Memory ; Neurology ; Neuroprotective Agents - pharmacokinetics ; Neuroprotective Agents - therapeutic use ; Nitric oxide ; Nootropic Agents - pharmacokinetics ; Nootropic Agents - therapeutic use ; Pharmaceutical industry ; Pharmaceuticals ; Pharmacology ; Proteins ; Pyrrolidinones - classification ; Pyrrolidinones - pharmacokinetics ; Pyrrolidinones - therapeutic use ; Receptors ; Resistance ; Rodents ; Screening ; Seizures ; Stroke ; Stroke (Disease) ; Structure-Activity Relationship ; Tissue Distribution ; Vascular diseases and vascular malformations of the nervous system
ispartofThe Lancet (British edition), 2001-12-01, Vol.358 (9296), p.1885-1892
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descriptionThe pyrrolidone (2-oxopyrrolidine) family of chemicals has been the subject of research for more than three decades. Experimental and clinical work first focused on their so-called nootropic effects; later came the possibilities for neuroprotection after stroke and use as antiepileptic agents. Piracetam, the first of the class, was developed by pioneering research by C Giurgea in the late 1960s, and it was he who coined the term "nootropic", to mean enhancement of learning and memory. The term is sometimes extended to include other actions such as neuroprotection. These properties, together with the lack of other generally adverse psychopharmacological actions (eg, sedation, analgesia, or motor or behavioural changes), distinguish the pyrrolidones from other psychoactive drug classes. The mechanisms of action of these drugs are still not fully established; indeed, different compounds in this class may have different modes of action. Interest in this drug class has recently been reawakened by the licensing of levetiracetam as a potentially major new antiepileptic drug and of piracetam for its antimyoclonic action and effects after stroke and in mild cognitive impairment. Other drugs in this class are currently at an advanced stage of development, and the renewal of interest in this therapeutic area is likely to mean not only that more pyrrolidones will enter clinical practice in the next few years but also that the clinical indications of drugs already licensed will widen.
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3Alzheimer's disease
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8Anticonvulsants - pharmacokinetics
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10Biological and medical sciences
11Brain damage
12Calcium
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20Drugs
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22Glycolysis
23Half-Life
24Humans
25Intestinal Absorption
26Kinases
27Learning
28Licenses
29Licensing
30Medical sciences
31Memory
32Neurology
33Neuroprotective Agents - pharmacokinetics
34Neuroprotective Agents - therapeutic use
35Nitric oxide
36Nootropic Agents - pharmacokinetics
37Nootropic Agents - therapeutic use
38Pharmaceutical industry
39Pharmaceuticals
40Pharmacology
41Proteins
42Pyrrolidinones - classification
43Pyrrolidinones - pharmacokinetics
44Pyrrolidinones - therapeutic use
45Receptors
46Resistance
47Rodents
48Screening
49Seizures
50Stroke
51Stroke (Disease)
52Structure-Activity Relationship
53Tissue Distribution
54Vascular diseases and vascular malformations of the nervous system
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jtitleThe Lancet (British edition)
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abstractThe pyrrolidone (2-oxopyrrolidine) family of chemicals has been the subject of research for more than three decades. Experimental and clinical work first focused on their so-called nootropic effects; later came the possibilities for neuroprotection after stroke and use as antiepileptic agents. Piracetam, the first of the class, was developed by pioneering research by C Giurgea in the late 1960s, and it was he who coined the term "nootropic", to mean enhancement of learning and memory. The term is sometimes extended to include other actions such as neuroprotection. These properties, together with the lack of other generally adverse psychopharmacological actions (eg, sedation, analgesia, or motor or behavioural changes), distinguish the pyrrolidones from other psychoactive drug classes. The mechanisms of action of these drugs are still not fully established; indeed, different compounds in this class may have different modes of action. Interest in this drug class has recently been reawakened by the licensing of levetiracetam as a potentially major new antiepileptic drug and of piracetam for its antimyoclonic action and effects after stroke and in mild cognitive impairment. Other drugs in this class are currently at an advanced stage of development, and the renewal of interest in this therapeutic area is likely to mean not only that more pyrrolidones will enter clinical practice in the next few years but also that the clinical indications of drugs already licensed will widen.
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pmid11741647
doi10.1016/S0140-6736(01)06890-8