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Risk of ovulation during lactation

60 breastfeeding mothers in Baltimore and 41 in Manila recorded their infant feeding patterns daily, and gave additional information at weekly interviews. Ovarian activity was monitored by assays for hormone metabolites in daily urine samples. On average, women in Baltimore breastfed less often but... Full description

Journal Title: The Lancet (British edition) 1990, Vol.335 (8680), p.25-29
Main Author: Gray, R.H
Other Authors: Campbell, O.M , Apelo, R , Eslami, S.S , Zacur, H , Ramos, R.M , Gehret, J.C , Labbok, M.H
Format: Electronic Article Electronic Article
Language: English
Subjects:
Quelle: Alma/SFX Local Collection
Publisher: London: Elsevier Ltd
ID: ISSN: 0140-6736
Zum Text:
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recordid: cdi_proquest_miscellaneous_79583153
title: Risk of ovulation during lactation
format: Article
creator:
  • Gray, R.H
  • Campbell, O.M
  • Apelo, R
  • Eslami, S.S
  • Zacur, H
  • Ramos, R.M
  • Gehret, J.C
  • Labbok, M.H
subjects:
  • Abridged Index Medicus
  • Amenorrhea
  • Analysis of Variance
  • Biological and medical sciences
  • Birth control
  • Breast Feeding
  • Case studies
  • Contraception
  • Delivery. Postpartum. Lactation
  • Estradiol - analogs & derivatives
  • Estradiol - urine
  • Evaluation
  • Evaluation Studies as Topic
  • Female
  • Gynecology. Andrology. Obstetrics
  • Humans
  • Lactation
  • Lactation - urine
  • Luteal Phase - physiology
  • Luteinizing Hormone - blood
  • Maternal, fetal and perinatal monitoring
  • Medical sciences
  • Menstruation
  • Methods
  • Ovulation
  • Ovulation - physiology
  • Philippines
  • Population
  • Postpartum Period
  • Pregnancy
  • Pregnanediol - analogs & derivatives
  • Pregnanediol - urine
  • Prevention
  • Regression Analysis
  • Risk Factors
  • Time Factors
  • United States
ispartof: The Lancet (British edition), 1990, Vol.335 (8680), p.25-29
description: 60 breastfeeding mothers in Baltimore and 41 in Manila recorded their infant feeding patterns daily, and gave additional information at weekly interviews. Ovarian activity was monitored by assays for hormone metabolites in daily urine samples. On average, women in Baltimore breastfed less often but for longer at each feed than women in Manila, and the mean times until ovulation were 27 and 38 weeks post partum. 41% of first ovulations had luteal phase defects. Ariovular first menses were common (45·1%) during the first 6 months post partum but the rate fell greatly thereafter. The risk of ovulation was reduced by a higher frequency of breastfeeds, longer duration of each feed, and less supplementary feeding. During the first 6 months post partum, amenorrhoeic women had low risks of ovulation (below 10%) with partial breastfeeding, and exclusive breastfeeding reduced the risk to 1-5% with either frequent short feeds or infrequent longer feeds. However, if the woman started menstruating before 6 months post partum, or if she continued breastfeeding beyond 6 months, the risk of ovulation rose, and contraception would be needed.
language: eng
source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
identifier: ISSN: 0140-6736
fulltext: fulltext
issn:
  • 0140-6736
  • 1474-547X
url: Link


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description60 breastfeeding mothers in Baltimore and 41 in Manila recorded their infant feeding patterns daily, and gave additional information at weekly interviews. Ovarian activity was monitored by assays for hormone metabolites in daily urine samples. On average, women in Baltimore breastfed less often but for longer at each feed than women in Manila, and the mean times until ovulation were 27 and 38 weeks post partum. 41% of first ovulations had luteal phase defects. Ariovular first menses were common (45·1%) during the first 6 months post partum but the rate fell greatly thereafter. The risk of ovulation was reduced by a higher frequency of breastfeeds, longer duration of each feed, and less supplementary feeding. During the first 6 months post partum, amenorrhoeic women had low risks of ovulation (below 10%) with partial breastfeeding, and exclusive breastfeeding reduced the risk to 1-5% with either frequent short feeds or infrequent longer feeds. However, if the woman started menstruating before 6 months post partum, or if she continued breastfeeding beyond 6 months, the risk of ovulation rose, and contraception would be needed.
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subjectAbridged Index Medicus ; Amenorrhea ; Analysis of Variance ; Biological and medical sciences ; Birth control ; Breast Feeding ; Case studies ; Contraception ; Delivery. Postpartum. Lactation ; Estradiol - analogs & derivatives ; Estradiol - urine ; Evaluation ; Evaluation Studies as Topic ; Female ; Gynecology. Andrology. Obstetrics ; Humans ; Lactation ; Lactation - urine ; Luteal Phase - physiology ; Luteinizing Hormone - blood ; Maternal, fetal and perinatal monitoring ; Medical sciences ; Menstruation ; Methods ; Ovulation ; Ovulation - physiology ; Philippines ; Population ; Postpartum Period ; Pregnancy ; Pregnanediol - analogs & derivatives ; Pregnanediol - urine ; Prevention ; Regression Analysis ; Risk Factors ; Time Factors ; United States
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description60 breastfeeding mothers in Baltimore and 41 in Manila recorded their infant feeding patterns daily, and gave additional information at weekly interviews. Ovarian activity was monitored by assays for hormone metabolites in daily urine samples. On average, women in Baltimore breastfed less often but for longer at each feed than women in Manila, and the mean times until ovulation were 27 and 38 weeks post partum. 41% of first ovulations had luteal phase defects. Ariovular first menses were common (45·1%) during the first 6 months post partum but the rate fell greatly thereafter. The risk of ovulation was reduced by a higher frequency of breastfeeds, longer duration of each feed, and less supplementary feeding. During the first 6 months post partum, amenorrhoeic women had low risks of ovulation (below 10%) with partial breastfeeding, and exclusive breastfeeding reduced the risk to 1-5% with either frequent short feeds or infrequent longer feeds. However, if the woman started menstruating before 6 months post partum, or if she continued breastfeeding beyond 6 months, the risk of ovulation rose, and contraception would be needed.
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2Analysis of Variance
3Biological and medical sciences
4Birth control
5Breast Feeding
6Case studies
7Contraception
8Delivery. Postpartum. Lactation
9Estradiol - analogs & derivatives
10Estradiol - urine
11Evaluation
12Evaluation Studies as Topic
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14Gynecology. Andrology. Obstetrics
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22Menstruation
23Methods
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26Philippines
27Population
28Postpartum Period
29Pregnancy
30Pregnanediol - analogs & derivatives
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34Risk Factors
35Time Factors
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8Delivery. Postpartum. Lactation
9Estradiol - analogs & derivatives
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abstract60 breastfeeding mothers in Baltimore and 41 in Manila recorded their infant feeding patterns daily, and gave additional information at weekly interviews. Ovarian activity was monitored by assays for hormone metabolites in daily urine samples. On average, women in Baltimore breastfed less often but for longer at each feed than women in Manila, and the mean times until ovulation were 27 and 38 weeks post partum. 41% of first ovulations had luteal phase defects. Ariovular first menses were common (45·1%) during the first 6 months post partum but the rate fell greatly thereafter. The risk of ovulation was reduced by a higher frequency of breastfeeds, longer duration of each feed, and less supplementary feeding. During the first 6 months post partum, amenorrhoeic women had low risks of ovulation (below 10%) with partial breastfeeding, and exclusive breastfeeding reduced the risk to 1-5% with either frequent short feeds or infrequent longer feeds. However, if the woman started menstruating before 6 months post partum, or if she continued breastfeeding beyond 6 months, the risk of ovulation rose, and contraception would be needed.
copLondon
pubElsevier Ltd
pmid1967336
doi10.1016/0140-6736(90)90147-W