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Association of Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure with Socioeconomic Status in a Population of 7725 New Zealanders

Objective: To test the hypothesis that environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure is inversely associated with socioeconomic status. Design: Survey. Setting: General community, New Zealand. Participants: 7725 non-smoking adults (volunteer sample of a multi-industry workforce, n = 5564; and a random... Full description

Journal Title: Tobacco control 1998-10-01, Vol.7 (3), p.276-280
Main Author: Whitlock, G
Other Authors: MacMahon, S , Vander Hoorn, S , Davis, P , Jackson, R , Norton, R
Format: Electronic Article Electronic Article
Language: English
Subjects:
Quelle: Alma/SFX Local Collection
Publisher: England: BMJ Publishing Group
ID: ISSN: 0964-4563
Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9825423
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recordid: cdi_pubmedcentral_primary_oai_pubmedcentral_nih_gov_1763892
title: Association of Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure with Socioeconomic Status in a Population of 7725 New Zealanders
format: Article
creator:
  • Whitlock, G
  • MacMahon, S
  • Vander Hoorn, S
  • Davis, P
  • Jackson, R
  • Norton, R
subjects:
  • Adult
  • Age Factors
  • Cigar smoking
  • Cigarette smoking
  • Cigarettes
  • Cohort Studies
  • Educational levels
  • Ethnicity
  • Female
  • Health Promotion
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Neighborhoods
  • New Zealand - epidemiology
  • Original
  • Original Articles
  • Scope of employment
  • Secondhand smoke
  • Social Class
  • Socioeconomic status
  • Socioeconomics
  • Tobacco Smoke Pollution - statistics & numerical data
ispartof: Tobacco control, 1998-10-01, Vol.7 (3), p.276-280
description: Objective: To test the hypothesis that environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure is inversely associated with socioeconomic status. Design: Survey. Setting: General community, New Zealand. Participants: 7725 non-smoking adults (volunteer sample of a multi-industry workforce, n = 5564; and a random sample of urban electoral rolls, n = 2161), including 5408 males; mean age 45 years. Main outcome measures: ETS exposure was assessed as self-reported number of hours per week spent near someone who is smoking, and as prevalence of regular exposure to some ETS. Socioeconomic status was assessed as educational level, occupational status, and median neighbourhood household income. Results: Both measures of ETS exposure were steeply and inversely associated with all three indicators of socioeconomic status (all p
language: eng
source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
identifier: ISSN: 0964-4563
fulltext: fulltext
issn:
  • 0964-4563
  • 1468-3318
url: Link


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descriptionObjective: To test the hypothesis that environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure is inversely associated with socioeconomic status. Design: Survey. Setting: General community, New Zealand. Participants: 7725 non-smoking adults (volunteer sample of a multi-industry workforce, n = 5564; and a random sample of urban electoral rolls, n = 2161), including 5408 males; mean age 45 years. Main outcome measures: ETS exposure was assessed as self-reported number of hours per week spent near someone who is smoking, and as prevalence of regular exposure to some ETS. Socioeconomic status was assessed as educational level, occupational status, and median neighbourhood household income. Results: Both measures of ETS exposure were steeply and inversely associated with all three indicators of socioeconomic status (all p<0.0001). Geometric mean ETS exposure ranged from 16 minutes per week among university-educated participants to 59 minutes per week in the second lowest occupational quintile (95% confidence intervals: 14-18 minutes per week and 54-66 minutes per week). The associations with occupational status and educational level were steeper than those with neighbourhood income. The socioeconomic gradients of ETS exposure were steeper among participants aged less than 35 years than among participants aged over 50 years, among men than women, and among Maori than Europeans. Conclusions: In this study population, ETS exposure was inversely associated with socioeconomic status. Greater ETS exposure might therefore contribute to the higher risks of disease and death among low socioeconomic groups. These results provide a further rationale for targeting tobacco control measures to people in low socioeconomic groups.
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subjectAdult ; Age Factors ; Cigar smoking ; Cigarette smoking ; Cigarettes ; Cohort Studies ; Educational levels ; Ethnicity ; Female ; Health Promotion ; Humans ; Male ; Middle Aged ; Neighborhoods ; New Zealand - epidemiology ; Original ; Original Articles ; Scope of employment ; Secondhand smoke ; Social Class ; Socioeconomic status ; Socioeconomics ; Tobacco Smoke Pollution - statistics & numerical data
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descriptionObjective: To test the hypothesis that environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure is inversely associated with socioeconomic status. Design: Survey. Setting: General community, New Zealand. Participants: 7725 non-smoking adults (volunteer sample of a multi-industry workforce, n = 5564; and a random sample of urban electoral rolls, n = 2161), including 5408 males; mean age 45 years. Main outcome measures: ETS exposure was assessed as self-reported number of hours per week spent near someone who is smoking, and as prevalence of regular exposure to some ETS. Socioeconomic status was assessed as educational level, occupational status, and median neighbourhood household income. Results: Both measures of ETS exposure were steeply and inversely associated with all three indicators of socioeconomic status (all p<0.0001). Geometric mean ETS exposure ranged from 16 minutes per week among university-educated participants to 59 minutes per week in the second lowest occupational quintile (95% confidence intervals: 14-18 minutes per week and 54-66 minutes per week). The associations with occupational status and educational level were steeper than those with neighbourhood income. The socioeconomic gradients of ETS exposure were steeper among participants aged less than 35 years than among participants aged over 50 years, among men than women, and among Maori than Europeans. Conclusions: In this study population, ETS exposure was inversely associated with socioeconomic status. Greater ETS exposure might therefore contribute to the higher risks of disease and death among low socioeconomic groups. These results provide a further rationale for targeting tobacco control measures to people in low socioeconomic groups.
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abstractObjective: To test the hypothesis that environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure is inversely associated with socioeconomic status. Design: Survey. Setting: General community, New Zealand. Participants: 7725 non-smoking adults (volunteer sample of a multi-industry workforce, n = 5564; and a random sample of urban electoral rolls, n = 2161), including 5408 males; mean age 45 years. Main outcome measures: ETS exposure was assessed as self-reported number of hours per week spent near someone who is smoking, and as prevalence of regular exposure to some ETS. Socioeconomic status was assessed as educational level, occupational status, and median neighbourhood household income. Results: Both measures of ETS exposure were steeply and inversely associated with all three indicators of socioeconomic status (all p<0.0001). Geometric mean ETS exposure ranged from 16 minutes per week among university-educated participants to 59 minutes per week in the second lowest occupational quintile (95% confidence intervals: 14-18 minutes per week and 54-66 minutes per week). The associations with occupational status and educational level were steeper than those with neighbourhood income. The socioeconomic gradients of ETS exposure were steeper among participants aged less than 35 years than among participants aged over 50 years, among men than women, and among Maori than Europeans. Conclusions: In this study population, ETS exposure was inversely associated with socioeconomic status. Greater ETS exposure might therefore contribute to the higher risks of disease and death among low socioeconomic groups. These results provide a further rationale for targeting tobacco control measures to people in low socioeconomic groups.
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