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TESTING OPTIMALITY WITH EXPERIMENTAL EVOLUTION: LYSIS TIME IN A BACTERIOPHAGE

Optimality models collapse the vagaries of genetics into simple trade-offs to calculate phenotypes expected to evolve by natural selection. Optimality approaches are commonly criticized for this neglect of genetic details, but resolution of this disagreement has been difficult. The importance of gen... Full description

Journal Title: Evolution 2007, Vol.61 (7), p.1695-1709
Main Author: Heineman, Richard H
Other Authors: Bull, James J
Format: Electronic Article Electronic Article
Language: English
Subjects:
T7
Publisher: Malden, USA: Blackwell Science Inc
ID: ISSN: 0014-3820
Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17598749
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recordid: cdi_pubmedcentral_primary_oai_pubmedcentral_nih_gov_1974807
title: TESTING OPTIMALITY WITH EXPERIMENTAL EVOLUTION: LYSIS TIME IN A BACTERIOPHAGE
format: Article
creator:
  • Heineman, Richard H
  • Bull, James J
subjects:
  • Adaptation
  • Adaptation (Biology)
  • Adaptation, Physiological
  • Adsorption
  • bacteriophage
  • Bacteriophage T7 - genetics
  • Bacteriophage T7 - physiology
  • Bacteriophages
  • Biological adaptation
  • Biological research
  • Biological variation
  • Biology, Experimental
  • Cell Line
  • Cell walls
  • Cellular biology
  • Cellular ceramic materials
  • Density
  • E coli
  • Eclipses
  • Escherichia coli
  • Evolution
  • Evolution, Molecular
  • Evolutionary genetics
  • experimental evolution
  • Genetic aspects
  • genetic constraint
  • Genetic mutation
  • Genetics
  • genome evolution
  • Infections
  • life history
  • lysis
  • Natural history
  • optimality
  • Original
  • Original Articles
  • Original s
  • Recombination, Genetic
  • Serial Passage
  • T7
  • Viruses
ispartof: Evolution, 2007, Vol.61 (7), p.1695-1709
description: Optimality models collapse the vagaries of genetics into simple trade-offs to calculate phenotypes expected to evolve by natural selection. Optimality approaches are commonly criticized for this neglect of genetic details, but resolution of this disagreement has been difficult. The importance of genetic details may be tested by experimental evolution of a trait for which an optimality model exists and in which genetic details can be studied. Here we evolved lysis time in bacteriophage T7, a virus of Escherichia coli. Lysis time is equivalent to the age of reproduction in an organism that reproduces once and then dies. Delaying lysis increases the number of offspring but slows generation time, and this trade-off renders the optimum sensitive to environmental conditions: earlier lysis is favored when bacterial hosts are dense, later lysis is favored when hosts are sparse. In experimental adaptations, T7 evolved close to the optimum in conditions favoring early lysis but not in conditions favoring late lysis. One of the late lysis adaptations exhibited no detectable phenotypic evolution despite genetic evolution; the other evolved only partly toward the expected optimum. Overall, the lysis time of the adapted phages remained closer to their starting values than predicted by the model. From the perspective of the optimality model, the experimental conditions were expected to select changes only along the postulated trade-off, but a trait outside the trade-off evolved as well. Evidence suggests that the model's failure ultimately stems from a violation of the trade-off, rather than a paucity of mutations.
language: eng
source:
identifier: ISSN: 0014-3820
fulltext: no_fulltext
issn:
  • 0014-3820
  • 1558-5646
url: Link


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descriptionOptimality models collapse the vagaries of genetics into simple trade-offs to calculate phenotypes expected to evolve by natural selection. Optimality approaches are commonly criticized for this neglect of genetic details, but resolution of this disagreement has been difficult. The importance of genetic details may be tested by experimental evolution of a trait for which an optimality model exists and in which genetic details can be studied. Here we evolved lysis time in bacteriophage T7, a virus of Escherichia coli. Lysis time is equivalent to the age of reproduction in an organism that reproduces once and then dies. Delaying lysis increases the number of offspring but slows generation time, and this trade-off renders the optimum sensitive to environmental conditions: earlier lysis is favored when bacterial hosts are dense, later lysis is favored when hosts are sparse. In experimental adaptations, T7 evolved close to the optimum in conditions favoring early lysis but not in conditions favoring late lysis. One of the late lysis adaptations exhibited no detectable phenotypic evolution despite genetic evolution; the other evolved only partly toward the expected optimum. Overall, the lysis time of the adapted phages remained closer to their starting values than predicted by the model. From the perspective of the optimality model, the experimental conditions were expected to select changes only along the postulated trade-off, but a trait outside the trade-off evolved as well. Evidence suggests that the model's failure ultimately stems from a violation of the trade-off, rather than a paucity of mutations.
editionReceived November 6, 2006Accepted February 26, 2007
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subjectAdaptation ; Adaptation (Biology) ; Adaptation, Physiological ; Adsorption ; bacteriophage ; Bacteriophage T7 - genetics ; Bacteriophage T7 - physiology ; Bacteriophages ; Biological adaptation ; Biological research ; Biological variation ; Biology, Experimental ; Cell Line ; Cell walls ; Cellular biology ; Cellular ceramic materials ; Density ; E coli ; Eclipses ; Escherichia coli ; Evolution ; Evolution, Molecular ; Evolutionary genetics ; experimental evolution ; Genetic aspects ; genetic constraint ; Genetic mutation ; Genetics ; genome evolution ; Infections ; life history ; lysis ; Natural history ; optimality ; Original ; Original Articles ; Original s ; Recombination, Genetic ; Serial Passage ; T7 ; Viruses
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abstractOptimality models collapse the vagaries of genetics into simple trade-offs to calculate phenotypes expected to evolve by natural selection. Optimality approaches are commonly criticized for this neglect of genetic details, but resolution of this disagreement has been difficult. The importance of genetic details may be tested by experimental evolution of a trait for which an optimality model exists and in which genetic details can be studied. Here we evolved lysis time in bacteriophage T7, a virus of Escherichia coli. Lysis time is equivalent to the age of reproduction in an organism that reproduces once and then dies. Delaying lysis increases the number of offspring but slows generation time, and this trade-off renders the optimum sensitive to environmental conditions: earlier lysis is favored when bacterial hosts are dense, later lysis is favored when hosts are sparse. In experimental adaptations, T7 evolved close to the optimum in conditions favoring early lysis but not in conditions favoring late lysis. One of the late lysis adaptations exhibited no detectable phenotypic evolution despite genetic evolution; the other evolved only partly toward the expected optimum. Overall, the lysis time of the adapted phages remained closer to their starting values than predicted by the model. From the perspective of the optimality model, the experimental conditions were expected to select changes only along the postulated trade-off, but a trait outside the trade-off evolved as well. Evidence suggests that the model's failure ultimately stems from a violation of the trade-off, rather than a paucity of mutations.
copMalden, USA
pubBlackwell Science Inc
pmid17598749
doi10.1111/j.1558-5646.2007.00132.x
tpages15
editionReceived November 6, 2006Accepted February 26, 2007
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