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Contribution of smoking-related and alcohol-related deaths to the gender gap in mortality: evidence from 30 European countries

BackgroundWomen now outlive men throughout the globe, a mortality advantage that is very established in developed European countries. Debate continues about the causes of the gender gap, although smoking is known to have been a major contributor to the difference in the past.ObjectivesTo compare the... Full description

Journal Title: Tobacco Control 2011-03, Vol.20 (2), p.166-168
Main Author: McCartney, Gerry
Other Authors: Mahmood, Lamia , Leyland, Alastair H , Batty, G David , Hunt, Kate
Format: Electronic Article Electronic Article
Language: English
Subjects:
Men
Quelle: Alma/SFX Local Collection
Publisher: England: BMJ Publishing Group
ID: ISSN: 0964-4563
Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21228431
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recordid: cdi_pubmedcentral_primary_oai_pubmedcentral_nih_gov_3045524
title: Contribution of smoking-related and alcohol-related deaths to the gender gap in mortality: evidence from 30 European countries
format: Article
creator:
  • McCartney, Gerry
  • Mahmood, Lamia
  • Leyland, Alastair H
  • Batty, G David
  • Hunt, Kate
subjects:
  • 1506
  • 1612
  • Age groups
  • Alcohol
  • Alcohol drinking
  • Alcohol Drinking - mortality
  • Alcohol use
  • alcohol-related mortality
  • Alcoholism
  • Alcohols
  • Analysis
  • Brief Report
  • Cause of Death
  • Cigarette smoking
  • Death
  • Disease
  • Europe - epidemiology
  • Female
  • Female-male relations
  • Gender construction
  • gender difference
  • Gender differences
  • Gender identity
  • Health aspects
  • Health behavior
  • Health risk assessment
  • Humans
  • Lung cancer
  • Male
  • Men
  • Mortality
  • related mortality
  • Sex Distribution
  • Sex Factors
  • Smoking
  • Smoking - mortality
  • smoking caused disease
  • Smoking-related mortality
  • Tobacco
  • Tobacco smoking
  • Womens health
ispartof: Tobacco Control, 2011-03, Vol.20 (2), p.166-168
description: BackgroundWomen now outlive men throughout the globe, a mortality advantage that is very established in developed European countries. Debate continues about the causes of the gender gap, although smoking is known to have been a major contributor to the difference in the past.ObjectivesTo compare the magnitude of the gender gap in all-cause mortality in 30 European countries and assess the contribution of smoking-related and alcohol-related deaths.MethodsData on all-cause mortality, smoking-related mortality and alcohol-related mortality for 30 European countries were extracted from the World Health Organization Health for All database for the year closest to 2005. Rates were standardised by the direct method using the European population standard and were for all age groups. The proportion of the gender gap in all-cause mortality attributable to smoking-related and alcohol-related deaths was then calculated.ResultsThere was considerable variation in the magnitude of the male ‘excess’ of all-cause mortality across Europe, ranging from 188 per 100 000 per year in Iceland to 942 per 100 000 per year in Ukraine. Smoking-related deaths accounted for around 40% to 60% of the gender gap, while alcohol-related mortality typically accounted for 20% to 30% of the gender gap in Eastern Europe and 10% to 20% elsewhere in Europe.ConclusionsSmoking continues to be the most important cause of gender differences in mortality across Europe, but its importance as an explanation for this difference is often overshadowed by presumptions about other explanations. Changes in smoking patterns by gender suggest that the gender gap in mortality will diminish in the coming decades.
language: eng
source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
identifier: ISSN: 0964-4563
fulltext: fulltext
issn:
  • 0964-4563
  • 1468-3318
url: Link


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titleContribution of smoking-related and alcohol-related deaths to the gender gap in mortality: evidence from 30 European countries
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creatorMcCartney, Gerry ; Mahmood, Lamia ; Leyland, Alastair H ; Batty, G David ; Hunt, Kate
creatorcontribMcCartney, Gerry ; Mahmood, Lamia ; Leyland, Alastair H ; Batty, G David ; Hunt, Kate
descriptionBackgroundWomen now outlive men throughout the globe, a mortality advantage that is very established in developed European countries. Debate continues about the causes of the gender gap, although smoking is known to have been a major contributor to the difference in the past.ObjectivesTo compare the magnitude of the gender gap in all-cause mortality in 30 European countries and assess the contribution of smoking-related and alcohol-related deaths.MethodsData on all-cause mortality, smoking-related mortality and alcohol-related mortality for 30 European countries were extracted from the World Health Organization Health for All database for the year closest to 2005. Rates were standardised by the direct method using the European population standard and were for all age groups. The proportion of the gender gap in all-cause mortality attributable to smoking-related and alcohol-related deaths was then calculated.ResultsThere was considerable variation in the magnitude of the male ‘excess’ of all-cause mortality across Europe, ranging from 188 per 100 000 per year in Iceland to 942 per 100 000 per year in Ukraine. Smoking-related deaths accounted for around 40% to 60% of the gender gap, while alcohol-related mortality typically accounted for 20% to 30% of the gender gap in Eastern Europe and 10% to 20% elsewhere in Europe.ConclusionsSmoking continues to be the most important cause of gender differences in mortality across Europe, but its importance as an explanation for this difference is often overshadowed by presumptions about other explanations. Changes in smoking patterns by gender suggest that the gender gap in mortality will diminish in the coming decades.
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subject1506 ; 1612 ; Age groups ; Alcohol ; Alcohol drinking ; Alcohol Drinking - mortality ; Alcohol use ; alcohol-related mortality ; Alcoholism ; Alcohols ; Analysis ; Brief Report ; Cause of Death ; Cigarette smoking ; Death ; Disease ; Europe - epidemiology ; Female ; Female-male relations ; Gender construction ; gender difference ; Gender differences ; Gender identity ; Health aspects ; Health behavior ; Health risk assessment ; Humans ; Lung cancer ; Male ; Men ; Mortality ; related mortality ; Sex Distribution ; Sex Factors ; Smoking ; Smoking - mortality ; smoking caused disease ; Smoking-related mortality ; Tobacco ; Tobacco smoking ; Womens health
ispartofTobacco Control, 2011-03, Vol.20 (2), p.166-168
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32011, Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions. 2011
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descriptionBackgroundWomen now outlive men throughout the globe, a mortality advantage that is very established in developed European countries. Debate continues about the causes of the gender gap, although smoking is known to have been a major contributor to the difference in the past.ObjectivesTo compare the magnitude of the gender gap in all-cause mortality in 30 European countries and assess the contribution of smoking-related and alcohol-related deaths.MethodsData on all-cause mortality, smoking-related mortality and alcohol-related mortality for 30 European countries were extracted from the World Health Organization Health for All database for the year closest to 2005. Rates were standardised by the direct method using the European population standard and were for all age groups. The proportion of the gender gap in all-cause mortality attributable to smoking-related and alcohol-related deaths was then calculated.ResultsThere was considerable variation in the magnitude of the male ‘excess’ of all-cause mortality across Europe, ranging from 188 per 100 000 per year in Iceland to 942 per 100 000 per year in Ukraine. Smoking-related deaths accounted for around 40% to 60% of the gender gap, while alcohol-related mortality typically accounted for 20% to 30% of the gender gap in Eastern Europe and 10% to 20% elsewhere in Europe.ConclusionsSmoking continues to be the most important cause of gender differences in mortality across Europe, but its importance as an explanation for this difference is often overshadowed by presumptions about other explanations. Changes in smoking patterns by gender suggest that the gender gap in mortality will diminish in the coming decades.
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31related mortality
32Sex Distribution
33Sex Factors
34Smoking
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38Tobacco
39Tobacco smoking
40Womens health
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atitleContribution of smoking-related and alcohol-related deaths to the gender gap in mortality: evidence from 30 European countries
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date2011-03
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volume20
issue2
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pages166-168
issn0964-4563
eissn1468-3318
abstractBackgroundWomen now outlive men throughout the globe, a mortality advantage that is very established in developed European countries. Debate continues about the causes of the gender gap, although smoking is known to have been a major contributor to the difference in the past.ObjectivesTo compare the magnitude of the gender gap in all-cause mortality in 30 European countries and assess the contribution of smoking-related and alcohol-related deaths.MethodsData on all-cause mortality, smoking-related mortality and alcohol-related mortality for 30 European countries were extracted from the World Health Organization Health for All database for the year closest to 2005. Rates were standardised by the direct method using the European population standard and were for all age groups. The proportion of the gender gap in all-cause mortality attributable to smoking-related and alcohol-related deaths was then calculated.ResultsThere was considerable variation in the magnitude of the male ‘excess’ of all-cause mortality across Europe, ranging from 188 per 100 000 per year in Iceland to 942 per 100 000 per year in Ukraine. Smoking-related deaths accounted for around 40% to 60% of the gender gap, while alcohol-related mortality typically accounted for 20% to 30% of the gender gap in Eastern Europe and 10% to 20% elsewhere in Europe.ConclusionsSmoking continues to be the most important cause of gender differences in mortality across Europe, but its importance as an explanation for this difference is often overshadowed by presumptions about other explanations. Changes in smoking patterns by gender suggest that the gender gap in mortality will diminish in the coming decades.
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