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Sex Differences in Lipid and Lipoprotein Metabolism: It's Not Just about Sex Hormones

Studies of lipid kinetics in both sexes have elucidated many of the mechanisms responsible for the sex differences in the plasma lipid profile; however, the underlying physiologic modulators remain unclear. It is commonly thought that sex hormones are important regulators of plasma lipid kinetics an... Full description

Journal Title: The journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism 2011-04, Vol.96 (4), p.885-893
Main Author: Wang, Xuewen
Other Authors: Magkos, Faidon , Mittendorfer, Bettina
Format: Electronic Article Electronic Article
Language: English
Subjects:
100
500
Publisher: Bethesda, MD: Endocrine Society
ID: ISSN: 0021-972X
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recordid: cdi_pubmedcentral_primary_oai_pubmedcentral_nih_gov_3070248
title: Sex Differences in Lipid and Lipoprotein Metabolism: It's Not Just about Sex Hormones
format: Article
creator:
  • Wang, Xuewen
  • Magkos, Faidon
  • Mittendorfer, Bettina
subjects:
  • 100
  • 500
  • Abridged Index Medicus
  • Biological and medical sciences
  • Confounding Factors (Epidemiology)
  • Endocrinopathies
  • Feeding. Feeding behavior
  • Female
  • Fundamental and applied biological sciences. Psychology
  • Gonadal Steroid Hormones - administration & dosage
  • Gonadal Steroid Hormones - metabolism
  • Gonadal Steroid Hormones - pharmacology
  • Gonadal Steroid Hormones - physiology
  • Humans
  • Kinetics
  • Lipid Metabolism - drug effects
  • Lipid Metabolism - physiology
  • lipids (amino acids
  • Lipoproteins - metabolism
  • Male
  • Medical sciences
  • peptides
  • proteins
  • Sex Characteristics
  • Special Features
  • Vertebrates: anatomy and physiology, studies on body, several organs or systems
  • Vertebrates: endocrinology
ispartof: The journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism, 2011-04, Vol.96 (4), p.885-893
description: Studies of lipid kinetics in both sexes have elucidated many of the mechanisms responsible for the sex differences in the plasma lipid profile; however, the underlying physiologic modulators remain unclear. It is commonly thought that sex hormones are important regulators of plasma lipid kinetics and are responsible for sexual dimorphism in the plasma lipid profile. Here we discuss the findings from studies evaluating lipid and lipoprotein kinetics in men and women in the context of what we know about the effects of exogenous sex hormone administration, and we conclude that it is more complicated than that. It has become clear that normal physiological alterations in the hormonal milieu (i.e. due to menopause or throughout the menstrual cycle) do not significantly affect plasma lipid homeostasis. Furthermore, parenterally administered estrogens have either no effect or only very small beneficial effects, whereas orally administered estrogens raise plasma triglyceride concentrations—a phenomenon that is not consistent with the observed sex differences and likely results from the hepatic “first-pass effect.” The effects of progestogens and androgens mimic only in part the differences in plasma lipids between men and women. Thus, the underlying physiological modulators of plasma lipid metabolism responsible for the differences between men and women remain to be elucidated.
language: eng
source:
identifier: ISSN: 0021-972X
fulltext: no_fulltext
issn:
  • 0021-972X
  • 1945-7197
url: Link


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descriptionStudies of lipid kinetics in both sexes have elucidated many of the mechanisms responsible for the sex differences in the plasma lipid profile; however, the underlying physiologic modulators remain unclear. It is commonly thought that sex hormones are important regulators of plasma lipid kinetics and are responsible for sexual dimorphism in the plasma lipid profile. Here we discuss the findings from studies evaluating lipid and lipoprotein kinetics in men and women in the context of what we know about the effects of exogenous sex hormone administration, and we conclude that it is more complicated than that. It has become clear that normal physiological alterations in the hormonal milieu (i.e. due to menopause or throughout the menstrual cycle) do not significantly affect plasma lipid homeostasis. Furthermore, parenterally administered estrogens have either no effect or only very small beneficial effects, whereas orally administered estrogens raise plasma triglyceride concentrations—a phenomenon that is not consistent with the observed sex differences and likely results from the hepatic “first-pass effect.” The effects of progestogens and androgens mimic only in part the differences in plasma lipids between men and women. Thus, the underlying physiological modulators of plasma lipid metabolism responsible for the differences between men and women remain to be elucidated.
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subject100 ; 500 ; Abridged Index Medicus ; Biological and medical sciences ; Confounding Factors (Epidemiology) ; Endocrinopathies ; Feeding. Feeding behavior ; Female ; Fundamental and applied biological sciences. Psychology ; Gonadal Steroid Hormones - administration & dosage ; Gonadal Steroid Hormones - metabolism ; Gonadal Steroid Hormones - pharmacology ; Gonadal Steroid Hormones - physiology ; Humans ; Kinetics ; Lipid Metabolism - drug effects ; Lipid Metabolism - physiology ; lipids (amino acids ; Lipoproteins - metabolism ; Male ; Medical sciences ; peptides ; proteins ; Sex Characteristics ; Special Features ; Vertebrates: anatomy and physiology, studies on body, several organs or systems ; Vertebrates: endocrinology
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descriptionStudies of lipid kinetics in both sexes have elucidated many of the mechanisms responsible for the sex differences in the plasma lipid profile; however, the underlying physiologic modulators remain unclear. It is commonly thought that sex hormones are important regulators of plasma lipid kinetics and are responsible for sexual dimorphism in the plasma lipid profile. Here we discuss the findings from studies evaluating lipid and lipoprotein kinetics in men and women in the context of what we know about the effects of exogenous sex hormone administration, and we conclude that it is more complicated than that. It has become clear that normal physiological alterations in the hormonal milieu (i.e. due to menopause or throughout the menstrual cycle) do not significantly affect plasma lipid homeostasis. Furthermore, parenterally administered estrogens have either no effect or only very small beneficial effects, whereas orally administered estrogens raise plasma triglyceride concentrations—a phenomenon that is not consistent with the observed sex differences and likely results from the hepatic “first-pass effect.” The effects of progestogens and androgens mimic only in part the differences in plasma lipids between men and women. Thus, the underlying physiological modulators of plasma lipid metabolism responsible for the differences between men and women remain to be elucidated.
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abstractStudies of lipid kinetics in both sexes have elucidated many of the mechanisms responsible for the sex differences in the plasma lipid profile; however, the underlying physiologic modulators remain unclear. It is commonly thought that sex hormones are important regulators of plasma lipid kinetics and are responsible for sexual dimorphism in the plasma lipid profile. Here we discuss the findings from studies evaluating lipid and lipoprotein kinetics in men and women in the context of what we know about the effects of exogenous sex hormone administration, and we conclude that it is more complicated than that. It has become clear that normal physiological alterations in the hormonal milieu (i.e. due to menopause or throughout the menstrual cycle) do not significantly affect plasma lipid homeostasis. Furthermore, parenterally administered estrogens have either no effect or only very small beneficial effects, whereas orally administered estrogens raise plasma triglyceride concentrations—a phenomenon that is not consistent with the observed sex differences and likely results from the hepatic “first-pass effect.” The effects of progestogens and androgens mimic only in part the differences in plasma lipids between men and women. Thus, the underlying physiological modulators of plasma lipid metabolism responsible for the differences between men and women remain to be elucidated.
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