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Common mental disorders and mortality in the West of Scotland Twenty-07 Study: comparing the General Health Questionnaire and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale

Background While various measures of common mental disorders (CMD) have been found to be associated with mortality, a comparison of how different measures predict mortality may improve our understanding of the association. This paper compares how the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and... Full description

Journal Title: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 2013-07, Vol.67 (7), p.558-563
Main Author: Hannah, Mary Kathleen
Other Authors: Batty, G David , Benzeval, Michaela
Format: Electronic Article Electronic Article
Language: English
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Quelle: Alma/SFX Local Collection
Publisher: London: BMJ Publishing Group Ltd
ID: ISSN: 0143-005X
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title: Common mental disorders and mortality in the West of Scotland Twenty-07 Study: comparing the General Health Questionnaire and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale
format: Article
creator:
  • Hannah, Mary Kathleen
  • Batty, G David
  • Benzeval, Michaela
subjects:
  • 1506
  • Adult
  • Anxieties
  • Anxiety
  • Anxiety disorders
  • Anxiety Disorders - epidemiology
  • Anxiety Disorders - mortality
  • Anxiety Disorders - psychology
  • Biological and medical sciences
  • Cancer
  • Cause of Death - trends
  • Cohort Studies
  • Community health
  • DEPRESSION
  • Depressive Disorder - epidemiology
  • Depressive Disorder - mortality
  • Depressive Disorder - psychology
  • Depressive disorders
  • Diagnosis
  • Disease models
  • Diseases
  • Female
  • General aspects
  • Health Status Indicators
  • HEART DISEASE
  • Hospitals
  • Humans
  • International Statistical Classification of Diseases
  • Male
  • Medical sciences
  • Mental depression
  • Mental disorders
  • MENTAL HEALTH
  • Mental illness
  • Middle Aged
  • Miscellaneous
  • MORTALITY
  • Mortality - trends
  • Population
  • Proportional Hazards Models
  • Psychiatric Status Rating Scales - standards
  • Psychology. Psychoanalysis. Psychiatry
  • Psychopathology. Psychiatry
  • Public health. Hygiene
  • Public health. Hygiene-occupational medicine
  • Questionnaires
  • Research report
  • Research Reports
  • RESPIRATORY DI
  • Risk factors
  • Scotland - epidemiology
  • Studies
  • Surveys and Questionnaires - standards
  • United Kingdom
ispartof: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 2013-07, Vol.67 (7), p.558-563
description: Background While various measures of common mental disorders (CMD) have been found to be associated with mortality, a comparison of how different measures predict mortality may improve our understanding of the association. This paper compares how the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the 30-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-30) predict all cause and cause-specific mortality. Methods Data on 2547 men and women from two cohorts, aged approximately 39 and 55 years, from the West of Scotland Twenty-07 Study who were followed up for mortality over an average of 18.9 (SD 5.0) years. Scores were calculated for HADS depression (HADS-D), HADS Anxiety (HADS-A) and GHQ-30. Cox Proportional Hazards Models were used to determine how each CMD measure predicted mortality. Results After adjusting for serious physical illness, smoking, social class, alcohol, obesity, pulse rate and living alone, HRs (95% CI) per SD increase in score for all-cause mortality were: 1.15 (1.07 to 1.25) for HADS-D; 1.13 (1.04 to 1.23) for GHQ-30 and 1.05 (0.96 to 1.14) for HADS-A. After the same adjustments, cardiovascular disease mortality was also related to HADS-D (HR 1.24 (1.07 to 1.43)), to GHQ-30 (HR 1.24 (1.11 to 1.40)) and to HADS-A (HR 1.15 (1.01 to 1.32)); respiratory mortality to GHQ-30 (HR 1.33 (1.13 to 1.55)) and mortality from other causes, excluding injuries, to HADS-D (HR 1.28 (1.05 to 1.55)). Conclusions There were associations between CMD and both all-cause and cause-specific mortality which were broadly similar for GHQ-30 and HADS-D and were still present after adjustment for important confounders and mediators.
language: eng
source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
identifier: ISSN: 0143-005X
fulltext: fulltext
issn:
  • 0143-005X
  • 1470-2738
url: Link


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titleCommon mental disorders and mortality in the West of Scotland Twenty-07 Study: comparing the General Health Questionnaire and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale
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creatorHannah, Mary Kathleen ; Batty, G David ; Benzeval, Michaela
creatorcontribHannah, Mary Kathleen ; Batty, G David ; Benzeval, Michaela
descriptionBackground While various measures of common mental disorders (CMD) have been found to be associated with mortality, a comparison of how different measures predict mortality may improve our understanding of the association. This paper compares how the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the 30-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-30) predict all cause and cause-specific mortality. Methods Data on 2547 men and women from two cohorts, aged approximately 39 and 55 years, from the West of Scotland Twenty-07 Study who were followed up for mortality over an average of 18.9 (SD 5.0) years. Scores were calculated for HADS depression (HADS-D), HADS Anxiety (HADS-A) and GHQ-30. Cox Proportional Hazards Models were used to determine how each CMD measure predicted mortality. Results After adjusting for serious physical illness, smoking, social class, alcohol, obesity, pulse rate and living alone, HRs (95% CI) per SD increase in score for all-cause mortality were: 1.15 (1.07 to 1.25) for HADS-D; 1.13 (1.04 to 1.23) for GHQ-30 and 1.05 (0.96 to 1.14) for HADS-A. After the same adjustments, cardiovascular disease mortality was also related to HADS-D (HR 1.24 (1.07 to 1.43)), to GHQ-30 (HR 1.24 (1.11 to 1.40)) and to HADS-A (HR 1.15 (1.01 to 1.32)); respiratory mortality to GHQ-30 (HR 1.33 (1.13 to 1.55)) and mortality from other causes, excluding injuries, to HADS-D (HR 1.28 (1.05 to 1.55)). Conclusions There were associations between CMD and both all-cause and cause-specific mortality which were broadly similar for GHQ-30 and HADS-D and were still present after adjustment for important confounders and mediators.
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subject1506 ; Adult ; Anxieties ; Anxiety ; Anxiety disorders ; Anxiety Disorders - epidemiology ; Anxiety Disorders - mortality ; Anxiety Disorders - psychology ; Biological and medical sciences ; Cancer ; Cause of Death - trends ; Cohort Studies ; Community health ; DEPRESSION ; Depressive Disorder - epidemiology ; Depressive Disorder - mortality ; Depressive Disorder - psychology ; Depressive disorders ; Diagnosis ; Disease models ; Diseases ; Female ; General aspects ; Health Status Indicators ; HEART DISEASE ; Hospitals ; Humans ; International Statistical Classification of Diseases ; Male ; Medical sciences ; Mental depression ; Mental disorders ; MENTAL HEALTH ; Mental illness ; Middle Aged ; Miscellaneous ; MORTALITY ; Mortality - trends ; Population ; Proportional Hazards Models ; Psychiatric Status Rating Scales - standards ; Psychology. Psychoanalysis. Psychiatry ; Psychopathology. Psychiatry ; Public health. Hygiene ; Public health. Hygiene-occupational medicine ; Questionnaires ; Research report ; Research Reports ; RESPIRATORY DI ; Risk factors ; Scotland - epidemiology ; Studies ; Surveys and Questionnaires - standards ; United Kingdom
ispartofJournal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 2013-07, Vol.67 (7), p.558-563
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descriptionBackground While various measures of common mental disorders (CMD) have been found to be associated with mortality, a comparison of how different measures predict mortality may improve our understanding of the association. This paper compares how the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the 30-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-30) predict all cause and cause-specific mortality. Methods Data on 2547 men and women from two cohorts, aged approximately 39 and 55 years, from the West of Scotland Twenty-07 Study who were followed up for mortality over an average of 18.9 (SD 5.0) years. Scores were calculated for HADS depression (HADS-D), HADS Anxiety (HADS-A) and GHQ-30. Cox Proportional Hazards Models were used to determine how each CMD measure predicted mortality. Results After adjusting for serious physical illness, smoking, social class, alcohol, obesity, pulse rate and living alone, HRs (95% CI) per SD increase in score for all-cause mortality were: 1.15 (1.07 to 1.25) for HADS-D; 1.13 (1.04 to 1.23) for GHQ-30 and 1.05 (0.96 to 1.14) for HADS-A. After the same adjustments, cardiovascular disease mortality was also related to HADS-D (HR 1.24 (1.07 to 1.43)), to GHQ-30 (HR 1.24 (1.11 to 1.40)) and to HADS-A (HR 1.15 (1.01 to 1.32)); respiratory mortality to GHQ-30 (HR 1.33 (1.13 to 1.55)) and mortality from other causes, excluding injuries, to HADS-D (HR 1.28 (1.05 to 1.55)). Conclusions There were associations between CMD and both all-cause and cause-specific mortality which were broadly similar for GHQ-30 and HADS-D and were still present after adjustment for important confounders and mediators.
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abstractBackground While various measures of common mental disorders (CMD) have been found to be associated with mortality, a comparison of how different measures predict mortality may improve our understanding of the association. This paper compares how the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the 30-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-30) predict all cause and cause-specific mortality. Methods Data on 2547 men and women from two cohorts, aged approximately 39 and 55 years, from the West of Scotland Twenty-07 Study who were followed up for mortality over an average of 18.9 (SD 5.0) years. Scores were calculated for HADS depression (HADS-D), HADS Anxiety (HADS-A) and GHQ-30. Cox Proportional Hazards Models were used to determine how each CMD measure predicted mortality. Results After adjusting for serious physical illness, smoking, social class, alcohol, obesity, pulse rate and living alone, HRs (95% CI) per SD increase in score for all-cause mortality were: 1.15 (1.07 to 1.25) for HADS-D; 1.13 (1.04 to 1.23) for GHQ-30 and 1.05 (0.96 to 1.14) for HADS-A. After the same adjustments, cardiovascular disease mortality was also related to HADS-D (HR 1.24 (1.07 to 1.43)), to GHQ-30 (HR 1.24 (1.11 to 1.40)) and to HADS-A (HR 1.15 (1.01 to 1.32)); respiratory mortality to GHQ-30 (HR 1.33 (1.13 to 1.55)) and mortality from other causes, excluding injuries, to HADS-D (HR 1.28 (1.05 to 1.55)). Conclusions There were associations between CMD and both all-cause and cause-specific mortality which were broadly similar for GHQ-30 and HADS-D and were still present after adjustment for important confounders and mediators.
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