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Socioeconomic and Psychosocial Adversity in Midlife and Depressive Symptoms Post Retirement: A 21-year Follow-up of the Whitehall II Study

Objective We examined whether socioeconomic and psychosocial adversity in midlife predicts post-retirement depressive symptoms. Design and Setting A prospective cohort study of British civil servants who responded to a self-administered questionnaire in middle-age and at older ages, 21 years later.... Full description

Journal Title: The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 2015, Vol.23 (1), p.99-109.e1
Main Author: Virtanen, Marianna, Ph.D
Other Authors: Ferrie, Jane E., Ph.D , Batty, G. David, Ph.D , Elovainio, Marko, Ph.D , Jokela, Markus, Ph.D , Vahtera, Jussi, M.D., Ph.D , Singh-Manoux, Archana, Ph.D , Kivimäki, Mika, Ph.D
Format: Electronic Article Electronic Article
Language: English
Subjects:
Quelle: Alma/SFX Local Collection
Publisher: England: Elsevier Inc
ID: ISSN: 1064-7481
Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24816123
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recordid: cdi_pubmedcentral_primary_oai_pubmedcentral_nih_gov_4270962
title: Socioeconomic and Psychosocial Adversity in Midlife and Depressive Symptoms Post Retirement: A 21-year Follow-up of the Whitehall II Study
format: Article
creator:
  • Virtanen, Marianna, Ph.D
  • Ferrie, Jane E., Ph.D
  • Batty, G. David, Ph.D
  • Elovainio, Marko, Ph.D
  • Jokela, Markus, Ph.D
  • Vahtera, Jussi, M.D., Ph.D
  • Singh-Manoux, Archana, Ph.D
  • Kivimäki, Mika, Ph.D
subjects:
  • 515 Psychology
  • Aged
  • Depression
  • Depression - epidemiology
  • Depression - psychology
  • elderly
  • Employment - psychology
  • Employment - statistics & numerical data
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • inequalities
  • Internal Medicine
  • Interpersonal Relations
  • life course
  • Male
  • Medicine(all)
  • Middle Aged
  • mood disorders
  • old age
  • prospective
  • Regular
  • Regular Research Article
  • Retirement - psychology
  • Retirement - statistics & numerical data
  • Risk Factors
  • Social Class
  • stress
  • Time Factors
  • United Kingdom - epidemiology
ispartof: The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 2015, Vol.23 (1), p.99-109.e1
description: Objective We examined whether socioeconomic and psychosocial adversity in midlife predicts post-retirement depressive symptoms. Design and Setting A prospective cohort study of British civil servants who responded to a self-administered questionnaire in middle-age and at older ages, 21 years later. Participants The study sample consisted of 3,939 Whitehall II Study participants (2,789 men, 1,150 women; mean age 67.6 years at follow-up) who were employed at baseline and retired at follow-up. Measurements Midlife adversity was assessed by self-reported socioeconomic adversity (low occupational position; poor standard of living) and psychosocial adversity (high job strain; few close relationships). Symptoms of depression post-retirement were measured by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale. Results After adjustment for sociodemographic and health-related covariates at baseline and follow-up, there were strong associations between midlife adversities and post-retirement depressive symptoms: low occupational position (odds ratio [OR]: 1.70, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.15–2.51), poor standard of living (OR: 2.37, 95% CI: 1.66–3.39), high job strain (OR: 1.52, 95% CI: 1.09–2.14), and few close relationships (OR: 1.51, 95% CI: 1.12–2.03). The strength of the associations between socioeconomic, psychosocial, work-related, or non-work related exposures and depressive symptoms was similar. Conclusions Robust associations from observational data suggest that several socioeconomic and psychosocial risk factors for symptoms of depression post-retirement can be detected already in midlife.
language: eng
source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
identifier: ISSN: 1064-7481
fulltext: fulltext
issn:
  • 1064-7481
  • 1545-7214
url: Link


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titleSocioeconomic and Psychosocial Adversity in Midlife and Depressive Symptoms Post Retirement: A 21-year Follow-up of the Whitehall II Study
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creatorVirtanen, Marianna, Ph.D ; Ferrie, Jane E., Ph.D ; Batty, G. David, Ph.D ; Elovainio, Marko, Ph.D ; Jokela, Markus, Ph.D ; Vahtera, Jussi, M.D., Ph.D ; Singh-Manoux, Archana, Ph.D ; Kivimäki, Mika, Ph.D
creatorcontribVirtanen, Marianna, Ph.D ; Ferrie, Jane E., Ph.D ; Batty, G. David, Ph.D ; Elovainio, Marko, Ph.D ; Jokela, Markus, Ph.D ; Vahtera, Jussi, M.D., Ph.D ; Singh-Manoux, Archana, Ph.D ; Kivimäki, Mika, Ph.D
descriptionObjective We examined whether socioeconomic and psychosocial adversity in midlife predicts post-retirement depressive symptoms. Design and Setting A prospective cohort study of British civil servants who responded to a self-administered questionnaire in middle-age and at older ages, 21 years later. Participants The study sample consisted of 3,939 Whitehall II Study participants (2,789 men, 1,150 women; mean age 67.6 years at follow-up) who were employed at baseline and retired at follow-up. Measurements Midlife adversity was assessed by self-reported socioeconomic adversity (low occupational position; poor standard of living) and psychosocial adversity (high job strain; few close relationships). Symptoms of depression post-retirement were measured by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale. Results After adjustment for sociodemographic and health-related covariates at baseline and follow-up, there were strong associations between midlife adversities and post-retirement depressive symptoms: low occupational position (odds ratio [OR]: 1.70, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.15–2.51), poor standard of living (OR: 2.37, 95% CI: 1.66–3.39), high job strain (OR: 1.52, 95% CI: 1.09–2.14), and few close relationships (OR: 1.51, 95% CI: 1.12–2.03). The strength of the associations between socioeconomic, psychosocial, work-related, or non-work related exposures and depressive symptoms was similar. Conclusions Robust associations from observational data suggest that several socioeconomic and psychosocial risk factors for symptoms of depression post-retirement can be detected already in midlife.
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subject515 Psychology ; Aged ; Depression ; Depression - epidemiology ; Depression - psychology ; elderly ; Employment - psychology ; Employment - statistics & numerical data ; Female ; Follow-Up Studies ; Humans ; inequalities ; Internal Medicine ; Interpersonal Relations ; life course ; Male ; Medicine(all) ; Middle Aged ; mood disorders ; old age ; prospective ; Regular ; Regular Research Article ; Retirement - psychology ; Retirement - statistics & numerical data ; Risk Factors ; Social Class ; stress ; Time Factors ; United Kingdom - epidemiology
ispartofThe American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 2015, Vol.23 (1), p.99-109.e1
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5Vahtera, Jussi, M.D., Ph.D
6Singh-Manoux, Archana, Ph.D
7Kivimäki, Mika, Ph.D
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descriptionObjective We examined whether socioeconomic and psychosocial adversity in midlife predicts post-retirement depressive symptoms. Design and Setting A prospective cohort study of British civil servants who responded to a self-administered questionnaire in middle-age and at older ages, 21 years later. Participants The study sample consisted of 3,939 Whitehall II Study participants (2,789 men, 1,150 women; mean age 67.6 years at follow-up) who were employed at baseline and retired at follow-up. Measurements Midlife adversity was assessed by self-reported socioeconomic adversity (low occupational position; poor standard of living) and psychosocial adversity (high job strain; few close relationships). Symptoms of depression post-retirement were measured by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale. Results After adjustment for sociodemographic and health-related covariates at baseline and follow-up, there were strong associations between midlife adversities and post-retirement depressive symptoms: low occupational position (odds ratio [OR]: 1.70, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.15–2.51), poor standard of living (OR: 2.37, 95% CI: 1.66–3.39), high job strain (OR: 1.52, 95% CI: 1.09–2.14), and few close relationships (OR: 1.51, 95% CI: 1.12–2.03). The strength of the associations between socioeconomic, psychosocial, work-related, or non-work related exposures and depressive symptoms was similar. Conclusions Robust associations from observational data suggest that several socioeconomic and psychosocial risk factors for symptoms of depression post-retirement can be detected already in midlife.
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titleSocioeconomic and Psychosocial Adversity in Midlife and Depressive Symptoms Post Retirement: A 21-year Follow-up of the Whitehall II Study
authorVirtanen, Marianna, Ph.D ; Ferrie, Jane E., Ph.D ; Batty, G. David, Ph.D ; Elovainio, Marko, Ph.D ; Jokela, Markus, Ph.D ; Vahtera, Jussi, M.D., Ph.D ; Singh-Manoux, Archana, Ph.D ; Kivimäki, Mika, Ph.D
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abstractObjective We examined whether socioeconomic and psychosocial adversity in midlife predicts post-retirement depressive symptoms. Design and Setting A prospective cohort study of British civil servants who responded to a self-administered questionnaire in middle-age and at older ages, 21 years later. Participants The study sample consisted of 3,939 Whitehall II Study participants (2,789 men, 1,150 women; mean age 67.6 years at follow-up) who were employed at baseline and retired at follow-up. Measurements Midlife adversity was assessed by self-reported socioeconomic adversity (low occupational position; poor standard of living) and psychosocial adversity (high job strain; few close relationships). Symptoms of depression post-retirement were measured by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale. Results After adjustment for sociodemographic and health-related covariates at baseline and follow-up, there were strong associations between midlife adversities and post-retirement depressive symptoms: low occupational position (odds ratio [OR]: 1.70, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.15–2.51), poor standard of living (OR: 2.37, 95% CI: 1.66–3.39), high job strain (OR: 1.52, 95% CI: 1.09–2.14), and few close relationships (OR: 1.51, 95% CI: 1.12–2.03). The strength of the associations between socioeconomic, psychosocial, work-related, or non-work related exposures and depressive symptoms was similar. Conclusions Robust associations from observational data suggest that several socioeconomic and psychosocial risk factors for symptoms of depression post-retirement can be detected already in midlife.
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