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Cognitive function in early and later life is associated with blood glucose in older individuals: analysis of the Lothian Birth Cohort of 1936

Aims/hypothesis The aim of this study was to examine whether cognitive function in early and later life, and decline in cognitive function from age 70 to 79 years, are associated with high blood glucose, as measured by HbA 1c , at baseline (age 70), and changes in blood glucose from age 70 to 79. Me... Full description

Journal Title: Diabetologia 2018-06-02, Vol.61 (9), p.1946-1955
Main Author: Altschul, Drew M
Other Authors: Starr, John M , Deary, Ian J
Format: Electronic Article Electronic Article
Language: English
Subjects:
Age
Publisher: Berlin/Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
ID: ISSN: 0012-186X
Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29860628
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recordid: cdi_pubmedcentral_primary_oai_pubmedcentral_nih_gov_6096629
title: Cognitive function in early and later life is associated with blood glucose in older individuals: analysis of the Lothian Birth Cohort of 1936
format: Article
creator:
  • Altschul, Drew M
  • Starr, John M
  • Deary, Ian J
subjects:
  • Age
  • Aged
  • Analysis
  • Apolipoprotein E
  • Article
  • Blood
  • Blood glucose
  • Blood Glucose - analysis
  • Blood sugar
  • Body Mass Index
  • Cardiovascular diseases
  • Cognition
  • Cognition Disorders - blood
  • Cognition Disorders - complications
  • Cognitive ability
  • Cognitive decline
  • Cognitive function
  • Cohort Studies
  • Diabetes
  • Diabetes mellitus
  • Diabetes mellitus (non-insulin dependent)
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 - blood
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 - complications
  • Disease Progression
  • Female
  • Glucose
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A - analysis
  • HbA1c
  • Human Physiology
  • Humans
  • Hyperglycemia
  • Internal Medicine
  • Male
  • Medicine
  • Medicine & Public Health
  • Metabolic Diseases
  • Neuropsychological Tests
  • Older age
  • Risk factors
  • Smoking
  • Spatial memory
  • Type 2 diabetes
  • United Kingdom
ispartof: Diabetologia, 2018-06-02, Vol.61 (9), p.1946-1955
description: Aims/hypothesis The aim of this study was to examine whether cognitive function in early and later life, and decline in cognitive function from age 70 to 79 years, are associated with high blood glucose, as measured by HbA 1c , at baseline (age 70), and changes in blood glucose from age 70 to 79. Methods Participants ( n  = 1091) in the Lothian Birth Cohort of 1936 were examined. Fourteen tests were used to assess cognitive functions, grouped into four domains: visuospatial ability, processing speed, memory and crystallised ability. Test results, and measurements of HbA 1c and other health variables, were collected at each of four waves of assessment: at the mean age of 70, 73, 76 and 79 years. Data on cognitive function at age 11 was also available for this cohort. Latent growth curve modelling was performed and statistical controls for known risk factors were introduced. Results Higher age 11 cognitive function predicted lower HbA 1c level at age 70 ( p  
language: eng
source:
identifier: ISSN: 0012-186X
fulltext: no_fulltext
issn:
  • 0012-186X
  • 1432-0428
url: Link


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titleCognitive function in early and later life is associated with blood glucose in older individuals: analysis of the Lothian Birth Cohort of 1936
creatorAltschul, Drew M ; Starr, John M ; Deary, Ian J
creatorcontribAltschul, Drew M ; Starr, John M ; Deary, Ian J
descriptionAims/hypothesis The aim of this study was to examine whether cognitive function in early and later life, and decline in cognitive function from age 70 to 79 years, are associated with high blood glucose, as measured by HbA 1c , at baseline (age 70), and changes in blood glucose from age 70 to 79. Methods Participants ( n  = 1091) in the Lothian Birth Cohort of 1936 were examined. Fourteen tests were used to assess cognitive functions, grouped into four domains: visuospatial ability, processing speed, memory and crystallised ability. Test results, and measurements of HbA 1c and other health variables, were collected at each of four waves of assessment: at the mean age of 70, 73, 76 and 79 years. Data on cognitive function at age 11 was also available for this cohort. Latent growth curve modelling was performed and statistical controls for known risk factors were introduced. Results Higher age 11 cognitive function predicted lower HbA 1c level at age 70 ( p  < 0.001). Higher cognitive function at age 70 was related to a comparatively smaller increase in HbA 1c levels from age 70 to 79 ( p  < 0.001). HbA 1c from age 70 to 79 did not have any consistent association with change in cognitive function from age 70 to 79. These associations survived adjustments for age, sex, education, APOE*ε4 , smoking history, cardiovascular disease history, hypertension history, BMI and corrections for multiple testing. Conclusions/interpretation Our results show that, among older individuals, high blood glucose is consistently predicted by lower cognitive function. Clinical care that examines and tracks cognitive function, while also taking the positive effects of maintaining cognitive function and emulating healthy behaviours associated with higher cognitive function into account, may be one approach for protecting at-risk individuals from elevated blood glucose and subsequent type 2 diabetes mellitus.
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subjectAge ; Aged ; Analysis ; Apolipoprotein E ; Article ; Blood ; Blood glucose ; Blood Glucose - analysis ; Blood sugar ; Body Mass Index ; Cardiovascular diseases ; Cognition ; Cognition Disorders - blood ; Cognition Disorders - complications ; Cognitive ability ; Cognitive decline ; Cognitive function ; Cohort Studies ; Diabetes ; Diabetes mellitus ; Diabetes mellitus (non-insulin dependent) ; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 - blood ; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 - complications ; Disease Progression ; Female ; Glucose ; Glycated Hemoglobin A - analysis ; HbA1c ; Human Physiology ; Humans ; Hyperglycemia ; Internal Medicine ; Male ; Medicine ; Medicine & Public Health ; Metabolic Diseases ; Neuropsychological Tests ; Older age ; Risk factors ; Smoking ; Spatial memory ; Type 2 diabetes ; United Kingdom
ispartofDiabetologia, 2018-06-02, Vol.61 (9), p.1946-1955
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descriptionAims/hypothesis The aim of this study was to examine whether cognitive function in early and later life, and decline in cognitive function from age 70 to 79 years, are associated with high blood glucose, as measured by HbA 1c , at baseline (age 70), and changes in blood glucose from age 70 to 79. Methods Participants ( n  = 1091) in the Lothian Birth Cohort of 1936 were examined. Fourteen tests were used to assess cognitive functions, grouped into four domains: visuospatial ability, processing speed, memory and crystallised ability. Test results, and measurements of HbA 1c and other health variables, were collected at each of four waves of assessment: at the mean age of 70, 73, 76 and 79 years. Data on cognitive function at age 11 was also available for this cohort. Latent growth curve modelling was performed and statistical controls for known risk factors were introduced. Results Higher age 11 cognitive function predicted lower HbA 1c level at age 70 ( p  < 0.001). Higher cognitive function at age 70 was related to a comparatively smaller increase in HbA 1c levels from age 70 to 79 ( p  < 0.001). HbA 1c from age 70 to 79 did not have any consistent association with change in cognitive function from age 70 to 79. These associations survived adjustments for age, sex, education, APOE*ε4 , smoking history, cardiovascular disease history, hypertension history, BMI and corrections for multiple testing. Conclusions/interpretation Our results show that, among older individuals, high blood glucose is consistently predicted by lower cognitive function. Clinical care that examines and tracks cognitive function, while also taking the positive effects of maintaining cognitive function and emulating healthy behaviours associated with higher cognitive function into account, may be one approach for protecting at-risk individuals from elevated blood glucose and subsequent type 2 diabetes mellitus.
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atitleCognitive function in early and later life is associated with blood glucose in older individuals: analysis of the Lothian Birth Cohort of 1936
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abstractAims/hypothesis The aim of this study was to examine whether cognitive function in early and later life, and decline in cognitive function from age 70 to 79 years, are associated with high blood glucose, as measured by HbA 1c , at baseline (age 70), and changes in blood glucose from age 70 to 79. Methods Participants ( n  = 1091) in the Lothian Birth Cohort of 1936 were examined. Fourteen tests were used to assess cognitive functions, grouped into four domains: visuospatial ability, processing speed, memory and crystallised ability. Test results, and measurements of HbA 1c and other health variables, were collected at each of four waves of assessment: at the mean age of 70, 73, 76 and 79 years. Data on cognitive function at age 11 was also available for this cohort. Latent growth curve modelling was performed and statistical controls for known risk factors were introduced. Results Higher age 11 cognitive function predicted lower HbA 1c level at age 70 ( p  < 0.001). Higher cognitive function at age 70 was related to a comparatively smaller increase in HbA 1c levels from age 70 to 79 ( p  < 0.001). HbA 1c from age 70 to 79 did not have any consistent association with change in cognitive function from age 70 to 79. These associations survived adjustments for age, sex, education, APOE*ε4 , smoking history, cardiovascular disease history, hypertension history, BMI and corrections for multiple testing. Conclusions/interpretation Our results show that, among older individuals, high blood glucose is consistently predicted by lower cognitive function. Clinical care that examines and tracks cognitive function, while also taking the positive effects of maintaining cognitive function and emulating healthy behaviours associated with higher cognitive function into account, may be one approach for protecting at-risk individuals from elevated blood glucose and subsequent type 2 diabetes mellitus.
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