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Antimicrobial Resistance in Bacteria: Mechanisms, Evolution, and Persistence

In recent years, we have seen antimicrobial resistance rapidly emerge at a global scale and spread from one country to the other faster than previously thought. Superbugs and multidrug-resistant bacteria are endemic in many parts of the world. There is no question that the widespread use, overuse, a... Full description

Journal Title: Journal of molecular evolution 2019, Vol.88 (1), p.26-40
Main Author: Christaki, Eirini
Other Authors: Marcou, Markella , Tofarides, Andreas
Format: Electronic Article Electronic Article
Language: English
Subjects:
Publisher: New York: Springer US
ID: ISSN: 0022-2844
Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31659373
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recordid: cdi_springer_journals_10_1007_s00239_019_09914_3
title: Antimicrobial Resistance in Bacteria: Mechanisms, Evolution, and Persistence
format: Article
creator:
  • Christaki, Eirini
  • Marcou, Markella
  • Tofarides, Andreas
subjects:
  • Animal Genetics and Genomics
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents - pharmacology
  • Anti-Infective Agents - pharmacology
  • Antibiotics
  • Antiinfectives and antibacterials
  • Antimicrobial agents
  • Antimicrobial resistance
  • Bacteria
  • Bacteria - genetics
  • Biological Evolution
  • Biomedical and Life Sciences
  • Cell Biology
  • Drug resistance
  • Drug resistance in microorganisms
  • Drug Resistance, Bacterial - drug effects
  • Drug Resistance, Bacterial - genetics
  • Drug Resistance, Microbial - drug effects
  • Drug Resistance, Microbial - genetics
  • Evolution
  • Evolution, Molecular
  • Evolutionary Biology
  • Humans
  • Life Sciences
  • Medical colleges
  • Microbiology
  • Phenotypes
  • Plant Genetics and Genomics
  • Plant Sciences
  • Review
  • Therapeutic applications
ispartof: Journal of molecular evolution, 2019, Vol.88 (1), p.26-40
description: In recent years, we have seen antimicrobial resistance rapidly emerge at a global scale and spread from one country to the other faster than previously thought. Superbugs and multidrug-resistant bacteria are endemic in many parts of the world. There is no question that the widespread use, overuse, and misuse of antimicrobials during the last 80 years have been associated with the explosion of antimicrobial resistance. On the other hand, the molecular pathways behind the emergence of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria were present since ancient times. Some of these mechanisms are the ancestors of current resistance determinants. Evidently, there are plenty of putative resistance genes in the environment, however, we cannot yet predict which ones would be able to be expressed as phenotypes in pathogenic bacteria and cause clinical disease. In addition, in the presence of inhibitory and sub-inhibitory concentrations of antibiotics in natural habitats, one could assume that novel resistance mechanisms will arise against antimicrobial compounds. This review presents an overview of antimicrobial resistance mechanisms, and describes how these have evolved and how they continue to emerge. As antimicrobial strategies able to bypass the development of resistance are urgently needed, a better understanding of the critical factors that contribute to the persistence and spread of antimicrobial resistance may yield innovative perspectives on the design of such new therapeutic targets.
language: eng
source:
identifier: ISSN: 0022-2844
fulltext: no_fulltext
issn:
  • 0022-2844
  • 1432-1432
url: Link


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descriptionIn recent years, we have seen antimicrobial resistance rapidly emerge at a global scale and spread from one country to the other faster than previously thought. Superbugs and multidrug-resistant bacteria are endemic in many parts of the world. There is no question that the widespread use, overuse, and misuse of antimicrobials during the last 80 years have been associated with the explosion of antimicrobial resistance. On the other hand, the molecular pathways behind the emergence of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria were present since ancient times. Some of these mechanisms are the ancestors of current resistance determinants. Evidently, there are plenty of putative resistance genes in the environment, however, we cannot yet predict which ones would be able to be expressed as phenotypes in pathogenic bacteria and cause clinical disease. In addition, in the presence of inhibitory and sub-inhibitory concentrations of antibiotics in natural habitats, one could assume that novel resistance mechanisms will arise against antimicrobial compounds. This review presents an overview of antimicrobial resistance mechanisms, and describes how these have evolved and how they continue to emerge. As antimicrobial strategies able to bypass the development of resistance are urgently needed, a better understanding of the critical factors that contribute to the persistence and spread of antimicrobial resistance may yield innovative perspectives on the design of such new therapeutic targets.
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subjectAnimal Genetics and Genomics ; Anti-Bacterial Agents - pharmacology ; Anti-Infective Agents - pharmacology ; Antibiotics ; Antiinfectives and antibacterials ; Antimicrobial agents ; Antimicrobial resistance ; Bacteria ; Bacteria - genetics ; Biological Evolution ; Biomedical and Life Sciences ; Cell Biology ; Drug resistance ; Drug resistance in microorganisms ; Drug Resistance, Bacterial - drug effects ; Drug Resistance, Bacterial - genetics ; Drug Resistance, Microbial - drug effects ; Drug Resistance, Microbial - genetics ; Evolution ; Evolution, Molecular ; Evolutionary Biology ; Humans ; Life Sciences ; Medical colleges ; Microbiology ; Phenotypes ; Plant Genetics and Genomics ; Plant Sciences ; Review ; Therapeutic applications
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descriptionIn recent years, we have seen antimicrobial resistance rapidly emerge at a global scale and spread from one country to the other faster than previously thought. Superbugs and multidrug-resistant bacteria are endemic in many parts of the world. There is no question that the widespread use, overuse, and misuse of antimicrobials during the last 80 years have been associated with the explosion of antimicrobial resistance. On the other hand, the molecular pathways behind the emergence of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria were present since ancient times. Some of these mechanisms are the ancestors of current resistance determinants. Evidently, there are plenty of putative resistance genes in the environment, however, we cannot yet predict which ones would be able to be expressed as phenotypes in pathogenic bacteria and cause clinical disease. In addition, in the presence of inhibitory and sub-inhibitory concentrations of antibiotics in natural habitats, one could assume that novel resistance mechanisms will arise against antimicrobial compounds. This review presents an overview of antimicrobial resistance mechanisms, and describes how these have evolved and how they continue to emerge. As antimicrobial strategies able to bypass the development of resistance are urgently needed, a better understanding of the critical factors that contribute to the persistence and spread of antimicrobial resistance may yield innovative perspectives on the design of such new therapeutic targets.
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abstractIn recent years, we have seen antimicrobial resistance rapidly emerge at a global scale and spread from one country to the other faster than previously thought. Superbugs and multidrug-resistant bacteria are endemic in many parts of the world. There is no question that the widespread use, overuse, and misuse of antimicrobials during the last 80 years have been associated with the explosion of antimicrobial resistance. On the other hand, the molecular pathways behind the emergence of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria were present since ancient times. Some of these mechanisms are the ancestors of current resistance determinants. Evidently, there are plenty of putative resistance genes in the environment, however, we cannot yet predict which ones would be able to be expressed as phenotypes in pathogenic bacteria and cause clinical disease. In addition, in the presence of inhibitory and sub-inhibitory concentrations of antibiotics in natural habitats, one could assume that novel resistance mechanisms will arise against antimicrobial compounds. This review presents an overview of antimicrobial resistance mechanisms, and describes how these have evolved and how they continue to emerge. As antimicrobial strategies able to bypass the development of resistance are urgently needed, a better understanding of the critical factors that contribute to the persistence and spread of antimicrobial resistance may yield innovative perspectives on the design of such new therapeutic targets.
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