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The human immune system’s response to carcinogenic and other infectious agents transmitted by mosquito vectors

It has been hypothesised that mosquitoes [Diptera: Culicidae] may play more of a role in certain cancers than is currently appreciated. Research links 33 infectious agents to cancer, 27 of which have a presence in mosquitoes, and that, in addition, mosquito saliva downregulates the immune system. Th... Full description

Journal Title: Parasitology research (1987) 2016-10-27, Vol.116 (1), p.1-9
Main Author: Johansson, Olle
Other Authors: Ward, Martin
Format: Electronic Article Electronic Article
Language: English
Subjects:
Publisher: Berlin/Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
ID: ISSN: 0932-0113
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recordid: cdi_springer_journals_10_1007_s00436_016_5272_2
title: The human immune system’s response to carcinogenic and other infectious agents transmitted by mosquito vectors
format: Article
creator:
  • Johansson, Olle
  • Ward, Martin
subjects:
  • Animals
  • Biomedical and Life Sciences
  • Biomedicine
  • Cancer
  • Carcinogens
  • Culicidae - immunology
  • Culicidae - microbiology
  • Culicidae - parasitology
  • Culicidae - virology
  • Disease prevention
  • Genetic vectors
  • Health aspects
  • Host-Pathogen Interactions - immunology
  • Humans
  • Immune response
  • Immune System
  • Immunization
  • Immunology
  • Medical Microbiology
  • Medicin och hälsovetenskap
  • Microbiology
  • Mosquito Vectors - immunology
  • Mosquito Vectors - microbiology
  • Mosquito Vectors - parasitology
  • Mosquito Vectors - virology
  • Mosquitoes
  • Neoplasms - immunology
  • Neoplasms - microbiology
  • Neoplasms - parasitology
  • Neoplasms - virology
  • Observations
  • Parasites
  • Review
  • Saliva
  • Side effects
  • Vectors
ispartof: Parasitology research (1987), 2016-10-27, Vol.116 (1), p.1-9
description: It has been hypothesised that mosquitoes [Diptera: Culicidae] may play more of a role in certain cancers than is currently appreciated. Research links 33 infectious agents to cancer, 27 of which have a presence in mosquitoes, and that, in addition, mosquito saliva downregulates the immune system. The objective of this paper is to review the literature on the immune system and cancer-causing infectious agents, particularly those present in mosquitoes, with a view to establishing whether such infectious agents can, in the long run, defeat the immune system or be defeated by it. Many of the viruses, bacteria and parasites recognised by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as carcinogenic and suspected by others as being involved in cancer have evolved numerous complex ways of avoiding, suppressing or altering the immune system’s responses. These features, coupled with the multiplicity and variety of serious infectious agents carried by some species of mosquitoes and the adverse effects on the immune system of mosquito saliva, suggest that post-mosquito bite the immune system is likely to be overwhelmed. In such a situation, immunisation strategies offer little chance of cancer prevention, unless a single or limited number of critical infectious agents can be isolated from the ‘mosquito’ cocktail. If that proves to be impossible cancer prevention will, therefore, if the hypothesis proves to be correct, rest on the twin strategies of environmentally controlling the mosquito population and humans avoiding being bitten. The latter strategy will involve determining the factors that demark those being bitten from those that are not.
language: eng
source:
identifier: ISSN: 0932-0113
fulltext: no_fulltext
issn:
  • 0932-0113
  • 1432-1955
  • 1432-1955
url: Link


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titleThe human immune system’s response to carcinogenic and other infectious agents transmitted by mosquito vectors
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descriptionIt has been hypothesised that mosquitoes [Diptera: Culicidae] may play more of a role in certain cancers than is currently appreciated. Research links 33 infectious agents to cancer, 27 of which have a presence in mosquitoes, and that, in addition, mosquito saliva downregulates the immune system. The objective of this paper is to review the literature on the immune system and cancer-causing infectious agents, particularly those present in mosquitoes, with a view to establishing whether such infectious agents can, in the long run, defeat the immune system or be defeated by it. Many of the viruses, bacteria and parasites recognised by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as carcinogenic and suspected by others as being involved in cancer have evolved numerous complex ways of avoiding, suppressing or altering the immune system’s responses. These features, coupled with the multiplicity and variety of serious infectious agents carried by some species of mosquitoes and the adverse effects on the immune system of mosquito saliva, suggest that post-mosquito bite the immune system is likely to be overwhelmed. In such a situation, immunisation strategies offer little chance of cancer prevention, unless a single or limited number of critical infectious agents can be isolated from the ‘mosquito’ cocktail. If that proves to be impossible cancer prevention will, therefore, if the hypothesis proves to be correct, rest on the twin strategies of environmentally controlling the mosquito population and humans avoiding being bitten. The latter strategy will involve determining the factors that demark those being bitten from those that are not.
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subjectAnimals ; Biomedical and Life Sciences ; Biomedicine ; Cancer ; Carcinogens ; Culicidae - immunology ; Culicidae - microbiology ; Culicidae - parasitology ; Culicidae - virology ; Disease prevention ; Genetic vectors ; Health aspects ; Host-Pathogen Interactions - immunology ; Humans ; Immune response ; Immune System ; Immunization ; Immunology ; Medical Microbiology ; Medicin och hälsovetenskap ; Microbiology ; Mosquito Vectors - immunology ; Mosquito Vectors - microbiology ; Mosquito Vectors - parasitology ; Mosquito Vectors - virology ; Mosquitoes ; Neoplasms - immunology ; Neoplasms - microbiology ; Neoplasms - parasitology ; Neoplasms - virology ; Observations ; Parasites ; Review ; Saliva ; Side effects ; Vectors
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descriptionIt has been hypothesised that mosquitoes [Diptera: Culicidae] may play more of a role in certain cancers than is currently appreciated. Research links 33 infectious agents to cancer, 27 of which have a presence in mosquitoes, and that, in addition, mosquito saliva downregulates the immune system. The objective of this paper is to review the literature on the immune system and cancer-causing infectious agents, particularly those present in mosquitoes, with a view to establishing whether such infectious agents can, in the long run, defeat the immune system or be defeated by it. Many of the viruses, bacteria and parasites recognised by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as carcinogenic and suspected by others as being involved in cancer have evolved numerous complex ways of avoiding, suppressing or altering the immune system’s responses. These features, coupled with the multiplicity and variety of serious infectious agents carried by some species of mosquitoes and the adverse effects on the immune system of mosquito saliva, suggest that post-mosquito bite the immune system is likely to be overwhelmed. In such a situation, immunisation strategies offer little chance of cancer prevention, unless a single or limited number of critical infectious agents can be isolated from the ‘mosquito’ cocktail. If that proves to be impossible cancer prevention will, therefore, if the hypothesis proves to be correct, rest on the twin strategies of environmentally controlling the mosquito population and humans avoiding being bitten. The latter strategy will involve determining the factors that demark those being bitten from those that are not.
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1Biomedical and Life Sciences
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3Cancer
4Carcinogens
5Culicidae - immunology
6Culicidae - microbiology
7Culicidae - parasitology
8Culicidae - virology
9Disease prevention
10Genetic vectors
11Health aspects
12Host-Pathogen Interactions - immunology
13Humans
14Immune response
15Immune System
16Immunization
17Immunology
18Medical Microbiology
19Medicin och hälsovetenskap
20Microbiology
21Mosquito Vectors - immunology
22Mosquito Vectors - microbiology
23Mosquito Vectors - parasitology
24Mosquito Vectors - virology
25Mosquitoes
26Neoplasms - immunology
27Neoplasms - microbiology
28Neoplasms - parasitology
29Neoplasms - virology
30Observations
31Parasites
32Review
33Saliva
34Side effects
35Vectors
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abstractIt has been hypothesised that mosquitoes [Diptera: Culicidae] may play more of a role in certain cancers than is currently appreciated. Research links 33 infectious agents to cancer, 27 of which have a presence in mosquitoes, and that, in addition, mosquito saliva downregulates the immune system. The objective of this paper is to review the literature on the immune system and cancer-causing infectious agents, particularly those present in mosquitoes, with a view to establishing whether such infectious agents can, in the long run, defeat the immune system or be defeated by it. Many of the viruses, bacteria and parasites recognised by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as carcinogenic and suspected by others as being involved in cancer have evolved numerous complex ways of avoiding, suppressing or altering the immune system’s responses. These features, coupled with the multiplicity and variety of serious infectious agents carried by some species of mosquitoes and the adverse effects on the immune system of mosquito saliva, suggest that post-mosquito bite the immune system is likely to be overwhelmed. In such a situation, immunisation strategies offer little chance of cancer prevention, unless a single or limited number of critical infectious agents can be isolated from the ‘mosquito’ cocktail. If that proves to be impossible cancer prevention will, therefore, if the hypothesis proves to be correct, rest on the twin strategies of environmentally controlling the mosquito population and humans avoiding being bitten. The latter strategy will involve determining the factors that demark those being bitten from those that are not.
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