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Global, regional, and national age-sex specific mortality for 264 causes of death, 1980–2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016

Monitoring levels and trends in premature mortality is crucial to understanding how societies can address prominent sources of early death. The Global Burden of Disease 2016 Study (GBD 2016) provides a comprehensive assessment of cause-specific mortality for 264 causes in 195 locations from 1980 to... Full description

Journal Title: Lancet (London England), 2017-09-16, Vol.390 (10100), p.1151-1210
Main Author: Aboyans, Victor
Other Authors: Agrawal, Anurag , Aichour, Miloud Taki Eddine , Aichour, Ibtihel , Alene, Kefyalew Addis , Al-Eyadhy, Ayman , Allebeck, Peter , Alsharif, Ubai , Alvis-Guzman, Nelson , Anber, Nahla , Antonio, Carl Abelardo T , Asgedom, Solomon W , Avokpaho, Euripide Frinel G , Bacha, Umar , Barrero, Lope H , Beuran, Mircea , Bhatt, Samir , Cahuana-Hurtado, Lucero , Car, Josip , Casey, Daniel C , Chibueze, Chioma Ezinne , Criqui, Michael H , Dandona, Lalit , Defo, Barthelemy Kuate , Deiparine, Selina , Doku, David Teye , Farinha, Carla Sofia e Sa , Fraser, Maya , Gebremichael, Delelegn Yilma , Goldberg, Ellen M , Gupta, Vipin , Hankey, Graeme J , Hosgood, H Dean , Hostiuc, Sorin , Hoy, Damian G , Huynh, Chantal , Ileanu, Bogdan Vasile , Javanbakht, Mehdi , Kabir, Zubair , Kamal, Ritul , Karch, André , Karimkhani, Chante , Kawakami, Norito , Khader, Yousef Saleh , Kim, Daniel , Kimokoti, Ruth W , Lalloo, Ratilal , Lan, Qing , Lee, Paul H , Levi, Miriam , Li, Yongmei , Lorkowski, Stefan , Maddison, Emilie R , Martopullo, Ira , McGaughey, Madeline , Mensah, George A , Miller, Ted R , Mirarefin, Mojde , Mirrakhimov, Erkin M , Mishra, Shiva Raj , Molokhia, Mariam , Montañez, Julio C , Montico, Marcella , Morawska, Lidia , Nguyen, Minh , Okoro, Anselm , Opio, John Nelson , PA, Mahesh , Panda, Basant Kumar , Paudel, Deepak , Plass, Dietrich , Roshandel, Gholamreza , Saadat, Soheil , Sahathevan, Ramesh , Samy, Abdallah M , Santos, Itamar S , Santric Milicevic, Milena M , Schneider, Ione J C , Shaikh, Masood Ali , Shamsipour, Mansour , Shey, Muki , Shields, Chloe , Skiadaresi, Eirini , Sligar, Amber , Smith, Mari , Sorensen, Reed J D , Steinke, Sabine , Strub, Bryan , Sur, Patrick J , Talongwa, Roberto Tchio , Thrift, Amanda G , Troeger, Christopher , Tyrovolas, Stefanos , Updike, Rachel , Vasankari, Tommi , Weiss, Daniel J , Werdecker, Andrea , Xu, Gelin , Younis, Mustafa Z , Murray, Christopher J L
Format: Electronic Article Electronic Article
Language: English
Subjects:
Age
ERG
HIV
Men
Sex
STD
VDP
Quelle: Alma/SFX Local Collection
Publisher: England: Elsevier Ltd
ID: ISSN: 0140-6736
Zum Text:
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title: Global, regional, and national age-sex specific mortality for 264 causes of death, 1980–2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016
format: Article
creator:
  • Aboyans, Victor
  • Agrawal, Anurag
  • Aichour, Miloud Taki Eddine
  • Aichour, Ibtihel
  • Alene, Kefyalew Addis
  • Al-Eyadhy, Ayman
  • Allebeck, Peter
  • Alsharif, Ubai
  • Alvis-Guzman, Nelson
  • Anber, Nahla
  • Antonio, Carl Abelardo T
  • Asgedom, Solomon W
  • Avokpaho, Euripide Frinel G
  • Bacha, Umar
  • Barrero, Lope H
  • Beuran, Mircea
  • Bhatt, Samir
  • Cahuana-Hurtado, Lucero
  • Car, Josip
  • Casey, Daniel C
  • Chibueze, Chioma Ezinne
  • Criqui, Michael H
  • Dandona, Lalit
  • Defo, Barthelemy Kuate
  • Deiparine, Selina
  • Doku, David Teye
  • Farinha, Carla Sofia e Sa
  • Fraser, Maya
  • Gebremichael, Delelegn Yilma
  • Goldberg, Ellen M
  • Gupta, Vipin
  • Hankey, Graeme J
  • Hosgood, H Dean
  • Hostiuc, Sorin
  • Hoy, Damian G
  • Huynh, Chantal
  • Ileanu, Bogdan Vasile
  • Javanbakht, Mehdi
  • Kabir, Zubair
  • Kamal, Ritul
  • Karch, André
  • Karimkhani, Chante
  • Kawakami, Norito
  • Khader, Yousef Saleh
  • Kim, Daniel
  • Kimokoti, Ruth W
  • Lalloo, Ratilal
  • Lan, Qing
  • Lee, Paul H
  • Levi, Miriam
  • Li, Yongmei
  • Lorkowski, Stefan
  • Maddison, Emilie R
  • Martopullo, Ira
  • McGaughey, Madeline
  • Mensah, George A
  • Miller, Ted R
  • Mirarefin, Mojde
  • Mirrakhimov, Erkin M
  • Mishra, Shiva Raj
  • Molokhia, Mariam
  • Montañez, Julio C
  • Montico, Marcella
  • Morawska, Lidia
  • Nguyen, Minh
  • Okoro, Anselm
  • Opio, John Nelson
  • PA, Mahesh
  • Panda, Basant Kumar
  • Paudel, Deepak
  • Plass, Dietrich
  • Roshandel, Gholamreza
  • Saadat, Soheil
  • Sahathevan, Ramesh
  • Samy, Abdallah M
  • Santos, Itamar S
  • Santric Milicevic, Milena M
  • Schneider, Ione J C
  • Shaikh, Masood Ali
  • Shamsipour, Mansour
  • Shey, Muki
  • Shields, Chloe
  • Skiadaresi, Eirini
  • Sligar, Amber
  • Smith, Mari
  • Sorensen, Reed J D
  • Steinke, Sabine
  • Strub, Bryan
  • Sur, Patrick J
  • Talongwa, Roberto Tchio
  • Thrift, Amanda G
  • Troeger, Christopher
  • Tyrovolas, Stefanos
  • Updike, Rachel
  • Vasankari, Tommi
  • Weiss, Daniel J
  • Werdecker, Andrea
  • Xu, Gelin
  • Younis, Mustafa Z
  • Murray, Christopher J L
subjects:
  • 11 Medical And Health Sciences
  • 3142 Public health care science
  • Acquired immune deficiency syndrome
  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • africa
  • Age
  • Age Distribution
  • Age groups
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Aggression
  • AIDS
  • alcohol policy
  • asjc
  • Asphyxia
  • atira
  • Autopsies
  • Autopsy
  • Birth
  • Cardiomyopathy
  • Cardiovascular diseases
  • Cause of Death
  • Cause of Death - trends
  • Causes of death
  • Charities
  • Child
  • Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group
  • Child, Preschool
  • Childbirth & labor
  • Children
  • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
  • climate-change
  • Coding
  • Communicable Diseases
  • Communicable Diseases - mortality
  • Community medicine, Social medicine: 801
  • Complications
  • Congenital diseases
  • Coronary artery disease
  • Coronary heart disease
  • Death
  • Demographics
  • Diabetes mellitus
  • Diarrhea
  • Disaggregation
  • Disasters
  • Disasters - statistics & numerical data
  • Disease
  • Disorders
  • Dánarmein
  • Dánartíðni
  • early death
  • Encephalopathy
  • environmental
  • Epidemiology
  • ERG
  • Estimates
  • Female
  • Fertility
  • Folkhälsovetenskap, global hälsa, socialmedicin och epidemiologi
  • Félagshagfræði
  • Garbage
  • General & Internal
  • General & Internal Medicine
  • Geography
  • Global Burden of Disease
  • Global Burden of Disease - statistics & numerical data
  • Global Health
  • Global Health - statistics & numerical data
  • Global Health Metrics
  • Health and Welfare
  • Health aspects
  • Health care science
  • Health Sciences
  • Health sciences: 800
  • Health surveillance
  • Heart diseases
  • Heilbrigðisvísindi
  • Heilsufar
  • Helsefag: 800
  • HIV
  • human health
  • Human immunodeficiency virus
  • Humans
  • Hälsa och välfärd
  • Hälsovetenskap
  • Hälsovetenskaper
  • income countries
  • Infant
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Infants
  • Infections
  • Infectious diseases
  • Injuries
  • Karlar
  • Konur
  • Kransæðasjúkdómar
  • Life expectancy
  • Life Sciences & Biomedicine
  • Life span
  • Lung diseases
  • Lífslíkur
  • Malaria
  • Male
  • Median (statistics)
  • Medical and Health Sciences
  • Medical disciplines: 700
  • Medical research
  • Medicin och hälsovetenskap
  • Medicine
  • Medicine(all)
  • Medicine, Experimental
  • Medisinske Fag: 700
  • Men
  • Middle Aged
  • Mortality
  • Neonates
  • Neoplasms
  • Newborn
  • Newborn infants
  • Noncommunicable Diseases
  • Noncommunicable Diseases - mortality
  • numerical data
  • Nutrition Disorders
  • Nutrition Disorders - mortality
  • Næringarskortur
  • Nýburar
  • occupational health
  • over
  • plasmodium-falciparum
  • Pregnancy
  • Pregnancy Complications
  • Pregnancy Complications - mortality
  • Premature birth
  • premature mortality
  • Preschool
  • prevalence
  • Public health
  • Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
  • pure
  • quality
  • resistance
  • Respiratory infections
  • Samfunnsmedisin, sosialmedisin: 801
  • Science & Technology
  • Sex
  • Sexes
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Smitsjúkdómar
  • Socioeconomic Factors
  • Stars
  • Statistical methods
  • statistics
  • statistics & numerical data
  • STD
  • subjectarea
  • Sustainable development
  • Terrorism
  • Terveystiede
  • Time series
  • Trauma
  • trends
  • Tuberculosis
  • Ungbörn
  • united-states
  • Validation studies
  • VDP
  • Vector-borne diseases
  • Violence
  • Women
  • World health
  • Wounds
  • Wounds and Injuries - mortality
  • Young Adult
  • Áverkar
  • Öndunarfærasjúkdómar
  • Þjóðir
ispartof: Lancet (London, England), 2017-09-16, Vol.390 (10100), p.1151-1210
description: Monitoring levels and trends in premature mortality is crucial to understanding how societies can address prominent sources of early death. The Global Burden of Disease 2016 Study (GBD 2016) provides a comprehensive assessment of cause-specific mortality for 264 causes in 195 locations from 1980 to 2016. This assessment includes evaluation of the expected epidemiological transition with changes in development and where local patterns deviate from these trends. We estimated cause-specific deaths and years of life lost (YLLs) by age, sex, geography, and year. YLLs were calculated from the sum of each death multiplied by the standard life expectancy at each age. We used the GBD cause of death database composed of: vital registration (VR) data corrected for under-registration and garbage coding; national and subnational verbal autopsy (VA) studies corrected for garbage coding; and other sources including surveys and surveillance systems for specific causes such as maternal mortality. To facilitate assessment of quality, we reported on the fraction of deaths assigned to GBD Level 1 or Level 2 causes that cannot be underlying causes of death (major garbage codes) by location and year. Based on completeness, garbage coding, cause list detail, and time periods covered, we provided an overall data quality rating for each location with scores ranging from 0 stars (worst) to 5 stars (best). We used robust statistical methods including the Cause of Death Ensemble model (CODEm) to generate estimates for each location, year, age, and sex. We assessed observed and expected levels and trends of cause-specific deaths in relation to the Socio-demographic Index (SDI), a summary indicator derived from measures of average income per capita, educational attainment, and total fertility, with locations grouped into quintiles by SDI. Relative to GBD 2015, we expanded the GBD cause hierarchy by 18 causes of death for GBD 2016. The quality of available data varied by location. Data quality in 25 countries rated in the highest category (5 stars), while 48, 30, 21, and 44 countries were rated at each of the succeeding data quality levels. Vital registration or verbal autopsy data were not available in 27 countries, resulting in the assignment of a zero value for data quality. Deaths from non-communicable diseases (NCDs) represented 72·3% (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 71·2–73·2) of deaths in 2016 with 19·3% (18·5–20·4) of deaths in that year occurring from communicable, maternal, neon
language: eng
source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
identifier: ISSN: 0140-6736
fulltext: fulltext
issn:
  • 0140-6736
  • 1474-547X
  • 1474-547X
url: Link


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titleGlobal, regional, and national age-sex specific mortality for 264 causes of death, 1980–2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016
sourceAlma/SFX Local Collection
creatorAboyans, Victor ; Agrawal, Anurag ; Aichour, Miloud Taki Eddine ; Aichour, Ibtihel ; Alene, Kefyalew Addis ; Al-Eyadhy, Ayman ; Allebeck, Peter ; Alsharif, Ubai ; Alvis-Guzman, Nelson ; Anber, Nahla ; Antonio, Carl Abelardo T ; Asgedom, Solomon W ; Avokpaho, Euripide Frinel G ; Bacha, Umar ; Barrero, Lope H ; Beuran, Mircea ; Bhatt, Samir ; Cahuana-Hurtado, Lucero ; Car, Josip ; Casey, Daniel C ; Chibueze, Chioma Ezinne ; Criqui, Michael H ; Dandona, Lalit ; Defo, Barthelemy Kuate ; Deiparine, Selina ; Doku, David Teye ; Farinha, Carla Sofia e Sa ; Fraser, Maya ; Gebremichael, Delelegn Yilma ; Goldberg, Ellen M ; Gupta, Vipin ; Hankey, Graeme J ; Hosgood, H Dean ; Hostiuc, Sorin ; Hoy, Damian G ; Huynh, Chantal ; Ileanu, Bogdan Vasile ; Javanbakht, Mehdi ; Kabir, Zubair ; Kamal, Ritul ; Karch, André ; Karimkhani, Chante ; Kawakami, Norito ; Khader, Yousef Saleh ; Kim, Daniel ; Kimokoti, Ruth W ; Lalloo, Ratilal ; Lan, Qing ; Lee, Paul H ; Levi, Miriam ; Li, Yongmei ; Lorkowski, Stefan ; Maddison, Emilie R ; Martopullo, Ira ; McGaughey, Madeline ; Mensah, George A ; Miller, Ted R ; Mirarefin, Mojde ; Mirrakhimov, Erkin M ; Mishra, Shiva Raj ; Molokhia, Mariam ; Montañez, Julio C ; Montico, Marcella ; Morawska, Lidia ; Nguyen, Minh ; Okoro, Anselm ; Opio, John Nelson ; PA, Mahesh ; Panda, Basant Kumar ; Paudel, Deepak ; Plass, Dietrich ; Roshandel, Gholamreza ; Saadat, Soheil ; Sahathevan, Ramesh ; Samy, Abdallah M ; Santos, Itamar S ; Santric Milicevic, Milena M ; Schneider, Ione J C ; Shaikh, Masood Ali ; Shamsipour, Mansour ; Shey, Muki ; Shields, Chloe ; Skiadaresi, Eirini ; Sligar, Amber ; Smith, Mari ; Sorensen, Reed J D ; Steinke, Sabine ; Strub, Bryan ; Sur, Patrick J ; Talongwa, Roberto Tchio ; Thrift, Amanda G ; Troeger, Christopher ; Tyrovolas, Stefanos ; Updike, Rachel ; Vasankari, Tommi ; Weiss, Daniel J ; Werdecker, Andrea ; Xu, Gelin ; Younis, Mustafa Z ; Murray, Christopher J L
creatorcontribAboyans, Victor ; Agrawal, Anurag ; Aichour, Miloud Taki Eddine ; Aichour, Ibtihel ; Alene, Kefyalew Addis ; Al-Eyadhy, Ayman ; Allebeck, Peter ; Alsharif, Ubai ; Alvis-Guzman, Nelson ; Anber, Nahla ; Antonio, Carl Abelardo T ; Asgedom, Solomon W ; Avokpaho, Euripide Frinel G ; Bacha, Umar ; Barrero, Lope H ; Beuran, Mircea ; Bhatt, Samir ; Cahuana-Hurtado, Lucero ; Car, Josip ; Casey, Daniel C ; Chibueze, Chioma Ezinne ; Criqui, Michael H ; Dandona, Lalit ; Defo, Barthelemy Kuate ; Deiparine, Selina ; Doku, David Teye ; Farinha, Carla Sofia e Sa ; Fraser, Maya ; Gebremichael, Delelegn Yilma ; Goldberg, Ellen M ; Gupta, Vipin ; Hankey, Graeme J ; Hosgood, H Dean ; Hostiuc, Sorin ; Hoy, Damian G ; Huynh, Chantal ; Ileanu, Bogdan Vasile ; Javanbakht, Mehdi ; Kabir, Zubair ; Kamal, Ritul ; Karch, André ; Karimkhani, Chante ; Kawakami, Norito ; Khader, Yousef Saleh ; Kim, Daniel ; Kimokoti, Ruth W ; Lalloo, Ratilal ; Lan, Qing ; Lee, Paul H ; Levi, Miriam ; Li, Yongmei ; Lorkowski, Stefan ; Maddison, Emilie R ; Martopullo, Ira ; McGaughey, Madeline ; Mensah, George A ; Miller, Ted R ; Mirarefin, Mojde ; Mirrakhimov, Erkin M ; Mishra, Shiva Raj ; Molokhia, Mariam ; Montañez, Julio C ; Montico, Marcella ; Morawska, Lidia ; Nguyen, Minh ; Okoro, Anselm ; Opio, John Nelson ; PA, Mahesh ; Panda, Basant Kumar ; Paudel, Deepak ; Plass, Dietrich ; Roshandel, Gholamreza ; Saadat, Soheil ; Sahathevan, Ramesh ; Samy, Abdallah M ; Santos, Itamar S ; Santric Milicevic, Milena M ; Schneider, Ione J C ; Shaikh, Masood Ali ; Shamsipour, Mansour ; Shey, Muki ; Shields, Chloe ; Skiadaresi, Eirini ; Sligar, Amber ; Smith, Mari ; Sorensen, Reed J D ; Steinke, Sabine ; Strub, Bryan ; Sur, Patrick J ; Talongwa, Roberto Tchio ; Thrift, Amanda G ; Troeger, Christopher ; Tyrovolas, Stefanos ; Updike, Rachel ; Vasankari, Tommi ; Weiss, Daniel J ; Werdecker, Andrea ; Xu, Gelin ; Younis, Mustafa Z ; Murray, Christopher J L ; GBD 2016 Causes of Death Collaborators ; Sahlgrenska akademin ; Institutionen för medicin, avdelningen för samhällsmedicin och folkhälsa, enheten för hälsometri ; Institute of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Health Metrics ; Göteborgs universitet ; Gothenburg University ; Sahlgrenska Academy
descriptionMonitoring levels and trends in premature mortality is crucial to understanding how societies can address prominent sources of early death. The Global Burden of Disease 2016 Study (GBD 2016) provides a comprehensive assessment of cause-specific mortality for 264 causes in 195 locations from 1980 to 2016. This assessment includes evaluation of the expected epidemiological transition with changes in development and where local patterns deviate from these trends. We estimated cause-specific deaths and years of life lost (YLLs) by age, sex, geography, and year. YLLs were calculated from the sum of each death multiplied by the standard life expectancy at each age. We used the GBD cause of death database composed of: vital registration (VR) data corrected for under-registration and garbage coding; national and subnational verbal autopsy (VA) studies corrected for garbage coding; and other sources including surveys and surveillance systems for specific causes such as maternal mortality. To facilitate assessment of quality, we reported on the fraction of deaths assigned to GBD Level 1 or Level 2 causes that cannot be underlying causes of death (major garbage codes) by location and year. Based on completeness, garbage coding, cause list detail, and time periods covered, we provided an overall data quality rating for each location with scores ranging from 0 stars (worst) to 5 stars (best). We used robust statistical methods including the Cause of Death Ensemble model (CODEm) to generate estimates for each location, year, age, and sex. We assessed observed and expected levels and trends of cause-specific deaths in relation to the Socio-demographic Index (SDI), a summary indicator derived from measures of average income per capita, educational attainment, and total fertility, with locations grouped into quintiles by SDI. Relative to GBD 2015, we expanded the GBD cause hierarchy by 18 causes of death for GBD 2016. The quality of available data varied by location. Data quality in 25 countries rated in the highest category (5 stars), while 48, 30, 21, and 44 countries were rated at each of the succeeding data quality levels. Vital registration or verbal autopsy data were not available in 27 countries, resulting in the assignment of a zero value for data quality. Deaths from non-communicable diseases (NCDs) represented 72·3% (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 71·2–73·2) of deaths in 2016 with 19·3% (18·5–20·4) of deaths in that year occurring from communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional (CMNN) diseases and a further 8·43% (8·00–8·67) from injuries. Although age-standardised rates of death from NCDs decreased globally between 2006 and 2016, total numbers of these deaths increased; both numbers and age-standardised rates of death from CMNN causes decreased in the decade 2006–16—age-standardised rates of deaths from injuries decreased but total numbers varied little. In 2016, the three leading global causes of death in children under-5 were lower respiratory infections, neonatal preterm birth complications, and neonatal encephalopathy due to birth asphyxia and trauma, combined resulting in 1·80 million deaths (95% UI 1·59 million to 1·89 million). Between 1990 and 2016, a profound shift toward deaths at older ages occurred with a 178% (95% UI 176–181) increase in deaths in ages 90–94 years and a 210% (208–212) increase in deaths older than age 95 years. The ten leading causes by rates of age-standardised YLL significantly decreased from 2006 to 2016 (median annualised rate of change was a decrease of 2·89%); the median annualised rate of change for all other causes was lower (a decrease of 1·59%) during the same interval. Globally, the five leading causes of total YLLs in 2016 were cardiovascular diseases; diarrhoea, lower respiratory infections, and other common infectious diseases; neoplasms; neonatal disorders; and HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis. At a finer level of disaggregation within cause groupings, the ten leading causes of total YLLs in 2016 were ischaemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, lower respiratory infections, diarrhoeal diseases, road injuries, malaria, neonatal preterm birth complications, HIV/AIDS, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and neonatal encephalopathy due to birth asphyxia and trauma. Ischaemic heart disease was the leading cause of total YLLs in 113 countries for men and 97 countries for women. Comparisons of observed levels of YLLs by countries, relative to the level of YLLs expected on the basis of SDI alone, highlighted distinct regional patterns including the greater than expected level of YLLs from malaria and from HIV/AIDS across sub-Saharan Africa; diabetes mellitus, especially in Oceania; interpersonal violence, notably within Latin America and the Caribbean; and cardiomyopathy and myocarditis, particularly in eastern and central Europe. The level of YLLs from ischaemic heart disease was less than expected in 117 of 195 locations. Other leading causes of YLLs for which YLLs were notably lower than expected included neonatal preterm birth complications in many locations in both south Asia and southeast Asia, and cerebrovascular disease in western Europe. The past 37 years have featured declining rates of communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional diseases across all quintiles of SDI, with faster than expected gains for many locations relative to their SDI. A global shift towards deaths at older ages suggests success in reducing many causes of early death. YLLs have increased globally for causes such as diabetes mellitus or some neoplasms, and in some locations for causes such as drug use disorders, and conflict and terrorism. Increasing levels of YLLs might reflect outcomes from conditions that required high levels of care but for which effective treatments remain elusive, potentially increasing costs to health systems. Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.
identifier
0ISSN: 0140-6736
1ISSN: 1474-547X
2EISSN: 1474-547X
3DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(17)32152-9
4PMID: 28919116
languageeng
publisherEngland: Elsevier Ltd
subject
ispartofLancet (London, England), 2017-09-16, Vol.390 (10100), p.1151-1210
rights
02017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an Open Access article under the CC BY 4.0 license
1info:eu-repo/semantics/restrictedAccess
2Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an Open Access article under the CC BY 4.0 license. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
3COPYRIGHT 2017 Elsevier B.V.
4Copyright Elsevier Limited Sep 16, 2017
5info:eu-repo/semantics/openAccess
62017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an Open Access article under the CC BY 4.0 license 2017
lds50peer_reviewed
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search
creatorcontrib
0Aboyans, Victor
1Agrawal, Anurag
2Aichour, Miloud Taki Eddine
3Aichour, Ibtihel
4Alene, Kefyalew Addis
5Al-Eyadhy, Ayman
6Allebeck, Peter
7Alsharif, Ubai
8Alvis-Guzman, Nelson
9Anber, Nahla
10Antonio, Carl Abelardo T
11Asgedom, Solomon W
12Avokpaho, Euripide Frinel G
13Bacha, Umar
14Barrero, Lope H
15Beuran, Mircea
16Bhatt, Samir
17Cahuana-Hurtado, Lucero
18Car, Josip
19Casey, Daniel C
20Chibueze, Chioma Ezinne
21Criqui, Michael H
22Dandona, Lalit
23Defo, Barthelemy Kuate
24Deiparine, Selina
25Doku, David Teye
26Farinha, Carla Sofia e Sa
27Fraser, Maya
28Gebremichael, Delelegn Yilma
29Goldberg, Ellen M
30Gupta, Vipin
31Hankey, Graeme J
32Hosgood, H Dean
33Hostiuc, Sorin
34Hoy, Damian G
35Huynh, Chantal
36Ileanu, Bogdan Vasile
37Javanbakht, Mehdi
38Kabir, Zubair
39Kamal, Ritul
40Karch, André
41Karimkhani, Chante
42Kawakami, Norito
43Khader, Yousef Saleh
44Kim, Daniel
45Kimokoti, Ruth W
46Lalloo, Ratilal
47Lan, Qing
48Lee, Paul H
49Levi, Miriam
50Li, Yongmei
51Lorkowski, Stefan
52Maddison, Emilie R
53Martopullo, Ira
54McGaughey, Madeline
55Mensah, George A
56Miller, Ted R
57Mirarefin, Mojde
58Mirrakhimov, Erkin M
59Mishra, Shiva Raj
60Molokhia, Mariam
61Montañez, Julio C
62Montico, Marcella
63Morawska, Lidia
64Nguyen, Minh
65Okoro, Anselm
66Opio, John Nelson
67PA, Mahesh
68Panda, Basant Kumar
69Paudel, Deepak
70Plass, Dietrich
71Roshandel, Gholamreza
72Saadat, Soheil
73Sahathevan, Ramesh
74Samy, Abdallah M
75Santos, Itamar S
76Santric Milicevic, Milena M
77Schneider, Ione J C
78Shaikh, Masood Ali
79Shamsipour, Mansour
80Shey, Muki
81Shields, Chloe
82Skiadaresi, Eirini
83Sligar, Amber
84Smith, Mari
85Sorensen, Reed J D
86Steinke, Sabine
87Strub, Bryan
88Sur, Patrick J
89Talongwa, Roberto Tchio
90Thrift, Amanda G
91Troeger, Christopher
92Tyrovolas, Stefanos
93Updike, Rachel
94Vasankari, Tommi
95Weiss, Daniel J
96Werdecker, Andrea
97Xu, Gelin
98Younis, Mustafa Z
99Murray, Christopher J L
100GBD 2016 Causes of Death Collaborators
101Sahlgrenska akademin
102Institutionen för medicin, avdelningen för samhällsmedicin och folkhälsa, enheten för hälsometri
103Institute of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Health Metrics
104Göteborgs universitet
105Gothenburg University
106Sahlgrenska Academy
title
0Global, regional, and national age-sex specific mortality for 264 causes of death, 1980–2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016
1Lancet (London, England)
addtitleLancet
descriptionMonitoring levels and trends in premature mortality is crucial to understanding how societies can address prominent sources of early death. The Global Burden of Disease 2016 Study (GBD 2016) provides a comprehensive assessment of cause-specific mortality for 264 causes in 195 locations from 1980 to 2016. This assessment includes evaluation of the expected epidemiological transition with changes in development and where local patterns deviate from these trends. We estimated cause-specific deaths and years of life lost (YLLs) by age, sex, geography, and year. YLLs were calculated from the sum of each death multiplied by the standard life expectancy at each age. We used the GBD cause of death database composed of: vital registration (VR) data corrected for under-registration and garbage coding; national and subnational verbal autopsy (VA) studies corrected for garbage coding; and other sources including surveys and surveillance systems for specific causes such as maternal mortality. To facilitate assessment of quality, we reported on the fraction of deaths assigned to GBD Level 1 or Level 2 causes that cannot be underlying causes of death (major garbage codes) by location and year. Based on completeness, garbage coding, cause list detail, and time periods covered, we provided an overall data quality rating for each location with scores ranging from 0 stars (worst) to 5 stars (best). We used robust statistical methods including the Cause of Death Ensemble model (CODEm) to generate estimates for each location, year, age, and sex. We assessed observed and expected levels and trends of cause-specific deaths in relation to the Socio-demographic Index (SDI), a summary indicator derived from measures of average income per capita, educational attainment, and total fertility, with locations grouped into quintiles by SDI. Relative to GBD 2015, we expanded the GBD cause hierarchy by 18 causes of death for GBD 2016. The quality of available data varied by location. Data quality in 25 countries rated in the highest category (5 stars), while 48, 30, 21, and 44 countries were rated at each of the succeeding data quality levels. Vital registration or verbal autopsy data were not available in 27 countries, resulting in the assignment of a zero value for data quality. Deaths from non-communicable diseases (NCDs) represented 72·3% (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 71·2–73·2) of deaths in 2016 with 19·3% (18·5–20·4) of deaths in that year occurring from communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional (CMNN) diseases and a further 8·43% (8·00–8·67) from injuries. Although age-standardised rates of death from NCDs decreased globally between 2006 and 2016, total numbers of these deaths increased; both numbers and age-standardised rates of death from CMNN causes decreased in the decade 2006–16—age-standardised rates of deaths from injuries decreased but total numbers varied little. In 2016, the three leading global causes of death in children under-5 were lower respiratory infections, neonatal preterm birth complications, and neonatal encephalopathy due to birth asphyxia and trauma, combined resulting in 1·80 million deaths (95% UI 1·59 million to 1·89 million). Between 1990 and 2016, a profound shift toward deaths at older ages occurred with a 178% (95% UI 176–181) increase in deaths in ages 90–94 years and a 210% (208–212) increase in deaths older than age 95 years. The ten leading causes by rates of age-standardised YLL significantly decreased from 2006 to 2016 (median annualised rate of change was a decrease of 2·89%); the median annualised rate of change for all other causes was lower (a decrease of 1·59%) during the same interval. Globally, the five leading causes of total YLLs in 2016 were cardiovascular diseases; diarrhoea, lower respiratory infections, and other common infectious diseases; neoplasms; neonatal disorders; and HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis. At a finer level of disaggregation within cause groupings, the ten leading causes of total YLLs in 2016 were ischaemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, lower respiratory infections, diarrhoeal diseases, road injuries, malaria, neonatal preterm birth complications, HIV/AIDS, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and neonatal encephalopathy due to birth asphyxia and trauma. Ischaemic heart disease was the leading cause of total YLLs in 113 countries for men and 97 countries for women. Comparisons of observed levels of YLLs by countries, relative to the level of YLLs expected on the basis of SDI alone, highlighted distinct regional patterns including the greater than expected level of YLLs from malaria and from HIV/AIDS across sub-Saharan Africa; diabetes mellitus, especially in Oceania; interpersonal violence, notably within Latin America and the Caribbean; and cardiomyopathy and myocarditis, particularly in eastern and central Europe. The level of YLLs from ischaemic heart disease was less than expected in 117 of 195 locations. Other leading causes of YLLs for which YLLs were notably lower than expected included neonatal preterm birth complications in many locations in both south Asia and southeast Asia, and cerebrovascular disease in western Europe. The past 37 years have featured declining rates of communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional diseases across all quintiles of SDI, with faster than expected gains for many locations relative to their SDI. A global shift towards deaths at older ages suggests success in reducing many causes of early death. YLLs have increased globally for causes such as diabetes mellitus or some neoplasms, and in some locations for causes such as drug use disorders, and conflict and terrorism. Increasing levels of YLLs might reflect outcomes from conditions that required high levels of care but for which effective treatments remain elusive, potentially increasing costs to health systems. Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.
subject
011 Medical And Health Sciences
13142 Public health care science
2Acquired immune deficiency syndrome
3Adolescent
4Adult
5africa
6Age
7Age Distribution
8Age groups
9Aged
10Aged, 80 and over
11Aggression
12AIDS
13alcohol policy
14asjc
15Asphyxia
16atira
17Autopsies
18Autopsy
19Birth
20Cardiomyopathy
21Cardiovascular diseases
22Cause of Death
23Cause of Death - trends
24Causes of death
25Charities
26Child
27Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group
28Child, Preschool
29Childbirth & labor
30Children
31Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
32climate-change
33Coding
34Communicable Diseases
35Communicable Diseases - mortality
36Community medicine, Social medicine: 801
37Complications
38Congenital diseases
39Coronary artery disease
40Coronary heart disease
41Death
42Demographics
43Diabetes mellitus
44Diarrhea
45Disaggregation
46Disasters
47Disasters - statistics & numerical data
48Disease
49Disorders
50Dánarmein
51Dánartíðni
52early death
53Encephalopathy
54environmental
55Epidemiology
56ERG
57Estimates
58Female
59Fertility
60Folkhälsovetenskap, global hälsa, socialmedicin och epidemiologi
61Félagshagfræði
62Garbage
63General & Internal
64General & Internal Medicine
65Geography
66Global Burden of Disease
67Global Burden of Disease - statistics & numerical data
68Global Health
69Global Health - statistics & numerical data
70Global Health Metrics
71Health and Welfare
72Health aspects
73Health care science
74Health Sciences
75Health sciences: 800
76Health surveillance
77Heart diseases
78Heilbrigðisvísindi
79Heilsufar
80Helsefag: 800
81HIV
82human health
83Human immunodeficiency virus
84Humans
85Hälsa och välfärd
86Hälsovetenskap
87Hälsovetenskaper
88income countries
89Infant
90Infant, Newborn
91Infants
92Infections
93Infectious diseases
94Injuries
95Karlar
96Konur
97Kransæðasjúkdómar
98Life expectancy
99Life Sciences & Biomedicine
100Life span
101Lung diseases
102Lífslíkur
103Malaria
104Male
105Median (statistics)
106Medical and Health Sciences
107Medical disciplines: 700
108Medical research
109Medicin och hälsovetenskap
110Medicine
111Medicine(all)
112Medicine, Experimental
113Medisinske Fag: 700
114Men
115Middle Aged
116Mortality
117Neonates
118Neoplasms
119Newborn
120Newborn infants
121Noncommunicable Diseases
122Noncommunicable Diseases - mortality
123numerical data
124Nutrition Disorders
125Nutrition Disorders - mortality
126Næringarskortur
127Nýburar
128occupational health
129over
130plasmodium-falciparum
131Pregnancy
132Pregnancy Complications
133Pregnancy Complications - mortality
134Premature birth
135premature mortality
136Preschool
137prevalence
138Public health
139Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
140pure
141quality
142resistance
143Respiratory infections
144Samfunnsmedisin, sosialmedisin: 801
145Science & Technology
146Sex
147Sexes
148Sexually transmitted diseases
149Smitsjúkdómar
150Socioeconomic Factors
151Stars
152Statistical methods
153statistics
154statistics & numerical data
155STD
156subjectarea
157Sustainable development
158Terrorism
159Terveystiede
160Time series
161Trauma
162trends
163Tuberculosis
164Ungbörn
165united-states
166Validation studies
167VDP
168Vector-borne diseases
169Violence
170Women
171World health
172Wounds
173Wounds and Injuries - mortality
174Young Adult
175Áverkar
176Öndunarfærasjúkdómar
177Þjóðir
issn
00140-6736
11474-547X
21474-547X
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0Aboyans, Victor
1Agrawal, Anurag
2Aichour, Miloud Taki Eddine
3Aichour, Ibtihel
4Alene, Kefyalew Addis
5Al-Eyadhy, Ayman
6Allebeck, Peter
7Alsharif, Ubai
8Alvis-Guzman, Nelson
9Anber, Nahla
10Antonio, Carl Abelardo T
11Asgedom, Solomon W
12Avokpaho, Euripide Frinel G
13Bacha, Umar
14Barrero, Lope H
15Beuran, Mircea
16Bhatt, Samir
17Cahuana-Hurtado, Lucero
18Car, Josip
19Casey, Daniel C
20Chibueze, Chioma Ezinne
21Criqui, Michael H
22Dandona, Lalit
23Defo, Barthelemy Kuate
24Deiparine, Selina
25Doku, David Teye
26Farinha, Carla Sofia e Sa
27Fraser, Maya
28Gebremichael, Delelegn Yilma
29Goldberg, Ellen M
30Gupta, Vipin
31Hankey, Graeme J
32Hosgood, H Dean
33Hostiuc, Sorin
34Hoy, Damian G
35Huynh, Chantal
36Ileanu, Bogdan Vasile
37Javanbakht, Mehdi
38Kabir, Zubair
39Kamal, Ritul
40Karch, André
41Karimkhani, Chante
42Kawakami, Norito
43Khader, Yousef Saleh
44Kim, Daniel
45Kimokoti, Ruth W
46Lalloo, Ratilal
47Lan, Qing
48Lee, Paul H
49Levi, Miriam
50Li, Yongmei
51Lorkowski, Stefan
52Maddison, Emilie R
53Martopullo, Ira
54McGaughey, Madeline
55Mensah, George A
56Miller, Ted R
57Mirarefin, Mojde
58Mirrakhimov, Erkin M
59Mishra, Shiva Raj
60Molokhia, Mariam
61Montañez, Julio C
62Montico, Marcella
63Morawska, Lidia
64Nguyen, Minh
65Okoro, Anselm
66Opio, John Nelson
67PA, Mahesh
68Panda, Basant Kumar
69Paudel, Deepak
70Plass, Dietrich
71Roshandel, Gholamreza
72Saadat, Soheil
73Sahathevan, Ramesh
74Samy, Abdallah M
75Santos, Itamar S
76Santric Milicevic, Milena M
77Schneider, Ione J C
78Shaikh, Masood Ali
79Shamsipour, Mansour
80Shey, Muki
81Shields, Chloe
82Skiadaresi, Eirini
83Sligar, Amber
84Smith, Mari
85Sorensen, Reed J D
86Steinke, Sabine
87Strub, Bryan
88Sur, Patrick J
89Talongwa, Roberto Tchio
90Thrift, Amanda G
91Troeger, Christopher
92Tyrovolas, Stefanos
93Updike, Rachel
94Vasankari, Tommi
95Weiss, Daniel J
96Werdecker, Andrea
97Xu, Gelin
98Younis, Mustafa Z
99Murray, Christopher J L
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creationdate20170916
titleGlobal, regional, and national age-sex specific mortality for 264 causes of death, 1980–2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016
authorAboyans, Victor ; Agrawal, Anurag ; Aichour, Miloud Taki Eddine ; Aichour, Ibtihel ; Alene, Kefyalew Addis ; Al-Eyadhy, Ayman ; Allebeck, Peter ; Alsharif, Ubai ; Alvis-Guzman, Nelson ; Anber, Nahla ; Antonio, Carl Abelardo T ; Asgedom, Solomon W ; Avokpaho, Euripide Frinel G ; Bacha, Umar ; Barrero, Lope H ; Beuran, Mircea ; Bhatt, Samir ; Cahuana-Hurtado, Lucero ; Car, Josip ; Casey, Daniel C ; Chibueze, Chioma Ezinne ; Criqui, Michael H ; Dandona, Lalit ; Defo, Barthelemy Kuate ; Deiparine, Selina ; Doku, David Teye ; Farinha, Carla Sofia e Sa ; Fraser, Maya ; Gebremichael, Delelegn Yilma ; Goldberg, Ellen M ; Gupta, Vipin ; Hankey, Graeme J ; Hosgood, H Dean ; Hostiuc, Sorin ; Hoy, Damian G ; Huynh, Chantal ; Ileanu, Bogdan Vasile ; Javanbakht, Mehdi ; Kabir, Zubair ; Kamal, Ritul ; Karch, André ; Karimkhani, Chante ; Kawakami, Norito ; Khader, Yousef Saleh ; Kim, Daniel ; Kimokoti, Ruth W ; Lalloo, Ratilal ; Lan, Qing ; Lee, Paul H ; Levi, Miriam ; Li, Yongmei ; Lorkowski, Stefan ; Maddison, Emilie R ; Martopullo, Ira ; McGaughey, Madeline ; Mensah, George A ; Miller, Ted R ; Mirarefin, Mojde ; Mirrakhimov, Erkin M ; Mishra, Shiva Raj ; Molokhia, Mariam ; Montañez, Julio C ; Montico, Marcella ; Morawska, Lidia ; Nguyen, Minh ; Okoro, Anselm ; Opio, John Nelson ; PA, Mahesh ; Panda, Basant Kumar ; Paudel, Deepak ; Plass, Dietrich ; Roshandel, Gholamreza ; Saadat, Soheil ; Sahathevan, Ramesh ; Samy, Abdallah M ; Santos, Itamar S ; Santric Milicevic, Milena M ; Schneider, Ione J C ; Shaikh, Masood Ali ; Shamsipour, Mansour ; Shey, Muki ; Shields, Chloe ; Skiadaresi, Eirini ; Sligar, Amber ; Smith, Mari ; Sorensen, Reed J D ; Steinke, Sabine ; Strub, Bryan ; Sur, Patrick J ; Talongwa, Roberto Tchio ; Thrift, Amanda G ; Troeger, Christopher ; Tyrovolas, Stefanos ; Updike, Rachel ; Vasankari, Tommi ; Weiss, Daniel J ; Werdecker, Andrea ; Xu, Gelin ; Younis, Mustafa Z ; Murray, Christopher J L
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prefilterarticles
languageeng
creationdate2017
topic
011 Medical And Health Sciences
13142 Public health care science
2Acquired immune deficiency syndrome
3Adolescent
4Adult
5africa
6Age
7Age Distribution
8Age groups
9Aged
10Aged, 80 and over
11Aggression
12AIDS
13alcohol policy
14asjc
15Asphyxia
16atira
17Autopsies
18Autopsy
19Birth
20Cardiomyopathy
21Cardiovascular diseases
22Cause of Death
23Cause of Death - trends
24Causes of death
25Charities
26Child
27Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group
28Child, Preschool
29Childbirth & labor
30Children
31Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
32climate-change
33Coding
34Communicable Diseases
35Communicable Diseases - mortality
36Community medicine, Social medicine: 801
37Complications
38Congenital diseases
39Coronary artery disease
40Coronary heart disease
41Death
42Demographics
43Diabetes mellitus
44Diarrhea
45Disaggregation
46Disasters
47Disasters - statistics & numerical data
48Disease
49Disorders
50Dánarmein
51Dánartíðni
52early death
53Encephalopathy
54environmental
55Epidemiology
56ERG
57Estimates
58Female
59Fertility
60Folkhälsovetenskap, global hälsa, socialmedicin och epidemiologi
61Félagshagfræði
62Garbage
63General & Internal
64General & Internal Medicine
65Geography
66Global Burden of Disease
67Global Burden of Disease - statistics & numerical data
68Global Health
69Global Health - statistics & numerical data
70Global Health Metrics
71Health and Welfare
72Health aspects
73Health care science
74Health Sciences
75Health sciences: 800
76Health surveillance
77Heart diseases
78Heilbrigðisvísindi
79Heilsufar
80Helsefag: 800
81HIV
82human health
83Human immunodeficiency virus
84Humans
85Hälsa och välfärd
86Hälsovetenskap
87Hälsovetenskaper
88income countries
89Infant
90Infant, Newborn
91Infants
92Infections
93Infectious diseases
94Injuries
95Karlar
96Konur
97Kransæðasjúkdómar
98Life expectancy
99Life Sciences & Biomedicine
100Life span
101Lung diseases
102Lífslíkur
103Malaria
104Male
105Median (statistics)
106Medical and Health Sciences
107Medical disciplines: 700
108Medical research
109Medicin och hälsovetenskap
110Medicine
111Medicine(all)
112Medicine, Experimental
113Medisinske Fag: 700
114Men
115Middle Aged
116Mortality
117Neonates
118Neoplasms
119Newborn
120Newborn infants
121Noncommunicable Diseases
122Noncommunicable Diseases - mortality
123numerical data
124Nutrition Disorders
125Nutrition Disorders - mortality
126Næringarskortur
127Nýburar
128occupational health
129over
130plasmodium-falciparum
131Pregnancy
132Pregnancy Complications
133Pregnancy Complications - mortality
134Premature birth
135premature mortality
136Preschool
137prevalence
138Public health
139Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
140pure
141quality
142resistance
143Respiratory infections
144Samfunnsmedisin, sosialmedisin: 801
145Science & Technology
146Sex
147Sexes
148Sexually transmitted diseases
149Smitsjúkdómar
150Socioeconomic Factors
151Stars
152Statistical methods
153statistics
154statistics & numerical data
155STD
156subjectarea
157Sustainable development
158Terrorism
159Terveystiede
160Time series
161Trauma
162trends
163Tuberculosis
164Ungbörn
165united-states
166Validation studies
167VDP
168Vector-borne diseases
169Violence
170Women
171World health
172Wounds
173Wounds and Injuries - mortality
174Young Adult
175Áverkar
176Öndunarfærasjúkdómar
177Þjóðir
toplevel
0peer_reviewed
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creatorcontrib
0Aboyans, Victor
1Agrawal, Anurag
2Aichour, Miloud Taki Eddine
3Aichour, Ibtihel
4Alene, Kefyalew Addis
5Al-Eyadhy, Ayman
6Allebeck, Peter
7Alsharif, Ubai
8Alvis-Guzman, Nelson
9Anber, Nahla
10Antonio, Carl Abelardo T
11Asgedom, Solomon W
12Avokpaho, Euripide Frinel G
13Bacha, Umar
14Barrero, Lope H
15Beuran, Mircea
16Bhatt, Samir
17Cahuana-Hurtado, Lucero
18Car, Josip
19Casey, Daniel C
20Chibueze, Chioma Ezinne
21Criqui, Michael H
22Dandona, Lalit
23Defo, Barthelemy Kuate
24Deiparine, Selina
25Doku, David Teye
26Farinha, Carla Sofia e Sa
27Fraser, Maya
28Gebremichael, Delelegn Yilma
29Goldberg, Ellen M
30Gupta, Vipin
31Hankey, Graeme J
32Hosgood, H Dean
33Hostiuc, Sorin
34Hoy, Damian G
35Huynh, Chantal
36Ileanu, Bogdan Vasile
37Javanbakht, Mehdi
38Kabir, Zubair
39Kamal, Ritul
40Karch, André
41Karimkhani, Chante
42Kawakami, Norito
43Khader, Yousef Saleh
44Kim, Daniel
45Kimokoti, Ruth W
46Lalloo, Ratilal
47Lan, Qing
48Lee, Paul H
49Levi, Miriam
50Li, Yongmei
51Lorkowski, Stefan
52Maddison, Emilie R
53Martopullo, Ira
54McGaughey, Madeline
55Mensah, George A
56Miller, Ted R
57Mirarefin, Mojde
58Mirrakhimov, Erkin M
59Mishra, Shiva Raj
60Molokhia, Mariam
61Montañez, Julio C
62Montico, Marcella
63Morawska, Lidia
64Nguyen, Minh
65Okoro, Anselm
66Opio, John Nelson
67PA, Mahesh
68Panda, Basant Kumar
69Paudel, Deepak
70Plass, Dietrich
71Roshandel, Gholamreza
72Saadat, Soheil
73Sahathevan, Ramesh
74Samy, Abdallah M
75Santos, Itamar S
76Santric Milicevic, Milena M
77Schneider, Ione J C
78Shaikh, Masood Ali
79Shamsipour, Mansour
80Shey, Muki
81Shields, Chloe
82Skiadaresi, Eirini
83Sligar, Amber
84Smith, Mari
85Sorensen, Reed J D
86Steinke, Sabine
87Strub, Bryan
88Sur, Patrick J
89Talongwa, Roberto Tchio
90Thrift, Amanda G
91Troeger, Christopher
92Tyrovolas, Stefanos
93Updike, Rachel
94Vasankari, Tommi
95Weiss, Daniel J
96Werdecker, Andrea
97Xu, Gelin
98Younis, Mustafa Z
99Murray, Christopher J L
100GBD 2016 Causes of Death Collaborators
101Sahlgrenska akademin
102Institutionen för medicin, avdelningen för samhällsmedicin och folkhälsa, enheten för hälsometri
103Institute of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Health Metrics
104Göteborgs universitet
105Gothenburg University
106Sahlgrenska Academy
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88SWEPUB Lunds universitet
jtitleLancet (London, England)
delivery
delcategoryRemote Search Resource
fulltextfulltext
addata
au
0Aboyans, Victor
1Agrawal, Anurag
2Aichour, Miloud Taki Eddine
3Aichour, Ibtihel
4Alene, Kefyalew Addis
5Al-Eyadhy, Ayman
6Allebeck, Peter
7Alsharif, Ubai
8Alvis-Guzman, Nelson
9Anber, Nahla
10Antonio, Carl Abelardo T
11Asgedom, Solomon W
12Avokpaho, Euripide Frinel G
13Bacha, Umar
14Barrero, Lope H
15Beuran, Mircea
16Bhatt, Samir
17Cahuana-Hurtado, Lucero
18Car, Josip
19Casey, Daniel C
20Chibueze, Chioma Ezinne
21Criqui, Michael H
22Dandona, Lalit
23Defo, Barthelemy Kuate
24Deiparine, Selina
25Doku, David Teye
26Farinha, Carla Sofia e Sa
27Fraser, Maya
28Gebremichael, Delelegn Yilma
29Goldberg, Ellen M
30Gupta, Vipin
31Hankey, Graeme J
32Hosgood, H Dean
33Hostiuc, Sorin
34Hoy, Damian G
35Huynh, Chantal
36Ileanu, Bogdan Vasile
37Javanbakht, Mehdi
38Kabir, Zubair
39Kamal, Ritul
40Karch, André
41Karimkhani, Chante
42Kawakami, Norito
43Khader, Yousef Saleh
44Kim, Daniel
45Kimokoti, Ruth W
46Lalloo, Ratilal
47Lan, Qing
48Lee, Paul H
49Levi, Miriam
50Li, Yongmei
51Lorkowski, Stefan
52Maddison, Emilie R
53Martopullo, Ira
54McGaughey, Madeline
55Mensah, George A
56Miller, Ted R
57Mirarefin, Mojde
58Mirrakhimov, Erkin M
59Mishra, Shiva Raj
60Molokhia, Mariam
61Montañez, Julio C
62Montico, Marcella
63Morawska, Lidia
64Nguyen, Minh
65Okoro, Anselm
66Opio, John Nelson
67PA, Mahesh
68Panda, Basant Kumar
69Paudel, Deepak
70Plass, Dietrich
71Roshandel, Gholamreza
72Saadat, Soheil
73Sahathevan, Ramesh
74Samy, Abdallah M
75Santos, Itamar S
76Santric Milicevic, Milena M
77Schneider, Ione J C
78Shaikh, Masood Ali
79Shamsipour, Mansour
80Shey, Muki
81Shields, Chloe
82Skiadaresi, Eirini
83Sligar, Amber
84Smith, Mari
85Sorensen, Reed J D
86Steinke, Sabine
87Strub, Bryan
88Sur, Patrick J
89Talongwa, Roberto Tchio
90Thrift, Amanda G
91Troeger, Christopher
92Tyrovolas, Stefanos
93Updike, Rachel
94Vasankari, Tommi
95Weiss, Daniel J
96Werdecker, Andrea
97Xu, Gelin
98Younis, Mustafa Z
99Murray, Christopher J L
aucorp
0GBD 2016 Causes of Death Collaborators
1Sahlgrenska akademin
2Institutionen för medicin, avdelningen för samhällsmedicin och folkhälsa, enheten för hälsometri
3Institute of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Health Metrics
4Göteborgs universitet
5Gothenburg University
6Sahlgrenska Academy
formatjournal
genrearticle
ristypeJOUR
atitleGlobal, regional, and national age-sex specific mortality for 264 causes of death, 1980–2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016
jtitleLancet (London, England)
addtitleLancet
date2017-09-16
risdate2017
volume390
issue10100
spage1151
epage1210
pages1151-1210
issn
00140-6736
11474-547X
eissn1474-547X
notes
0The Lancet
1Collaborators listed at the end of the Article
abstractMonitoring levels and trends in premature mortality is crucial to understanding how societies can address prominent sources of early death. The Global Burden of Disease 2016 Study (GBD 2016) provides a comprehensive assessment of cause-specific mortality for 264 causes in 195 locations from 1980 to 2016. This assessment includes evaluation of the expected epidemiological transition with changes in development and where local patterns deviate from these trends. We estimated cause-specific deaths and years of life lost (YLLs) by age, sex, geography, and year. YLLs were calculated from the sum of each death multiplied by the standard life expectancy at each age. We used the GBD cause of death database composed of: vital registration (VR) data corrected for under-registration and garbage coding; national and subnational verbal autopsy (VA) studies corrected for garbage coding; and other sources including surveys and surveillance systems for specific causes such as maternal mortality. To facilitate assessment of quality, we reported on the fraction of deaths assigned to GBD Level 1 or Level 2 causes that cannot be underlying causes of death (major garbage codes) by location and year. Based on completeness, garbage coding, cause list detail, and time periods covered, we provided an overall data quality rating for each location with scores ranging from 0 stars (worst) to 5 stars (best). We used robust statistical methods including the Cause of Death Ensemble model (CODEm) to generate estimates for each location, year, age, and sex. We assessed observed and expected levels and trends of cause-specific deaths in relation to the Socio-demographic Index (SDI), a summary indicator derived from measures of average income per capita, educational attainment, and total fertility, with locations grouped into quintiles by SDI. Relative to GBD 2015, we expanded the GBD cause hierarchy by 18 causes of death for GBD 2016. The quality of available data varied by location. Data quality in 25 countries rated in the highest category (5 stars), while 48, 30, 21, and 44 countries were rated at each of the succeeding data quality levels. Vital registration or verbal autopsy data were not available in 27 countries, resulting in the assignment of a zero value for data quality. Deaths from non-communicable diseases (NCDs) represented 72·3% (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 71·2–73·2) of deaths in 2016 with 19·3% (18·5–20·4) of deaths in that year occurring from communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional (CMNN) diseases and a further 8·43% (8·00–8·67) from injuries. Although age-standardised rates of death from NCDs decreased globally between 2006 and 2016, total numbers of these deaths increased; both numbers and age-standardised rates of death from CMNN causes decreased in the decade 2006–16—age-standardised rates of deaths from injuries decreased but total numbers varied little. In 2016, the three leading global causes of death in children under-5 were lower respiratory infections, neonatal preterm birth complications, and neonatal encephalopathy due to birth asphyxia and trauma, combined resulting in 1·80 million deaths (95% UI 1·59 million to 1·89 million). Between 1990 and 2016, a profound shift toward deaths at older ages occurred with a 178% (95% UI 176–181) increase in deaths in ages 90–94 years and a 210% (208–212) increase in deaths older than age 95 years. The ten leading causes by rates of age-standardised YLL significantly decreased from 2006 to 2016 (median annualised rate of change was a decrease of 2·89%); the median annualised rate of change for all other causes was lower (a decrease of 1·59%) during the same interval. Globally, the five leading causes of total YLLs in 2016 were cardiovascular diseases; diarrhoea, lower respiratory infections, and other common infectious diseases; neoplasms; neonatal disorders; and HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis. At a finer level of disaggregation within cause groupings, the ten leading causes of total YLLs in 2016 were ischaemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, lower respiratory infections, diarrhoeal diseases, road injuries, malaria, neonatal preterm birth complications, HIV/AIDS, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and neonatal encephalopathy due to birth asphyxia and trauma. Ischaemic heart disease was the leading cause of total YLLs in 113 countries for men and 97 countries for women. Comparisons of observed levels of YLLs by countries, relative to the level of YLLs expected on the basis of SDI alone, highlighted distinct regional patterns including the greater than expected level of YLLs from malaria and from HIV/AIDS across sub-Saharan Africa; diabetes mellitus, especially in Oceania; interpersonal violence, notably within Latin America and the Caribbean; and cardiomyopathy and myocarditis, particularly in eastern and central Europe. The level of YLLs from ischaemic heart disease was less than expected in 117 of 195 locations. Other leading causes of YLLs for which YLLs were notably lower than expected included neonatal preterm birth complications in many locations in both south Asia and southeast Asia, and cerebrovascular disease in western Europe. The past 37 years have featured declining rates of communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional diseases across all quintiles of SDI, with faster than expected gains for many locations relative to their SDI. A global shift towards deaths at older ages suggests success in reducing many causes of early death. YLLs have increased globally for causes such as diabetes mellitus or some neoplasms, and in some locations for causes such as drug use disorders, and conflict and terrorism. Increasing levels of YLLs might reflect outcomes from conditions that required high levels of care but for which effective treatments remain elusive, potentially increasing costs to health systems. Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.
copEngland
pubElsevier Ltd
pmid28919116
doi10.1016/S0140-6736(17)32152-9
oafree_for_read