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Challenges for porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) vaccinology

Abstract Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) continues to be a threat for the pig industry. Vaccines have been developed, but these failed to provide sustainable disease control, in particular against genetically unrelated strains. Here we give an overview of current knowledg... Full description

Journal Title: Vaccine 2009, Vol.27 (28), p.3704-3718
Main Author: Kimman, Tjeerd G
Other Authors: Cornelissen, Lisette A , Moormann, Rob J , Rebel, Johanna M.J , Stockhofe-Zurwieden, Norbert
Format: Electronic Article Electronic Article
Language: English
Subjects:
Quelle: Alma/SFX Local Collection
Publisher: Kidlington: Elsevier Ltd
ID: ISSN: 0264-410X
Zum Text:
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recordid: cdi_wageningen_narcis_oai_library_wur_nl_wurpubs_386257
title: Challenges for porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) vaccinology
format: Article
creator:
  • Kimman, Tjeerd G
  • Cornelissen, Lisette A
  • Moormann, Rob J
  • Rebel, Johanna M.J
  • Stockhofe-Zurwieden, Norbert
subjects:
  • Allergy and Immunology
  • alveolar macrophages
  • Animals
  • Applied microbiology
  • Biological and medical sciences
  • dehydrogenase-elevating virus
  • dendritic cells
  • equine arteritis virus
  • Fundamental and applied biological sciences. Psychology
  • Immune evasion
  • immune-responses
  • Immunity
  • Interferon alpha
  • major envelope proteins
  • Microbiology
  • Miscellaneous
  • nuclear-localization signal
  • Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome
  • Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome - immunology
  • Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome - prevention & control
  • Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus
  • Porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus - immunology
  • Porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus - pathogenicity
  • Porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus - physiology
  • reading frame 5
  • recombinant pseudorabies virus
  • structural proteins
  • Swine
  • Vaccination
  • Vaccine development
  • Vaccines, antisera, therapeutical immunoglobulins and monoclonal antibodies (general aspects)
  • Viral proteins
  • Viral Vaccines - immunology
  • Virology
  • Virus diseases
ispartof: Vaccine, 2009, Vol.27 (28), p.3704-3718
description: Abstract Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) continues to be a threat for the pig industry. Vaccines have been developed, but these failed to provide sustainable disease control, in particular against genetically unrelated strains. Here we give an overview of current knowledge and gaps in our knowledge that may be relevant for the development of a future generation of more effective vaccines. PRRSV replicates in cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage, induces apoptosis and necrosis, interferes with the induction of a proinflammatory response, only slowly induces a specific antiviral response, and may cause persistent infections. The virus appears to use several evasion strategies to circumvent both innate and acquired immunity, including interference with antigen presentation, antibody-mediated enhancement, reduced cell surface expression of viral proteins, and shielding of neutralizing epitopes. In particular the downregulation of type I interferon-α production appears to interfere with the induction of acquired immunity. Current vaccines are ineffective because they suffer both from the immune evasion strategies of the virus and the antigenic heterogeneity of field strains. Future vaccines therefore must “uncouple” the immune evasion and apoptogenic/necrotic properties of the virus from its immunogenic properties, and they should induce a broad immune response covering the plasticity of its major antigenic sites. Alternatively, the composition of the vaccine should be changed regularly to reflect presently and locally circulating strains. Preferably new vaccines should also allow discriminating infected from vaccinated pigs to support a virus elimination strategy. Challenges in vaccine development are the incompletely known mechanisms of immune evasion and immunity, lack of knowledge of viral sequences that are responsible for the pathogenic and immunosuppressive properties of the virus, lack of knowledge of the forces that drive antigenic heterogeneity and its consequences for immunogenicity, and a viral genome that is relatively intolerant for subtle changes at functional sites.
language: eng
source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
identifier: ISSN: 0264-410X
fulltext: fulltext
issn:
  • 0264-410X
  • 1873-2518
url: Link


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creatorcontribKimman, Tjeerd G ; Cornelissen, Lisette A ; Moormann, Rob J ; Rebel, Johanna M.J ; Stockhofe-Zurwieden, Norbert
descriptionAbstract Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) continues to be a threat for the pig industry. Vaccines have been developed, but these failed to provide sustainable disease control, in particular against genetically unrelated strains. Here we give an overview of current knowledge and gaps in our knowledge that may be relevant for the development of a future generation of more effective vaccines. PRRSV replicates in cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage, induces apoptosis and necrosis, interferes with the induction of a proinflammatory response, only slowly induces a specific antiviral response, and may cause persistent infections. The virus appears to use several evasion strategies to circumvent both innate and acquired immunity, including interference with antigen presentation, antibody-mediated enhancement, reduced cell surface expression of viral proteins, and shielding of neutralizing epitopes. In particular the downregulation of type I interferon-α production appears to interfere with the induction of acquired immunity. Current vaccines are ineffective because they suffer both from the immune evasion strategies of the virus and the antigenic heterogeneity of field strains. Future vaccines therefore must “uncouple” the immune evasion and apoptogenic/necrotic properties of the virus from its immunogenic properties, and they should induce a broad immune response covering the plasticity of its major antigenic sites. Alternatively, the composition of the vaccine should be changed regularly to reflect presently and locally circulating strains. Preferably new vaccines should also allow discriminating infected from vaccinated pigs to support a virus elimination strategy. Challenges in vaccine development are the incompletely known mechanisms of immune evasion and immunity, lack of knowledge of viral sequences that are responsible for the pathogenic and immunosuppressive properties of the virus, lack of knowledge of the forces that drive antigenic heterogeneity and its consequences for immunogenicity, and a viral genome that is relatively intolerant for subtle changes at functional sites.
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subjectAllergy and Immunology ; alveolar macrophages ; Animals ; Applied microbiology ; Biological and medical sciences ; dehydrogenase-elevating virus ; dendritic cells ; equine arteritis virus ; Fundamental and applied biological sciences. Psychology ; Immune evasion ; immune-responses ; Immunity ; Interferon alpha ; major envelope proteins ; Microbiology ; Miscellaneous ; nuclear-localization signal ; Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome ; Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome - immunology ; Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome - prevention & control ; Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus ; Porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus - immunology ; Porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus - pathogenicity ; Porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus - physiology ; reading frame 5 ; recombinant pseudorabies virus ; structural proteins ; Swine ; Vaccination ; Vaccine development ; Vaccines, antisera, therapeutical immunoglobulins and monoclonal antibodies (general aspects) ; Viral proteins ; Viral Vaccines - immunology ; Virology ; Virus diseases
ispartofVaccine, 2009, Vol.27 (28), p.3704-3718
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descriptionAbstract Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) continues to be a threat for the pig industry. Vaccines have been developed, but these failed to provide sustainable disease control, in particular against genetically unrelated strains. Here we give an overview of current knowledge and gaps in our knowledge that may be relevant for the development of a future generation of more effective vaccines. PRRSV replicates in cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage, induces apoptosis and necrosis, interferes with the induction of a proinflammatory response, only slowly induces a specific antiviral response, and may cause persistent infections. The virus appears to use several evasion strategies to circumvent both innate and acquired immunity, including interference with antigen presentation, antibody-mediated enhancement, reduced cell surface expression of viral proteins, and shielding of neutralizing epitopes. In particular the downregulation of type I interferon-α production appears to interfere with the induction of acquired immunity. Current vaccines are ineffective because they suffer both from the immune evasion strategies of the virus and the antigenic heterogeneity of field strains. Future vaccines therefore must “uncouple” the immune evasion and apoptogenic/necrotic properties of the virus from its immunogenic properties, and they should induce a broad immune response covering the plasticity of its major antigenic sites. Alternatively, the composition of the vaccine should be changed regularly to reflect presently and locally circulating strains. Preferably new vaccines should also allow discriminating infected from vaccinated pigs to support a virus elimination strategy. Challenges in vaccine development are the incompletely known mechanisms of immune evasion and immunity, lack of knowledge of viral sequences that are responsible for the pathogenic and immunosuppressive properties of the virus, lack of knowledge of the forces that drive antigenic heterogeneity and its consequences for immunogenicity, and a viral genome that is relatively intolerant for subtle changes at functional sites.
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30Vaccines, antisera, therapeutical immunoglobulins and monoclonal antibodies (general aspects)
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33Virology
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titleChallenges for porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) vaccinology
authorKimman, Tjeerd G ; Cornelissen, Lisette A ; Moormann, Rob J ; Rebel, Johanna M.J ; Stockhofe-Zurwieden, Norbert
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abstractAbstract Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) continues to be a threat for the pig industry. Vaccines have been developed, but these failed to provide sustainable disease control, in particular against genetically unrelated strains. Here we give an overview of current knowledge and gaps in our knowledge that may be relevant for the development of a future generation of more effective vaccines. PRRSV replicates in cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage, induces apoptosis and necrosis, interferes with the induction of a proinflammatory response, only slowly induces a specific antiviral response, and may cause persistent infections. The virus appears to use several evasion strategies to circumvent both innate and acquired immunity, including interference with antigen presentation, antibody-mediated enhancement, reduced cell surface expression of viral proteins, and shielding of neutralizing epitopes. In particular the downregulation of type I interferon-α production appears to interfere with the induction of acquired immunity. Current vaccines are ineffective because they suffer both from the immune evasion strategies of the virus and the antigenic heterogeneity of field strains. Future vaccines therefore must “uncouple” the immune evasion and apoptogenic/necrotic properties of the virus from its immunogenic properties, and they should induce a broad immune response covering the plasticity of its major antigenic sites. Alternatively, the composition of the vaccine should be changed regularly to reflect presently and locally circulating strains. Preferably new vaccines should also allow discriminating infected from vaccinated pigs to support a virus elimination strategy. Challenges in vaccine development are the incompletely known mechanisms of immune evasion and immunity, lack of knowledge of viral sequences that are responsible for the pathogenic and immunosuppressive properties of the virus, lack of knowledge of the forces that drive antigenic heterogeneity and its consequences for immunogenicity, and a viral genome that is relatively intolerant for subtle changes at functional sites.
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pubElsevier Ltd
pmid19464553
doi10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.04.022