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Practical considerations for conducting ecotoxicity test methods with manufactured nanomaterials: what have we learnt so far?

This review paper reports the consensus of a technical workshop hosted by the European network, NanoImpactNet (NIN). The workshop aimed to review the collective experience of working at the bench with manufactured nanomaterials (MNMs), and to recommend modifications to existing experimental methods... Full description

Journal Title: ECOTOXICOLOGY 2012, Vol.21 (4), p.933-972
Main Author: Handy, R.D
Other Authors: Brink, van den, N.W , Chappell, M , Muhling, M , Behra, R , Dusinska, M , Simpson, P , Ahtiainen, J , Jha, A.N , Seiter, J , Bednar, A , Kennedy, A , Fernandes, T.F , Riediker, M
Format: Electronic Article Electronic Article
Language: English
Subjects:
in
Law
Publisher: Boston: Springer US
ID: ISSN: 0963-9292
Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22422174
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recordid: cdi_wageningen_narcis_oai_library_wur_nl_wurpubs_441375
title: Practical considerations for conducting ecotoxicity test methods with manufactured nanomaterials: what have we learnt so far?
format: Article
creator:
  • Handy, R.D
  • Brink, van den, N.W
  • Chappell, M
  • Muhling, M
  • Behra, R
  • Dusinska, M
  • Simpson, P
  • Ahtiainen, J
  • Jha, A.N
  • Seiter, J
  • Bednar, A
  • Kennedy, A
  • Fernandes, T.F
  • Riediker, M
subjects:
  • Analysis
  • Animal culture
  • Animals
  • Aquatic tests
  • Article
  • Assaying
  • assessment
  • Bacteria
  • Bioaccumulation factor tests
  • Biological Assay
  • breaks
  • Chromatography
  • Comet Assay - methods
  • dioxide nanoparticles
  • Dispersing
  • Dispersions
  • dna str
  • dna strand breaks
  • Earth and Environmental Science
  • Earthworm
  • Ecology
  • Ecosystem components
  • Ecotoxicology
  • Ecotoxicology - methods
  • elegans
  • Endpoint Determination
  • Environment
  • Environmental Management
  • environmental risk
  • environmental risk-assessment
  • Fishes - metabolism
  • fullerene water suspensions
  • general
  • Gram positive Bacteria
  • Guidelines
  • Guidelines as Topic
  • Health
  • in
  • in-vitro
  • Law
  • Logistics
  • Management
  • Media
  • Metals - toxicity
  • Methods
  • Micronucleus Tests - methods
  • Microorganisms
  • Microscopy, Electron - methods
  • Monitoring
  • Mutagenesis
  • Nanomaterials
  • Nanoparticle characterisation
  • Nanostructure
  • Nanostructures
  • Nanostructures - chemistry
  • Nanostructures - toxicity
  • Nanotechnology
  • nanotubes
  • nematode caenorhabditis
  • nematode caenorhabditis-elegans
  • OECD test method
  • Particle Size
  • Photosynthesis
  • Phytochemistry
  • Policy
  • rainbow
  • rainbow-trout
  • silver nanoparticles
  • soil microbial community
  • Soil Microbiology
  • titanium
  • titanium-dioxide nanoparticles
  • Toxicity
  • Toxicity Tests
  • Toxicity Tests - methods
  • Toxicology
  • trout
  • vitro
  • walled carbon
  • walled carbon-nanotubes
  • Wastewater
ispartof: ECOTOXICOLOGY, 2012, Vol.21 (4), p.933-972
description: This review paper reports the consensus of a technical workshop hosted by the European network, NanoImpactNet (NIN). The workshop aimed to review the collective experience of working at the bench with manufactured nanomaterials (MNMs), and to recommend modifications to existing experimental methods and OECD protocols. Current procedures for cleaning glassware are appropriate for most MNMs, although interference with electrodes may occur. Maintaining exposure is more difficult with MNMs compared to conventional chemicals. A metal salt control is recommended for experiments with metallic MNMs that may release free metal ions. Dispersing agents should be avoided, but if they must be used, then natural or synthetic dispersing agents are possible, and dispersion controls essential. Time constraints and technology gaps indicate that full characterisation of test media during ecotoxicity tests is currently not practical. Details of electron microscopy, dark-field microscopy, a range of spectroscopic methods (EDX, XRD, XANES, EXAFS), light scattering techniques (DLS, SLS) and chromatography are discussed. The development of user-friendly software to predict particle behaviour in test media according to DLVO theory is in progress, and simple optical methods are available to estimate the settling behaviour of suspensions during experiments. However, for soil matrices such simple approaches may not be applicable. Alternatively, a Critical Body Residue approach may be taken in which body concentrations in organisms are related to effects, and toxicity thresholds derived. For microbial assays, the cell wall is a formidable barrier to MNMs and end points that rely on the test substance penetrating the cell may be insensitive. Instead assays based on the cell envelope should be developed for MNMs. In algal growth tests, the abiotic factors that promote particle aggregation in the media (e.g. ionic strength) are also important in providing nutrients, and manipulation of the media to control the dispersion may also inhibit growth. Controls to quantify shading effects, and precise details of lighting regimes, shaking or mixing should be reported in algal tests. Photosynthesis may be more sensitive than traditional growth end points for algae and plants. Tests with invertebrates should consider non-chemical toxicity from particle adherence to the organisms. The use of semi-static exposure methods with fish can reduce the logistical issues of waste water disposal and facilita
language: eng
source:
identifier: ISSN: 0963-9292
fulltext: no_fulltext
issn:
  • 0963-9292
  • 1573-3017
url: Link


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titlePractical considerations for conducting ecotoxicity test methods with manufactured nanomaterials: what have we learnt so far?
creatorHandy, R.D ; Brink, van den, N.W ; Chappell, M ; Muhling, M ; Behra, R ; Dusinska, M ; Simpson, P ; Ahtiainen, J ; Jha, A.N ; Seiter, J ; Bednar, A ; Kennedy, A ; Fernandes, T.F ; Riediker, M
creatorcontribHandy, R.D ; Brink, van den, N.W ; Chappell, M ; Muhling, M ; Behra, R ; Dusinska, M ; Simpson, P ; Ahtiainen, J ; Jha, A.N ; Seiter, J ; Bednar, A ; Kennedy, A ; Fernandes, T.F ; Riediker, M
descriptionThis review paper reports the consensus of a technical workshop hosted by the European network, NanoImpactNet (NIN). The workshop aimed to review the collective experience of working at the bench with manufactured nanomaterials (MNMs), and to recommend modifications to existing experimental methods and OECD protocols. Current procedures for cleaning glassware are appropriate for most MNMs, although interference with electrodes may occur. Maintaining exposure is more difficult with MNMs compared to conventional chemicals. A metal salt control is recommended for experiments with metallic MNMs that may release free metal ions. Dispersing agents should be avoided, but if they must be used, then natural or synthetic dispersing agents are possible, and dispersion controls essential. Time constraints and technology gaps indicate that full characterisation of test media during ecotoxicity tests is currently not practical. Details of electron microscopy, dark-field microscopy, a range of spectroscopic methods (EDX, XRD, XANES, EXAFS), light scattering techniques (DLS, SLS) and chromatography are discussed. The development of user-friendly software to predict particle behaviour in test media according to DLVO theory is in progress, and simple optical methods are available to estimate the settling behaviour of suspensions during experiments. However, for soil matrices such simple approaches may not be applicable. Alternatively, a Critical Body Residue approach may be taken in which body concentrations in organisms are related to effects, and toxicity thresholds derived. For microbial assays, the cell wall is a formidable barrier to MNMs and end points that rely on the test substance penetrating the cell may be insensitive. Instead assays based on the cell envelope should be developed for MNMs. In algal growth tests, the abiotic factors that promote particle aggregation in the media (e.g. ionic strength) are also important in providing nutrients, and manipulation of the media to control the dispersion may also inhibit growth. Controls to quantify shading effects, and precise details of lighting regimes, shaking or mixing should be reported in algal tests. Photosynthesis may be more sensitive than traditional growth end points for algae and plants. Tests with invertebrates should consider non-chemical toxicity from particle adherence to the organisms. The use of semi-static exposure methods with fish can reduce the logistical issues of waste water disposal and facilitate aspects of animal husbandry relevant to MMNs. There are concerns that the existing bioaccumulation tests are conceptually flawed for MNMs and that new test(s) are required. In vitro testing strategies, as exemplified by genotoxicity assays, can be modified for MNMs, but the risk of false negatives in some assays is highlighted. In conclusion, most protocols will require some modifications and recommendations are made to aid the researcher at the bench.
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languageeng
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subjectAnalysis ; Animal culture ; Animals ; Aquatic tests ; Article ; Assaying ; assessment ; Bacteria ; Bioaccumulation factor tests ; Biological Assay ; breaks ; Chromatography ; Comet Assay - methods ; dioxide nanoparticles ; Dispersing ; Dispersions ; dna str ; dna strand breaks ; Earth and Environmental Science ; Earthworm ; Ecology ; Ecosystem components ; Ecotoxicology ; Ecotoxicology - methods ; elegans ; Endpoint Determination ; Environment ; Environmental Management ; environmental risk ; environmental risk-assessment ; Fishes - metabolism ; fullerene water suspensions ; general ; Gram positive Bacteria ; Guidelines ; Guidelines as Topic ; Health ; in ; in-vitro ; Law ; Logistics ; Management ; Media ; Metals - toxicity ; Methods ; Micronucleus Tests - methods ; Microorganisms ; Microscopy, Electron - methods ; Monitoring ; Mutagenesis ; Nanomaterials ; Nanoparticle characterisation ; Nanostructure ; Nanostructures ; Nanostructures - chemistry ; Nanostructures - toxicity ; Nanotechnology ; nanotubes ; nematode caenorhabditis ; nematode caenorhabditis-elegans ; OECD test method ; Particle Size ; Photosynthesis ; Phytochemistry ; Policy ; rainbow ; rainbow-trout ; silver nanoparticles ; soil microbial community ; Soil Microbiology ; titanium ; titanium-dioxide nanoparticles ; Toxicity ; Toxicity Tests ; Toxicity Tests - methods ; Toxicology ; trout ; vitro ; walled carbon ; walled carbon-nanotubes ; Wastewater
ispartofECOTOXICOLOGY, 2012, Vol.21 (4), p.933-972
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1Brink, van den, N.W
2Chappell, M
3Muhling, M
4Behra, R
5Dusinska, M
6Simpson, P
7Ahtiainen, J
8Jha, A.N
9Seiter, J
10Bednar, A
11Kennedy, A
12Fernandes, T.F
13Riediker, M
title
0Practical considerations for conducting ecotoxicity test methods with manufactured nanomaterials: what have we learnt so far?
1ECOTOXICOLOGY
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0Ecotoxicology
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descriptionThis review paper reports the consensus of a technical workshop hosted by the European network, NanoImpactNet (NIN). The workshop aimed to review the collective experience of working at the bench with manufactured nanomaterials (MNMs), and to recommend modifications to existing experimental methods and OECD protocols. Current procedures for cleaning glassware are appropriate for most MNMs, although interference with electrodes may occur. Maintaining exposure is more difficult with MNMs compared to conventional chemicals. A metal salt control is recommended for experiments with metallic MNMs that may release free metal ions. Dispersing agents should be avoided, but if they must be used, then natural or synthetic dispersing agents are possible, and dispersion controls essential. Time constraints and technology gaps indicate that full characterisation of test media during ecotoxicity tests is currently not practical. Details of electron microscopy, dark-field microscopy, a range of spectroscopic methods (EDX, XRD, XANES, EXAFS), light scattering techniques (DLS, SLS) and chromatography are discussed. The development of user-friendly software to predict particle behaviour in test media according to DLVO theory is in progress, and simple optical methods are available to estimate the settling behaviour of suspensions during experiments. However, for soil matrices such simple approaches may not be applicable. Alternatively, a Critical Body Residue approach may be taken in which body concentrations in organisms are related to effects, and toxicity thresholds derived. For microbial assays, the cell wall is a formidable barrier to MNMs and end points that rely on the test substance penetrating the cell may be insensitive. Instead assays based on the cell envelope should be developed for MNMs. In algal growth tests, the abiotic factors that promote particle aggregation in the media (e.g. ionic strength) are also important in providing nutrients, and manipulation of the media to control the dispersion may also inhibit growth. Controls to quantify shading effects, and precise details of lighting regimes, shaking or mixing should be reported in algal tests. Photosynthesis may be more sensitive than traditional growth end points for algae and plants. Tests with invertebrates should consider non-chemical toxicity from particle adherence to the organisms. The use of semi-static exposure methods with fish can reduce the logistical issues of waste water disposal and facilitate aspects of animal husbandry relevant to MMNs. There are concerns that the existing bioaccumulation tests are conceptually flawed for MNMs and that new test(s) are required. In vitro testing strategies, as exemplified by genotoxicity assays, can be modified for MNMs, but the risk of false negatives in some assays is highlighted. In conclusion, most protocols will require some modifications and recommendations are made to aid the researcher at the bench.
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5Assaying
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7Bacteria
8Bioaccumulation factor tests
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10breaks
11Chromatography
12Comet Assay - methods
13dioxide nanoparticles
14Dispersing
15Dispersions
16dna str
17dna strand breaks
18Earth and Environmental Science
19Earthworm
20Ecology
21Ecosystem components
22Ecotoxicology
23Ecotoxicology - methods
24elegans
25Endpoint Determination
26Environment
27Environmental Management
28environmental risk
29environmental risk-assessment
30Fishes - metabolism
31fullerene water suspensions
32general
33Gram positive Bacteria
34Guidelines
35Guidelines as Topic
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37in
38in-vitro
39Law
40Logistics
41Management
42Media
43Metals - toxicity
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46Microorganisms
47Microscopy, Electron - methods
48Monitoring
49Mutagenesis
50Nanomaterials
51Nanoparticle characterisation
52Nanostructure
53Nanostructures
54Nanostructures - chemistry
55Nanostructures - toxicity
56Nanotechnology
57nanotubes
58nematode caenorhabditis
59nematode caenorhabditis-elegans
60OECD test method
61Particle Size
62Photosynthesis
63Phytochemistry
64Policy
65rainbow
66rainbow-trout
67silver nanoparticles
68soil microbial community
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70titanium
71titanium-dioxide nanoparticles
72Toxicity
73Toxicity Tests
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75Toxicology
76trout
77vitro
78walled carbon
79walled carbon-nanotubes
80Wastewater
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titlePractical considerations for conducting ecotoxicity test methods with manufactured nanomaterials: what have we learnt so far?
authorHandy, R.D ; Brink, van den, N.W ; Chappell, M ; Muhling, M ; Behra, R ; Dusinska, M ; Simpson, P ; Ahtiainen, J ; Jha, A.N ; Seiter, J ; Bednar, A ; Kennedy, A ; Fernandes, T.F ; Riediker, M
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11Chromatography
12Comet Assay - methods
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74Toxicity Tests - methods
75Toxicology
76trout
77vitro
78walled carbon
79walled carbon-nanotubes
80Wastewater
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abstractThis review paper reports the consensus of a technical workshop hosted by the European network, NanoImpactNet (NIN). The workshop aimed to review the collective experience of working at the bench with manufactured nanomaterials (MNMs), and to recommend modifications to existing experimental methods and OECD protocols. Current procedures for cleaning glassware are appropriate for most MNMs, although interference with electrodes may occur. Maintaining exposure is more difficult with MNMs compared to conventional chemicals. A metal salt control is recommended for experiments with metallic MNMs that may release free metal ions. Dispersing agents should be avoided, but if they must be used, then natural or synthetic dispersing agents are possible, and dispersion controls essential. Time constraints and technology gaps indicate that full characterisation of test media during ecotoxicity tests is currently not practical. Details of electron microscopy, dark-field microscopy, a range of spectroscopic methods (EDX, XRD, XANES, EXAFS), light scattering techniques (DLS, SLS) and chromatography are discussed. The development of user-friendly software to predict particle behaviour in test media according to DLVO theory is in progress, and simple optical methods are available to estimate the settling behaviour of suspensions during experiments. However, for soil matrices such simple approaches may not be applicable. Alternatively, a Critical Body Residue approach may be taken in which body concentrations in organisms are related to effects, and toxicity thresholds derived. For microbial assays, the cell wall is a formidable barrier to MNMs and end points that rely on the test substance penetrating the cell may be insensitive. Instead assays based on the cell envelope should be developed for MNMs. In algal growth tests, the abiotic factors that promote particle aggregation in the media (e.g. ionic strength) are also important in providing nutrients, and manipulation of the media to control the dispersion may also inhibit growth. Controls to quantify shading effects, and precise details of lighting regimes, shaking or mixing should be reported in algal tests. Photosynthesis may be more sensitive than traditional growth end points for algae and plants. Tests with invertebrates should consider non-chemical toxicity from particle adherence to the organisms. The use of semi-static exposure methods with fish can reduce the logistical issues of waste water disposal and facilitate aspects of animal husbandry relevant to MMNs. There are concerns that the existing bioaccumulation tests are conceptually flawed for MNMs and that new test(s) are required. In vitro testing strategies, as exemplified by genotoxicity assays, can be modified for MNMs, but the risk of false negatives in some assays is highlighted. In conclusion, most protocols will require some modifications and recommendations are made to aid the researcher at the bench.
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