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Worldwide trends in blood pressure from 1975 to 2015: a pooled analysis of 1479 population-based measurement studies with 19·1 million participants

Summary Background Raised blood pressure is an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and chronic kidney disease. We estimated worldwide trends in mean systolic and mean diastolic blood pressure, and the prevalence of, and number of people with, raised blood pressure, defined as systolic... Full description

Journal Title: Lancet 2017, Vol.389 (10064), p.37-55
Main Author: Di Cesare, Mariachiara
Other Authors: Danaei, Goodarz , Bilano, Ver , Bovet, Pascal , Mondo, Charles K , Neuhauser, Hannelore K , Sundström, Johan , Smeeth, Liam , Ezzati, Majid , Acosta-Cazares, Benjamin , Agyemang, Charles , Al Raddadi, Rajaa , Al Woyatan, Rihab , Ängquist, Lars , Ariansen, Inger , Banegas, José R , Batieha, Anwar M , Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio , Blokstra, Anneke , Bobak, Martin , Brajkovich, Imperia , Cardoso, Viviane C , Caserta, Carmelo A , Chamukuttan, Snehalatha , Chen, Shuohua , Chetrit, Angela , Clays, Els , Cooper, Cyrus , Dehghan, Abbas , Dhana, Klodian , Dulskiene, Virginija , Elosua, Roberto , Faeh, David , Farzadfar, Farshad , Franco, Oscar H , Frontera, Guillermo , Furusawa, Takuro , Geleijnse, Johanna M , Gianfagna, Francesco , Grøntved, Anders , Gurzkowska, Beata , Houti, Leila , Hu, Yonghua , Husseini, Abdullatif S , Kafatos, Anthony , Kauhanen, Jussi , Kaur, Prabhdeep , Kemper, Han C G , Khalili, Davood , Khang, Young-Ho , Le, Tuyen D , Lekhraj, Rampal , Luksiene, Dalia , Manios, Yannis , Marrugat, Jaume , Matijasevich, Alicia , Posso, Anselmo J Mc Donald , McFarlane, Shelly R , Menon, Geetha R , Møller, Niels C , Molnár, Dénes , Momenan, Amirabbas , Moreno, Luis A , Mostafa, Aya , Mota, Jorge , Navarrete-Muñoz, Eva Maria , Noto, Davide , Parnell, Winsome R , Peixoto, Sergio Viana , Pelletier, Catherine , Pereira, Alexandre C , Pilotto, Lorenza , Plans-Rubió, Pedro , Porta, Miquel , Riboli, Elio , Rigo, Fernando , Robinson, Sian M , Rubinstein, Adolfo , Salonen, Jukka T , Salvetti, Massimo , Sans, Susana , Saramies, Jouko L , Schargrodsky, Herman , Sibai, Abla M , Slusarczyk, Przemyslaw , So, Hung-Kwan , Solfrizzi, Vincenzo , Song, Yi , Sørensen, Thorkild IA , Tang, Line , Tao, Yong , Topbas, Murat , Trichopoulou, Antonia , Veronesi, Giovanni , Vrdoljak, Ana , Wojtyniak, Bogdan , Wu, Frederick C , Yusoff, Ahmad F , Yusoff, Muhammad Fadhli M , Zheng, Yingffeng
Format: Electronic Article Electronic Article
Language: English
Subjects:
Age
Men
Non
VDP
Quelle: Alma/SFX Local Collection
Publisher: England: Elsevier Ltd
ID: ISSN: 0140-6736
Zum Text:
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recordid: cdi_wageningen_narcis_oai_library_wur_nl_wurpubs_516923
title: Worldwide trends in blood pressure from 1975 to 2015: a pooled analysis of 1479 population-based measurement studies with 19·1 million participants
format: Article
creator:
  • Di Cesare, Mariachiara
  • Danaei, Goodarz
  • Bilano, Ver
  • Bovet, Pascal
  • Mondo, Charles K
  • Neuhauser, Hannelore K
  • Sundström, Johan
  • Smeeth, Liam
  • Ezzati, Majid
  • Acosta-Cazares, Benjamin
  • Agyemang, Charles
  • Al Raddadi, Rajaa
  • Al Woyatan, Rihab
  • Ängquist, Lars
  • Ariansen, Inger
  • Banegas, José R
  • Batieha, Anwar M
  • Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio
  • Blokstra, Anneke
  • Bobak, Martin
  • Brajkovich, Imperia
  • Cardoso, Viviane C
  • Caserta, Carmelo A
  • Chamukuttan, Snehalatha
  • Chen, Shuohua
  • Chetrit, Angela
  • Clays, Els
  • Cooper, Cyrus
  • Dehghan, Abbas
  • Dhana, Klodian
  • Dulskiene, Virginija
  • Elosua, Roberto
  • Faeh, David
  • Farzadfar, Farshad
  • Franco, Oscar H
  • Frontera, Guillermo
  • Furusawa, Takuro
  • Geleijnse, Johanna M
  • Gianfagna, Francesco
  • Grøntved, Anders
  • Gurzkowska, Beata
  • Houti, Leila
  • Hu, Yonghua
  • Husseini, Abdullatif S
  • Kafatos, Anthony
  • Kauhanen, Jussi
  • Kaur, Prabhdeep
  • Kemper, Han C G
  • Khalili, Davood
  • Khang, Young-Ho
  • Le, Tuyen D
  • Lekhraj, Rampal
  • Luksiene, Dalia
  • Manios, Yannis
  • Marrugat, Jaume
  • Matijasevich, Alicia
  • Posso, Anselmo J Mc Donald
  • McFarlane, Shelly R
  • Menon, Geetha R
  • Møller, Niels C
  • Molnár, Dénes
  • Momenan, Amirabbas
  • Moreno, Luis A
  • Mostafa, Aya
  • Mota, Jorge
  • Navarrete-Muñoz, Eva Maria
  • Noto, Davide
  • Parnell, Winsome R
  • Peixoto, Sergio Viana
  • Pelletier, Catherine
  • Pereira, Alexandre C
  • Pilotto, Lorenza
  • Plans-Rubió, Pedro
  • Porta, Miquel
  • Riboli, Elio
  • Rigo, Fernando
  • Robinson, Sian M
  • Rubinstein, Adolfo
  • Salonen, Jukka T
  • Salvetti, Massimo
  • Sans, Susana
  • Saramies, Jouko L
  • Schargrodsky, Herman
  • Sibai, Abla M
  • Slusarczyk, Przemyslaw
  • So, Hung-Kwan
  • Solfrizzi, Vincenzo
  • Song, Yi
  • Sørensen, Thorkild IA
  • Tang, Line
  • Tao, Yong
  • Topbas, Murat
  • Trichopoulou, Antonia
  • Veronesi, Giovanni
  • Vrdoljak, Ana
  • Wojtyniak, Bogdan
  • Wu, Frederick C
  • Yusoff, Ahmad F
  • Yusoff, Muhammad Fadhli M
  • Zheng, Yingffeng
subjects:
  • 610 Medicine & health
  • Adults
  • Age
  • Aging
  • Allmän medicin
  • Analysis
  • Articles
  • asjc
  • atira
  • based studies
  • Bayes Theorem
  • Bayesian analysis
  • Biostatistics
  • Blood Pressure
  • Cardiovascular diseases
  • Chair Nutrition and Disease
  • Chronic kidney disease
  • Clinical medical disciplines
  • Clinical medical disciplines: 750
  • Clinical Medicine
  • Comment
  • Disease control
  • Epidemiology
  • Family Medicine
  • Folkhälsovetenskap, global hälsa, socialmedicin och epidemiologi
  • Global Health
  • Gov't
  • Health risk assessment
  • Health risks
  • Health Sciences
  • HNE Nutrition and Disease
  • HNE Voeding en Ziekte
  • Hospitals
  • Humans
  • Hypertension
  • Hälsovetenskap
  • Income
  • Internal Medicine
  • Journal Article
  • Kidney diseases
  • Klinisk medicin
  • Klinisk medisinske fag
  • Klinisk medisinske fag: 750
  • Life Sciences
  • Low income groups
  • Measurement
  • Medical and Health Sciences
  • Medical disciplines
  • Medical disciplines: 700
  • Medicin och hälsovetenskap
  • Medicine(all)
  • Medisinske Fag
  • Medisinske Fag: 700
  • Men
  • NCD Risk Factor Collaboration
  • Non
  • Nutrition and Disease
  • Population
  • Population growth
  • Population studies
  • Pressure distribution
  • Pressure effects
  • Prevalence
  • Prevention Institute (EBPI)
  • Public health
  • Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
  • pubmedpublicationtype
  • pure
  • Regions
  • Research Support
  • researchoutput
  • Risk analysis
  • Risk Factors
  • Studies
  • subjectarea
  • Systolic blood pressure
  • Trends
  • VDP
  • VLAG
  • Voeding en Ziekte
  • Women
  • Worldwide trends
ispartof: Lancet, 2017, Vol.389 (10064), p.37-55
description: Summary Background Raised blood pressure is an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and chronic kidney disease. We estimated worldwide trends in mean systolic and mean diastolic blood pressure, and the prevalence of, and number of people with, raised blood pressure, defined as systolic blood pressure of 140 mm Hg or higher or diastolic blood pressure of 90 mm Hg or higher. Methods For this analysis, we pooled national, subnational, or community population-based studies that had measured blood pressure in adults aged 18 years and older. We used a Bayesian hierarchical model to estimate trends from 1975 to 2015 in mean systolic and mean diastolic blood pressure, and the prevalence of raised blood pressure for 200 countries. We calculated the contributions of changes in prevalence versus population growth and ageing to the increase in the number of adults with raised blood pressure. Findings We pooled 1479 studies that had measured the blood pressures of 19·1 million adults. Global age-standardised mean systolic blood pressure in 2015 was 127·0 mm Hg (95% credible interval 125·7–128·3) in men and 122·3 mm Hg (121·0–123·6) in women; age-standardised mean diastolic blood pressure was 78·7 mm Hg (77·9–79·5) for men and 76·7 mm Hg (75·9–77·6) for women. Global age-standardised prevalence of raised blood pressure was 24·1% (21·4–27·1) in men and 20·1% (17·8–22·5) in women in 2015. Mean systolic and mean diastolic blood pressure decreased substantially from 1975 to 2015 in high-income western and Asia Pacific countries, moving these countries from having some of the highest worldwide blood pressure in 1975 to the lowest in 2015. Mean blood pressure also decreased in women in central and eastern Europe, Latin America and the Caribbean, and, more recently, central Asia, Middle East, and north Africa, but the estimated trends in these super-regions had larger uncertainty than in high-income super-regions. By contrast, mean blood pressure might have increased in east and southeast Asia, south Asia, Oceania, and sub-Saharan Africa. In 2015, central and eastern Europe, sub-Saharan Africa, and south Asia had the highest blood pressure levels. Prevalence of raised blood pressure decreased in high-income and some middle-income countries; it remained unchanged elsewhere. The number of adults with raised blood pressure increased from 594 million in 1975 to 1·13 billion in 2015, with the increase largely in low-income and middle-income countries. The global increa
language: eng
source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
identifier: ISSN: 0140-6736
fulltext: fulltext
issn:
  • 0140-6736
  • 1474-547X
  • 1474-547X
url: Link


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titleWorldwide trends in blood pressure from 1975 to 2015: a pooled analysis of 1479 population-based measurement studies with 19·1 million participants
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creatorDi Cesare, Mariachiara ; Danaei, Goodarz ; Bilano, Ver ; Bovet, Pascal ; Mondo, Charles K ; Neuhauser, Hannelore K ; Sundström, Johan ; Smeeth, Liam ; Ezzati, Majid ; Acosta-Cazares, Benjamin ; Agyemang, Charles ; Al Raddadi, Rajaa ; Al Woyatan, Rihab ; Ängquist, Lars ; Ariansen, Inger ; Banegas, José R ; Batieha, Anwar M ; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio ; Blokstra, Anneke ; Bobak, Martin ; Brajkovich, Imperia ; Cardoso, Viviane C ; Caserta, Carmelo A ; Chamukuttan, Snehalatha ; Chen, Shuohua ; Chetrit, Angela ; Clays, Els ; Cooper, Cyrus ; Dehghan, Abbas ; Dhana, Klodian ; Dulskiene, Virginija ; Elosua, Roberto ; Faeh, David ; Farzadfar, Farshad ; Franco, Oscar H ; Frontera, Guillermo ; Furusawa, Takuro ; Geleijnse, Johanna M ; Gianfagna, Francesco ; Grøntved, Anders ; Gurzkowska, Beata ; Houti, Leila ; Hu, Yonghua ; Husseini, Abdullatif S ; Kafatos, Anthony ; Kauhanen, Jussi ; Kaur, Prabhdeep ; Kemper, Han C G ; Khalili, Davood ; Khang, Young-Ho ; Le, Tuyen D ; Lekhraj, Rampal ; Luksiene, Dalia ; Manios, Yannis ; Marrugat, Jaume ; Matijasevich, Alicia ; Posso, Anselmo J Mc Donald ; McFarlane, Shelly R ; Menon, Geetha R ; Møller, Niels C ; Molnár, Dénes ; Momenan, Amirabbas ; Moreno, Luis A ; Mostafa, Aya ; Mota, Jorge ; Navarrete-Muñoz, Eva Maria ; Noto, Davide ; Parnell, Winsome R ; Peixoto, Sergio Viana ; Pelletier, Catherine ; Pereira, Alexandre C ; Pilotto, Lorenza ; Plans-Rubió, Pedro ; Porta, Miquel ; Riboli, Elio ; Rigo, Fernando ; Robinson, Sian M ; Rubinstein, Adolfo ; Salonen, Jukka T ; Salvetti, Massimo ; Sans, Susana ; Saramies, Jouko L ; Schargrodsky, Herman ; Sibai, Abla M ; Slusarczyk, Przemyslaw ; So, Hung-Kwan ; Solfrizzi, Vincenzo ; Song, Yi ; Sørensen, Thorkild IA ; Tang, Line ; Tao, Yong ; Topbas, Murat ; Trichopoulou, Antonia ; Veronesi, Giovanni ; Vrdoljak, Ana ; Wojtyniak, Bogdan ; Wu, Frederick C ; Yusoff, Ahmad F ; Yusoff, Muhammad Fadhli M ; Zheng, Yingffeng
creatorcontribDi Cesare, Mariachiara ; Danaei, Goodarz ; Bilano, Ver ; Bovet, Pascal ; Mondo, Charles K ; Neuhauser, Hannelore K ; Sundström, Johan ; Smeeth, Liam ; Ezzati, Majid ; Acosta-Cazares, Benjamin ; Agyemang, Charles ; Al Raddadi, Rajaa ; Al Woyatan, Rihab ; Ängquist, Lars ; Ariansen, Inger ; Banegas, José R ; Batieha, Anwar M ; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio ; Blokstra, Anneke ; Bobak, Martin ; Brajkovich, Imperia ; Cardoso, Viviane C ; Caserta, Carmelo A ; Chamukuttan, Snehalatha ; Chen, Shuohua ; Chetrit, Angela ; Clays, Els ; Cooper, Cyrus ; Dehghan, Abbas ; Dhana, Klodian ; Dulskiene, Virginija ; Elosua, Roberto ; Faeh, David ; Farzadfar, Farshad ; Franco, Oscar H ; Frontera, Guillermo ; Furusawa, Takuro ; Geleijnse, Johanna M ; Gianfagna, Francesco ; Grøntved, Anders ; Gurzkowska, Beata ; Houti, Leila ; Hu, Yonghua ; Husseini, Abdullatif S ; Kafatos, Anthony ; Kauhanen, Jussi ; Kaur, Prabhdeep ; Kemper, Han C G ; Khalili, Davood ; Khang, Young-Ho ; Le, Tuyen D ; Lekhraj, Rampal ; Luksiene, Dalia ; Manios, Yannis ; Marrugat, Jaume ; Matijasevich, Alicia ; Posso, Anselmo J Mc Donald ; McFarlane, Shelly R ; Menon, Geetha R ; Møller, Niels C ; Molnár, Dénes ; Momenan, Amirabbas ; Moreno, Luis A ; Mostafa, Aya ; Mota, Jorge ; Navarrete-Muñoz, Eva Maria ; Noto, Davide ; Parnell, Winsome R ; Peixoto, Sergio Viana ; Pelletier, Catherine ; Pereira, Alexandre C ; Pilotto, Lorenza ; Plans-Rubió, Pedro ; Porta, Miquel ; Riboli, Elio ; Rigo, Fernando ; Robinson, Sian M ; Rubinstein, Adolfo ; Salonen, Jukka T ; Salvetti, Massimo ; Sans, Susana ; Saramies, Jouko L ; Schargrodsky, Herman ; Sibai, Abla M ; Slusarczyk, Przemyslaw ; So, Hung-Kwan ; Solfrizzi, Vincenzo ; Song, Yi ; Sørensen, Thorkild IA ; Tang, Line ; Tao, Yong ; Topbas, Murat ; Trichopoulou, Antonia ; Veronesi, Giovanni ; Vrdoljak, Ana ; Wojtyniak, Bogdan ; Wu, Frederick C ; Yusoff, Ahmad F ; Yusoff, Muhammad Fadhli M ; Zheng, Yingffeng ; NCD Risk Factor Collaboration (NCD-RisC) ; Institutionen för medicin, avdelningen för samhällsmedicin och folkhälsa ; Institute of Medicine, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine ; Göteborgs universitet ; Gothenburg University ; Institute of Medicine, School of Public Health and Community Medicine ; Sahlgrenska Academy ; Sahlgrenska akademin ; Institutionen för medicin, avdelningen för molekylär och klinisk medicin
descriptionSummary Background Raised blood pressure is an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and chronic kidney disease. We estimated worldwide trends in mean systolic and mean diastolic blood pressure, and the prevalence of, and number of people with, raised blood pressure, defined as systolic blood pressure of 140 mm Hg or higher or diastolic blood pressure of 90 mm Hg or higher. Methods For this analysis, we pooled national, subnational, or community population-based studies that had measured blood pressure in adults aged 18 years and older. We used a Bayesian hierarchical model to estimate trends from 1975 to 2015 in mean systolic and mean diastolic blood pressure, and the prevalence of raised blood pressure for 200 countries. We calculated the contributions of changes in prevalence versus population growth and ageing to the increase in the number of adults with raised blood pressure. Findings We pooled 1479 studies that had measured the blood pressures of 19·1 million adults. Global age-standardised mean systolic blood pressure in 2015 was 127·0 mm Hg (95% credible interval 125·7–128·3) in men and 122·3 mm Hg (121·0–123·6) in women; age-standardised mean diastolic blood pressure was 78·7 mm Hg (77·9–79·5) for men and 76·7 mm Hg (75·9–77·6) for women. Global age-standardised prevalence of raised blood pressure was 24·1% (21·4–27·1) in men and 20·1% (17·8–22·5) in women in 2015. Mean systolic and mean diastolic blood pressure decreased substantially from 1975 to 2015 in high-income western and Asia Pacific countries, moving these countries from having some of the highest worldwide blood pressure in 1975 to the lowest in 2015. Mean blood pressure also decreased in women in central and eastern Europe, Latin America and the Caribbean, and, more recently, central Asia, Middle East, and north Africa, but the estimated trends in these super-regions had larger uncertainty than in high-income super-regions. By contrast, mean blood pressure might have increased in east and southeast Asia, south Asia, Oceania, and sub-Saharan Africa. In 2015, central and eastern Europe, sub-Saharan Africa, and south Asia had the highest blood pressure levels. Prevalence of raised blood pressure decreased in high-income and some middle-income countries; it remained unchanged elsewhere. The number of adults with raised blood pressure increased from 594 million in 1975 to 1·13 billion in 2015, with the increase largely in low-income and middle-income countries. The global increase in the number of adults with raised blood pressure is a net effect of increase due to population growth and ageing, and decrease due to declining age-specific prevalence. Interpretation During the past four decades, the highest worldwide blood pressure levels have shifted from high-income countries to low-income countries in south Asia and sub-Saharan Africa due to opposite trends, while blood pressure has been persistently high in central and eastern Europe. Funding Wellcome Trust.
identifier
0ISSN: 0140-6736
1ISSN: 1474-547X
2EISSN: 1474-547X
3DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(16)31919-5
4PMID: 27863813
5CODEN: LANCAO
languageeng
publisherEngland: Elsevier Ltd
subject610 Medicine & health ; Adults ; Age ; Aging ; Allmän medicin ; Analysis ; Articles ; asjc ; atira ; based studies ; Bayes Theorem ; Bayesian analysis ; Biostatistics ; Blood Pressure ; Cardiovascular diseases ; Chair Nutrition and Disease ; Chronic kidney disease ; Clinical medical disciplines ; Clinical medical disciplines: 750 ; Clinical Medicine ; Comment ; Disease control ; Epidemiology ; Family Medicine ; Folkhälsovetenskap, global hälsa, socialmedicin och epidemiologi ; Global Health ; Gov't ; Health risk assessment ; Health risks ; Health Sciences ; HNE Nutrition and Disease ; HNE Voeding en Ziekte ; Hospitals ; Humans ; Hypertension ; Hälsovetenskap ; Income ; Internal Medicine ; Journal Article ; Kidney diseases ; Klinisk medicin ; Klinisk medisinske fag ; Klinisk medisinske fag: 750 ; Life Sciences ; Low income groups ; Measurement ; Medical and Health Sciences ; Medical disciplines ; Medical disciplines: 700 ; Medicin och hälsovetenskap ; Medicine(all) ; Medisinske Fag ; Medisinske Fag: 700 ; Men ; NCD Risk Factor Collaboration ; Non ; Nutrition and Disease ; Population ; Population growth ; Population studies ; Pressure distribution ; Pressure effects ; Prevalence ; Prevention Institute (EBPI) ; Public health ; Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology ; pubmedpublicationtype ; pure ; Regions ; Research Support ; researchoutput ; Risk analysis ; Risk Factors ; Studies ; subjectarea ; Systolic blood pressure ; Trends ; VDP ; VLAG ; Voeding en Ziekte ; Women ; Worldwide trends
ispartofLancet, 2017, Vol.389 (10064), p.37-55
rights
0The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an Open Access article under the CC BY license
12017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an Open Access article under the CC BY license
2info:eu-repo/semantics/openAccess
3Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an Open Access article under the CC BY license. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
4COPYRIGHT 2017 Elsevier B.V.
5Copyright Elsevier Limited Jan 7, 2017
62017. The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an Open Access article under the CC BY license. This work is published under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ (theLicense”). Notwithstanding the ProQuest Terms and Conditions, you may use this content in accordance with the terms of the License.
7Distributed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
82017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an Open Access article under the CC BY license 2017
9Wageningen University & Research
lds50peer_reviewed
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orcidid0000-0002-3184-5597 ; 0000-0003-3337-8205 ; 0000-0001-6983-2364 ; 0000-0001-8104-8425
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3$$Uhttps://lup.lub.lu.se/record/bd14bc61-fe09-473e-a9a1-9dc5eda54825$$DView record from Swedish Publication Index
4$$Uhttp://kipublications.ki.se/Default.aspx?queryparsed=id:134996251$$DView record from Swedish Publication Index
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creatorcontrib
0Di Cesare, Mariachiara
1Danaei, Goodarz
2Bilano, Ver
3Bovet, Pascal
4Mondo, Charles K
5Neuhauser, Hannelore K
6Sundström, Johan
7Smeeth, Liam
8Ezzati, Majid
9Acosta-Cazares, Benjamin
10Agyemang, Charles
11Al Raddadi, Rajaa
12Al Woyatan, Rihab
13Ängquist, Lars
14Ariansen, Inger
15Banegas, José R
16Batieha, Anwar M
17Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio
18Blokstra, Anneke
19Bobak, Martin
20Brajkovich, Imperia
21Cardoso, Viviane C
22Caserta, Carmelo A
23Chamukuttan, Snehalatha
24Chen, Shuohua
25Chetrit, Angela
26Clays, Els
27Cooper, Cyrus
28Dehghan, Abbas
29Dhana, Klodian
30Dulskiene, Virginija
31Elosua, Roberto
32Faeh, David
33Farzadfar, Farshad
34Franco, Oscar H
35Frontera, Guillermo
36Furusawa, Takuro
37Geleijnse, Johanna M
38Gianfagna, Francesco
39Grøntved, Anders
40Gurzkowska, Beata
41Houti, Leila
42Hu, Yonghua
43Husseini, Abdullatif S
44Kafatos, Anthony
45Kauhanen, Jussi
46Kaur, Prabhdeep
47Kemper, Han C G
48Khalili, Davood
49Khang, Young-Ho
50Le, Tuyen D
51Lekhraj, Rampal
52Luksiene, Dalia
53Manios, Yannis
54Marrugat, Jaume
55Matijasevich, Alicia
56Posso, Anselmo J Mc Donald
57McFarlane, Shelly R
58Menon, Geetha R
59Møller, Niels C
60Molnár, Dénes
61Momenan, Amirabbas
62Moreno, Luis A
63Mostafa, Aya
64Mota, Jorge
65Navarrete-Muñoz, Eva Maria
66Noto, Davide
67Parnell, Winsome R
68Peixoto, Sergio Viana
69Pelletier, Catherine
70Pereira, Alexandre C
71Pilotto, Lorenza
72Plans-Rubió, Pedro
73Porta, Miquel
74Riboli, Elio
75Rigo, Fernando
76Robinson, Sian M
77Rubinstein, Adolfo
78Salonen, Jukka T
79Salvetti, Massimo
80Sans, Susana
81Saramies, Jouko L
82Schargrodsky, Herman
83Sibai, Abla M
84Slusarczyk, Przemyslaw
85So, Hung-Kwan
86Solfrizzi, Vincenzo
87Song, Yi
88Sørensen, Thorkild IA
89Tang, Line
90Tao, Yong
91Topbas, Murat
92Trichopoulou, Antonia
93Veronesi, Giovanni
94Vrdoljak, Ana
95Wojtyniak, Bogdan
96Wu, Frederick C
97Yusoff, Ahmad F
98Yusoff, Muhammad Fadhli M
99Zheng, Yingffeng
100NCD Risk Factor Collaboration (NCD-RisC)
101Institutionen för medicin, avdelningen för samhällsmedicin och folkhälsa
102Institute of Medicine, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine
103Göteborgs universitet
104Gothenburg University
105Institute of Medicine, School of Public Health and Community Medicine
106Sahlgrenska Academy
107Sahlgrenska akademin
108Institutionen för medicin, avdelningen för molekylär och klinisk medicin
title
0Worldwide trends in blood pressure from 1975 to 2015: a pooled analysis of 1479 population-based measurement studies with 19·1 million participants
1Lancet
addtitleLancet
descriptionSummary Background Raised blood pressure is an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and chronic kidney disease. We estimated worldwide trends in mean systolic and mean diastolic blood pressure, and the prevalence of, and number of people with, raised blood pressure, defined as systolic blood pressure of 140 mm Hg or higher or diastolic blood pressure of 90 mm Hg or higher. Methods For this analysis, we pooled national, subnational, or community population-based studies that had measured blood pressure in adults aged 18 years and older. We used a Bayesian hierarchical model to estimate trends from 1975 to 2015 in mean systolic and mean diastolic blood pressure, and the prevalence of raised blood pressure for 200 countries. We calculated the contributions of changes in prevalence versus population growth and ageing to the increase in the number of adults with raised blood pressure. Findings We pooled 1479 studies that had measured the blood pressures of 19·1 million adults. Global age-standardised mean systolic blood pressure in 2015 was 127·0 mm Hg (95% credible interval 125·7–128·3) in men and 122·3 mm Hg (121·0–123·6) in women; age-standardised mean diastolic blood pressure was 78·7 mm Hg (77·9–79·5) for men and 76·7 mm Hg (75·9–77·6) for women. Global age-standardised prevalence of raised blood pressure was 24·1% (21·4–27·1) in men and 20·1% (17·8–22·5) in women in 2015. Mean systolic and mean diastolic blood pressure decreased substantially from 1975 to 2015 in high-income western and Asia Pacific countries, moving these countries from having some of the highest worldwide blood pressure in 1975 to the lowest in 2015. Mean blood pressure also decreased in women in central and eastern Europe, Latin America and the Caribbean, and, more recently, central Asia, Middle East, and north Africa, but the estimated trends in these super-regions had larger uncertainty than in high-income super-regions. By contrast, mean blood pressure might have increased in east and southeast Asia, south Asia, Oceania, and sub-Saharan Africa. In 2015, central and eastern Europe, sub-Saharan Africa, and south Asia had the highest blood pressure levels. Prevalence of raised blood pressure decreased in high-income and some middle-income countries; it remained unchanged elsewhere. The number of adults with raised blood pressure increased from 594 million in 1975 to 1·13 billion in 2015, with the increase largely in low-income and middle-income countries. The global increase in the number of adults with raised blood pressure is a net effect of increase due to population growth and ageing, and decrease due to declining age-specific prevalence. Interpretation During the past four decades, the highest worldwide blood pressure levels have shifted from high-income countries to low-income countries in south Asia and sub-Saharan Africa due to opposite trends, while blood pressure has been persistently high in central and eastern Europe. Funding Wellcome Trust.
subject
0610 Medicine & health
1Adults
2Age
3Aging
4Allmän medicin
5Analysis
6Articles
7asjc
8atira
9based studies
10Bayes Theorem
11Bayesian analysis
12Biostatistics
13Blood Pressure
14Cardiovascular diseases
15Chair Nutrition and Disease
16Chronic kidney disease
17Clinical medical disciplines
18Clinical medical disciplines: 750
19Clinical Medicine
20Comment
21Disease control
22Epidemiology
23Family Medicine
24Folkhälsovetenskap, global hälsa, socialmedicin och epidemiologi
25Global Health
26Gov't
27Health risk assessment
28Health risks
29Health Sciences
30HNE Nutrition and Disease
31HNE Voeding en Ziekte
32Hospitals
33Humans
34Hypertension
35Hälsovetenskap
36Income
37Internal Medicine
38Journal Article
39Kidney diseases
40Klinisk medicin
41Klinisk medisinske fag
42Klinisk medisinske fag: 750
43Life Sciences
44Low income groups
45Measurement
46Medical and Health Sciences
47Medical disciplines
48Medical disciplines: 700
49Medicin och hälsovetenskap
50Medicine(all)
51Medisinske Fag
52Medisinske Fag: 700
53Men
54NCD Risk Factor Collaboration
55Non
56Nutrition and Disease
57Population
58Population growth
59Population studies
60Pressure distribution
61Pressure effects
62Prevalence
63Prevention Institute (EBPI)
64Public health
65Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
66pubmedpublicationtype
67pure
68Regions
69Research Support
70researchoutput
71Risk analysis
72Risk Factors
73Studies
74subjectarea
75Systolic blood pressure
76Trends
77VDP
78VLAG
79Voeding en Ziekte
80Women
81Worldwide trends
issn
00140-6736
11474-547X
21474-547X
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startdate20170107
enddate20170107
creator
0Di Cesare, Mariachiara
1Danaei, Goodarz
2Bilano, Ver
3Bovet, Pascal
4Mondo, Charles K
5Neuhauser, Hannelore K
6Sundström, Johan
7Smeeth, Liam
8Ezzati, Majid
9Acosta-Cazares, Benjamin
10Agyemang, Charles
11Al Raddadi, Rajaa
12Al Woyatan, Rihab
13Ängquist, Lars
14Ariansen, Inger
15Banegas, José R
16Batieha, Anwar M
17Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio
18Blokstra, Anneke
19Bobak, Martin
20Brajkovich, Imperia
21Cardoso, Viviane C
22Caserta, Carmelo A
23Chamukuttan, Snehalatha
24Chen, Shuohua
25Chetrit, Angela
26Clays, Els
27Cooper, Cyrus
28Dehghan, Abbas
29Dhana, Klodian
30Dulskiene, Virginija
31Elosua, Roberto
32Faeh, David
33Farzadfar, Farshad
34Franco, Oscar H
35Frontera, Guillermo
36Furusawa, Takuro
37Geleijnse, Johanna M
38Gianfagna, Francesco
39Grøntved, Anders
40Gurzkowska, Beata
41Houti, Leila
42Hu, Yonghua
43Husseini, Abdullatif S
44Kafatos, Anthony
45Kauhanen, Jussi
46Kaur, Prabhdeep
47Kemper, Han C G
48Khalili, Davood
49Khang, Young-Ho
50Le, Tuyen D
51Lekhraj, Rampal
52Luksiene, Dalia
53Manios, Yannis
54Marrugat, Jaume
55Matijasevich, Alicia
56Posso, Anselmo J Mc Donald
57McFarlane, Shelly R
58Menon, Geetha R
59Møller, Niels C
60Molnár, Dénes
61Momenan, Amirabbas
62Moreno, Luis A
63Mostafa, Aya
64Mota, Jorge
65Navarrete-Muñoz, Eva Maria
66Noto, Davide
67Parnell, Winsome R
68Peixoto, Sergio Viana
69Pelletier, Catherine
70Pereira, Alexandre C
71Pilotto, Lorenza
72Plans-Rubió, Pedro
73Porta, Miquel
74Riboli, Elio
75Rigo, Fernando
76Robinson, Sian M
77Rubinstein, Adolfo
78Salonen, Jukka T
79Salvetti, Massimo
80Sans, Susana
81Saramies, Jouko L
82Schargrodsky, Herman
83Sibai, Abla M
84Slusarczyk, Przemyslaw
85So, Hung-Kwan
86Solfrizzi, Vincenzo
87Song, Yi
88Sørensen, Thorkild IA
89Tang, Line
90Tao, Yong
91Topbas, Murat
92Trichopoulou, Antonia
93Veronesi, Giovanni
94Vrdoljak, Ana
95Wojtyniak, Bogdan
96Wu, Frederick C
97Yusoff, Ahmad F
98Yusoff, Muhammad Fadhli M
99Zheng, Yingffeng
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creationdate20170107
titleWorldwide trends in blood pressure from 1975 to 2015: a pooled analysis of 1479 population-based measurement studies with 19·1 million participants
authorDi Cesare, Mariachiara ; Danaei, Goodarz ; Bilano, Ver ; Bovet, Pascal ; Mondo, Charles K ; Neuhauser, Hannelore K ; Sundström, Johan ; Smeeth, Liam ; Ezzati, Majid ; Acosta-Cazares, Benjamin ; Agyemang, Charles ; Al Raddadi, Rajaa ; Al Woyatan, Rihab ; Ängquist, Lars ; Ariansen, Inger ; Banegas, José R ; Batieha, Anwar M ; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio ; Blokstra, Anneke ; Bobak, Martin ; Brajkovich, Imperia ; Cardoso, Viviane C ; Caserta, Carmelo A ; Chamukuttan, Snehalatha ; Chen, Shuohua ; Chetrit, Angela ; Clays, Els ; Cooper, Cyrus ; Dehghan, Abbas ; Dhana, Klodian ; Dulskiene, Virginija ; Elosua, Roberto ; Faeh, David ; Farzadfar, Farshad ; Franco, Oscar H ; Frontera, Guillermo ; Furusawa, Takuro ; Geleijnse, Johanna M ; Gianfagna, Francesco ; Grøntved, Anders ; Gurzkowska, Beata ; Houti, Leila ; Hu, Yonghua ; Husseini, Abdullatif S ; Kafatos, Anthony ; Kauhanen, Jussi ; Kaur, Prabhdeep ; Kemper, Han C G ; Khalili, Davood ; Khang, Young-Ho ; Le, Tuyen D ; Lekhraj, Rampal ; Luksiene, Dalia ; Manios, Yannis ; Marrugat, Jaume ; Matijasevich, Alicia ; Posso, Anselmo J Mc Donald ; McFarlane, Shelly R ; Menon, Geetha R ; Møller, Niels C ; Molnár, Dénes ; Momenan, Amirabbas ; Moreno, Luis A ; Mostafa, Aya ; Mota, Jorge ; Navarrete-Muñoz, Eva Maria ; Noto, Davide ; Parnell, Winsome R ; Peixoto, Sergio Viana ; Pelletier, Catherine ; Pereira, Alexandre C ; Pilotto, Lorenza ; Plans-Rubió, Pedro ; Porta, Miquel ; Riboli, Elio ; Rigo, Fernando ; Robinson, Sian M ; Rubinstein, Adolfo ; Salonen, Jukka T ; Salvetti, Massimo ; Sans, Susana ; Saramies, Jouko L ; Schargrodsky, Herman ; Sibai, Abla M ; Slusarczyk, Przemyslaw ; So, Hung-Kwan ; Solfrizzi, Vincenzo ; Song, Yi ; Sørensen, Thorkild IA ; Tang, Line ; Tao, Yong ; Topbas, Murat ; Trichopoulou, Antonia ; Veronesi, Giovanni ; Vrdoljak, Ana ; Wojtyniak, Bogdan ; Wu, Frederick C ; Yusoff, Ahmad F ; Yusoff, Muhammad Fadhli M ; Zheng, Yingffeng
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languageeng
creationdate2017
topic
0610 Medicine & health
1Adults
2Age
3Aging
4Allmän medicin
5Analysis
6Articles
7asjc
8atira
9based studies
10Bayes Theorem
11Bayesian analysis
12Biostatistics
13Blood Pressure
14Cardiovascular diseases
15Chair Nutrition and Disease
16Chronic kidney disease
17Clinical medical disciplines
18Clinical medical disciplines: 750
19Clinical Medicine
20Comment
21Disease control
22Epidemiology
23Family Medicine
24Folkhälsovetenskap, global hälsa, socialmedicin och epidemiologi
25Global Health
26Gov't
27Health risk assessment
28Health risks
29Health Sciences
30HNE Nutrition and Disease
31HNE Voeding en Ziekte
32Hospitals
33Humans
34Hypertension
35Hälsovetenskap
36Income
37Internal Medicine
38Journal Article
39Kidney diseases
40Klinisk medicin
41Klinisk medisinske fag
42Klinisk medisinske fag: 750
43Life Sciences
44Low income groups
45Measurement
46Medical and Health Sciences
47Medical disciplines
48Medical disciplines: 700
49Medicin och hälsovetenskap
50Medicine(all)
51Medisinske Fag
52Medisinske Fag: 700
53Men
54NCD Risk Factor Collaboration
55Non
56Nutrition and Disease
57Population
58Population growth
59Population studies
60Pressure distribution
61Pressure effects
62Prevalence
63Prevention Institute (EBPI)
64Public health
65Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
66pubmedpublicationtype
67pure
68Regions
69Research Support
70researchoutput
71Risk analysis
72Risk Factors
73Studies
74subjectarea
75Systolic blood pressure
76Trends
77VDP
78VLAG
79Voeding en Ziekte
80Women
81Worldwide trends
toplevel
0peer_reviewed
1online_resources
creatorcontrib
0Di Cesare, Mariachiara
1Danaei, Goodarz
2Bilano, Ver
3Bovet, Pascal
4Mondo, Charles K
5Neuhauser, Hannelore K
6Sundström, Johan
7Smeeth, Liam
8Ezzati, Majid
9Acosta-Cazares, Benjamin
10Agyemang, Charles
11Al Raddadi, Rajaa
12Al Woyatan, Rihab
13Ängquist, Lars
14Ariansen, Inger
15Banegas, José R
16Batieha, Anwar M
17Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio
18Blokstra, Anneke
19Bobak, Martin
20Brajkovich, Imperia
21Cardoso, Viviane C
22Caserta, Carmelo A
23Chamukuttan, Snehalatha
24Chen, Shuohua
25Chetrit, Angela
26Clays, Els
27Cooper, Cyrus
28Dehghan, Abbas
29Dhana, Klodian
30Dulskiene, Virginija
31Elosua, Roberto
32Faeh, David
33Farzadfar, Farshad
34Franco, Oscar H
35Frontera, Guillermo
36Furusawa, Takuro
37Geleijnse, Johanna M
38Gianfagna, Francesco
39Grøntved, Anders
40Gurzkowska, Beata
41Houti, Leila
42Hu, Yonghua
43Husseini, Abdullatif S
44Kafatos, Anthony
45Kauhanen, Jussi
46Kaur, Prabhdeep
47Kemper, Han C G
48Khalili, Davood
49Khang, Young-Ho
50Le, Tuyen D
51Lekhraj, Rampal
52Luksiene, Dalia
53Manios, Yannis
54Marrugat, Jaume
55Matijasevich, Alicia
56Posso, Anselmo J Mc Donald
57McFarlane, Shelly R
58Menon, Geetha R
59Møller, Niels C
60Molnár, Dénes
61Momenan, Amirabbas
62Moreno, Luis A
63Mostafa, Aya
64Mota, Jorge
65Navarrete-Muñoz, Eva Maria
66Noto, Davide
67Parnell, Winsome R
68Peixoto, Sergio Viana
69Pelletier, Catherine
70Pereira, Alexandre C
71Pilotto, Lorenza
72Plans-Rubió, Pedro
73Porta, Miquel
74Riboli, Elio
75Rigo, Fernando
76Robinson, Sian M
77Rubinstein, Adolfo
78Salonen, Jukka T
79Salvetti, Massimo
80Sans, Susana
81Saramies, Jouko L
82Schargrodsky, Herman
83Sibai, Abla M
84Slusarczyk, Przemyslaw
85So, Hung-Kwan
86Solfrizzi, Vincenzo
87Song, Yi
88Sørensen, Thorkild IA
89Tang, Line
90Tao, Yong
91Topbas, Murat
92Trichopoulou, Antonia
93Veronesi, Giovanni
94Vrdoljak, Ana
95Wojtyniak, Bogdan
96Wu, Frederick C
97Yusoff, Ahmad F
98Yusoff, Muhammad Fadhli M
99Zheng, Yingffeng
100NCD Risk Factor Collaboration (NCD-RisC)
101Institutionen för medicin, avdelningen för samhällsmedicin och folkhälsa
102Institute of Medicine, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine
103Göteborgs universitet
104Gothenburg University
105Institute of Medicine, School of Public Health and Community Medicine
106Sahlgrenska Academy
107Sahlgrenska akademin
108Institutionen för medicin, avdelningen för molekylär och klinisk medicin
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au
0Di Cesare, Mariachiara
1Danaei, Goodarz
2Bilano, Ver
3Bovet, Pascal
4Mondo, Charles K
5Neuhauser, Hannelore K
6Sundström, Johan
7Smeeth, Liam
8Ezzati, Majid
9Acosta-Cazares, Benjamin
10Agyemang, Charles
11Al Raddadi, Rajaa
12Al Woyatan, Rihab
13Ängquist, Lars
14Ariansen, Inger
15Banegas, José R
16Batieha, Anwar M
17Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio
18Blokstra, Anneke
19Bobak, Martin
20Brajkovich, Imperia
21Cardoso, Viviane C
22Caserta, Carmelo A
23Chamukuttan, Snehalatha
24Chen, Shuohua
25Chetrit, Angela
26Clays, Els
27Cooper, Cyrus
28Dehghan, Abbas
29Dhana, Klodian
30Dulskiene, Virginija
31Elosua, Roberto
32Faeh, David
33Farzadfar, Farshad
34Franco, Oscar H
35Frontera, Guillermo
36Furusawa, Takuro
37Geleijnse, Johanna M
38Gianfagna, Francesco
39Grøntved, Anders
40Gurzkowska, Beata
41Houti, Leila
42Hu, Yonghua
43Husseini, Abdullatif S
44Kafatos, Anthony
45Kauhanen, Jussi
46Kaur, Prabhdeep
47Kemper, Han C G
48Khalili, Davood
49Khang, Young-Ho
50Le, Tuyen D
51Lekhraj, Rampal
52Luksiene, Dalia
53Manios, Yannis
54Marrugat, Jaume
55Matijasevich, Alicia
56Posso, Anselmo J Mc Donald
57McFarlane, Shelly R
58Menon, Geetha R
59Møller, Niels C
60Molnár, Dénes
61Momenan, Amirabbas
62Moreno, Luis A
63Mostafa, Aya
64Mota, Jorge
65Navarrete-Muñoz, Eva Maria
66Noto, Davide
67Parnell, Winsome R
68Peixoto, Sergio Viana
69Pelletier, Catherine
70Pereira, Alexandre C
71Pilotto, Lorenza
72Plans-Rubió, Pedro
73Porta, Miquel
74Riboli, Elio
75Rigo, Fernando
76Robinson, Sian M
77Rubinstein, Adolfo
78Salonen, Jukka T
79Salvetti, Massimo
80Sans, Susana
81Saramies, Jouko L
82Schargrodsky, Herman
83Sibai, Abla M
84Slusarczyk, Przemyslaw
85So, Hung-Kwan
86Solfrizzi, Vincenzo
87Song, Yi
88Sørensen, Thorkild IA
89Tang, Line
90Tao, Yong
91Topbas, Murat
92Trichopoulou, Antonia
93Veronesi, Giovanni
94Vrdoljak, Ana
95Wojtyniak, Bogdan
96Wu, Frederick C
97Yusoff, Ahmad F
98Yusoff, Muhammad Fadhli M
99Zheng, Yingffeng
aucorp
0NCD Risk Factor Collaboration (NCD-RisC)
1Institutionen för medicin, avdelningen för samhällsmedicin och folkhälsa
2Institute of Medicine, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine
3Göteborgs universitet
4Gothenburg University
5Institute of Medicine, School of Public Health and Community Medicine
6Sahlgrenska Academy
7Sahlgrenska akademin
8Institutionen för medicin, avdelningen för molekylär och klinisk medicin
formatjournal
genrearticle
ristypeJOUR
atitleWorldwide trends in blood pressure from 1975 to 2015: a pooled analysis of 1479 population-based measurement studies with 19·1 million participants
jtitleLancet
addtitleLancet
date2017-01-07
risdate2017
volume389
issue10064
spage37
epage55
pages37-55
issn
00140-6736
11474-547X
eissn1474-547X
codenLANCAO
notes
0The Lancet
1PMCID: PMC5220163
2NCD Risk Factor Collaboration members are listed at the end of the paper
abstractSummary Background Raised blood pressure is an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and chronic kidney disease. We estimated worldwide trends in mean systolic and mean diastolic blood pressure, and the prevalence of, and number of people with, raised blood pressure, defined as systolic blood pressure of 140 mm Hg or higher or diastolic blood pressure of 90 mm Hg or higher. Methods For this analysis, we pooled national, subnational, or community population-based studies that had measured blood pressure in adults aged 18 years and older. We used a Bayesian hierarchical model to estimate trends from 1975 to 2015 in mean systolic and mean diastolic blood pressure, and the prevalence of raised blood pressure for 200 countries. We calculated the contributions of changes in prevalence versus population growth and ageing to the increase in the number of adults with raised blood pressure. Findings We pooled 1479 studies that had measured the blood pressures of 19·1 million adults. Global age-standardised mean systolic blood pressure in 2015 was 127·0 mm Hg (95% credible interval 125·7–128·3) in men and 122·3 mm Hg (121·0–123·6) in women; age-standardised mean diastolic blood pressure was 78·7 mm Hg (77·9–79·5) for men and 76·7 mm Hg (75·9–77·6) for women. Global age-standardised prevalence of raised blood pressure was 24·1% (21·4–27·1) in men and 20·1% (17·8–22·5) in women in 2015. Mean systolic and mean diastolic blood pressure decreased substantially from 1975 to 2015 in high-income western and Asia Pacific countries, moving these countries from having some of the highest worldwide blood pressure in 1975 to the lowest in 2015. Mean blood pressure also decreased in women in central and eastern Europe, Latin America and the Caribbean, and, more recently, central Asia, Middle East, and north Africa, but the estimated trends in these super-regions had larger uncertainty than in high-income super-regions. By contrast, mean blood pressure might have increased in east and southeast Asia, south Asia, Oceania, and sub-Saharan Africa. In 2015, central and eastern Europe, sub-Saharan Africa, and south Asia had the highest blood pressure levels. Prevalence of raised blood pressure decreased in high-income and some middle-income countries; it remained unchanged elsewhere. The number of adults with raised blood pressure increased from 594 million in 1975 to 1·13 billion in 2015, with the increase largely in low-income and middle-income countries. The global increase in the number of adults with raised blood pressure is a net effect of increase due to population growth and ageing, and decrease due to declining age-specific prevalence. Interpretation During the past four decades, the highest worldwide blood pressure levels have shifted from high-income countries to low-income countries in south Asia and sub-Saharan Africa due to opposite trends, while blood pressure has been persistently high in central and eastern Europe. Funding Wellcome Trust.
copEngland
pubElsevier Ltd
pmid27863813
doi10.1016/S0140-6736(16)31919-5
orcidid
0https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3184-5597
1https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3337-8205
2https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6983-2364
3https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8104-8425
oafree_for_read