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The DNA (cytosine-5) methyltransferases

The modification of DNA by methylation commonly occurs in organisms as diverse as bacteria, plants, and mammals. DNA methylation is sequence-specific and MTases with single and multiple sequence-specificities exist. In prokaryotes, methylation of cytosine and adenine residues is primarily involved i... Full description

Journal Title: Nucleic Acids Research 1994, Vol.22(1), pp.1-10
Main Author: Kumar, Sanjay
Other Authors: Cheng, Xiaodong , Klimasauskas, Saulius , Sha, Mi , Posfai, Janos , Roberts, Richard J. , Wilson, Geoffrey G.
Format: Electronic Article Electronic Article
Language: English
Subjects:
DNA
DNA
ID: ISSN: 0305-1048 ; E-ISSN: 1362-4962 ; DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nar/22.1.1
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recordid: crossref10.1093/nar/22.1.1
title: The DNA (cytosine-5) methyltransferases
format: Article
creator:
  • Kumar, Sanjay
  • Cheng, Xiaodong
  • Klimasauskas, Saulius
  • Sha, Mi
  • Posfai, Janos
  • Roberts, Richard J.
  • Wilson, Geoffrey G.
subjects:
  • Activity
  • Reaction
  • DNA
  • Methylation
  • Bacteria
  • Activity
  • Reaction
  • DNA
  • Methylation
  • Bacteria
  • Enzymes
  • Miscellaneous
  • DNA (Cytosine-5-)-Methyltransferase
  • Properties
  • DNA (Cytosine-5-)-Methyltransferase
  • Properties
  • DNA (Cytosine-5-)-Methyltransferase
  • Properties
ispartof: Nucleic Acids Research, 1994, Vol.22(1), pp.1-10
description: The modification of DNA by methylation commonly occurs in organisms as diverse as bacteria, plants, and mammals. DNA methylation is sequence-specific and MTases with single and multiple sequence-specificities exist. In prokaryotes, methylation of cytosine and adenine residues is primarily involved in restriction-modification systems that serve as 'immune responses' to phage infection. Adenine methylation in prokaryotes is also involved in regulating the initiation of DNA replication and in targeting the correction of errors in DNA replication. In higher eukaryotes, methylation of cytosine residues appears to participate in the control of gene expression, developmental regulation, genomic imprinting and X-chromosome inactivation. Abberant DNA methylation may be mutagenic in mammals and plays a role in the development of certain human diseases. A eukaryotic enzyme that carries out this methylation localizes to DNA replication foci in a cell cycle-dependent manner and is essential for normal embryonic development in mice. DNA methyltransferases (MTases) fall into three classes based on the type of methylation catalyzed. Two classes modify exocyclic nitrogens, converting adenine to N6-methyladenine or cytosine to N4-methylcytosine. The third class, the subject of this review, methylates the 5-carbon of the pyrimidine ring of cytosine, creating 5-methylcytosine. From an evolutionary perspective, the DNA-(cytosine-5) methyltransferases (m5C-MTases) appear to be unique. They can be found in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes, whereas the exocyclic MTases have been isolated only from prokaryotes, and they share a large set of well-conserved blocks of amino acid sequence that simplify their identification from primary sequence data and serve as a natural targets for functional studies.
language: eng
source:
identifier: ISSN: 0305-1048 ; E-ISSN: 1362-4962 ; DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nar/22.1.1
fulltext: fulltext
issn:
  • 03051048
  • 0305-1048
  • 13624962
  • 1362-4962
url: Link


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subjectActivity ; Reaction ; DNA ; Methylation ; Bacteria ; Activity ; Reaction ; DNA ; Methylation ; Bacteria ; Enzymes ; Miscellaneous ; DNA (Cytosine-5-)-Methyltransferase ; Properties ; DNA (Cytosine-5-)-Methyltransferase ; Properties ; DNA (Cytosine-5-)-Methyltransferase ; Properties;
descriptionThe modification of DNA by methylation commonly occurs in organisms as diverse as bacteria, plants, and mammals. DNA methylation is sequence-specific and MTases with single and multiple sequence-specificities exist. In prokaryotes, methylation of cytosine and adenine residues is primarily involved in restriction-modification systems that serve as 'immune responses' to phage infection. Adenine methylation in prokaryotes is also involved in regulating the initiation of DNA replication and in targeting the correction of errors in DNA replication. In higher eukaryotes, methylation of cytosine residues appears to participate in the control of gene expression, developmental regulation, genomic imprinting and X-chromosome inactivation. Abberant DNA methylation may be mutagenic in mammals and plays a role in the development of certain human diseases. A eukaryotic enzyme that carries out this methylation localizes to DNA replication foci in a cell cycle-dependent manner and is essential for normal embryonic development in mice. DNA methyltransferases (MTases) fall into three classes based on the type of methylation catalyzed. Two classes modify exocyclic nitrogens, converting adenine to N6-methyladenine or cytosine to N4-methylcytosine. The third class, the subject of this review, methylates the 5-carbon of the pyrimidine ring of cytosine, creating 5-methylcytosine. From an evolutionary perspective, the DNA-(cytosine-5) methyltransferases (m5C-MTases) appear to be unique. They can be found in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes, whereas the exocyclic MTases have been isolated only from prokaryotes, and they share a large set of well-conserved blocks of amino acid sequence that simplify their identification from primary sequence data and serve as a natural targets for functional studies.
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