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Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 84 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks, 1990–2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016

The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016 (GBD 2016) provides a comprehensive assessment of risk factor exposure and attributable burden of disease. By providing estimates over a long time series, this study can monitor risk exposure trends critical to health surveillance... Full description

Journal Title: The Lancet 16 September 2017, Vol.390(10100), pp.1345-1422
Main Author: Gakidou, Emmanuela
Other Authors: Afshin, Ashkan , Abajobir, Amanuel Alemu , Abate, Kalkidan Hassen , Abbafati, Cristiana , Abbas, Kaja M , Abd-Allah, Foad , Abdulle, Abdishakur M , Abera, Semaw Ferede , Aboyans, Victor , Abu-Raddad, Laith J , Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M E , Abyu, Gebre Yitayih , Adedeji, Isaac Akinkunmi , Adetokunboh, Olatunji , Afarideh, Mohsen , Agrawal, Anurag , Agrawal, Sutapa , Ahmadieh, Hamid , Ahmed, Muktar Beshir , Aichour, Miloud Taki Eddine , Aichour, Amani Nidhal , Aichour, Ibtihel , Akinyemi, Rufus Olusola , Akseer, Nadia , Alahdab, Fares , Al-Aly, Ziyad , Alam, Khurshid , Alam, Noore , Alam, Tahiya , Alasfoor, Deena , Alene, Kefyalew Addis , Ali, Komal , Alizadeh-Navaei, Reza , Alkerwi, Ala'a , Alla, François , Allebeck, Peter , Al-Raddadi, Rajaa , Alsharif, Ubai , Altirkawi, Khalid A , Alvis-Guzman, Nelson , Amare, Azmeraw T , Amini, Erfan , Ammar, Walid , Amoako, Yaw Ampem , Ansari, Hossein , Antó, Josep M , Antonio, Carl Abelardo T , Anwari, Palwasha , Arian, Nicholas , Ärnlöv, Johan , Artaman, Al , Aryal, Krishna Kumar , Asayesh, Hamid , Asgedom, Solomon Weldegebreal , Atey, Tesfay Mehari , Avila-Burgos, Leticia , Avokpaho, Euripide Frinel G Arthur , Awasthi, Ashish , Azzopardi, Peter , Bacha, Umar , Badawi, Alaa , Balakrishnan, Kalpana , Ballew, Shoshana H , Barac, Aleksandra , Barber, Ryan M , Barker-Collo, Suzanne L , Bärnighausen, Till , Barquera, Simon , Barregard, Lars , Barrero, Lope H , Batis, Carolina , Battle, Katherine E , Baumgarner, Blair R , Baune, Bernhard T , Beardsley, Justin , Bedi, Neeraj , Beghi, Ettore , Bell, Michelle L , Bennett, Derrick A , Bennett, James R , Bensenor, Isabela M , Berhane, Adugnaw , Berhe, Derbew Fikadu , Bernabé, Eduardo , Betsu, Balem Demtsu , Beuran, Mircea , Beyene, Addisu Shunu , Bhansali, Anil , Bhutta, Zulfiqar A , Bicer, Burcu Kucuk , Bikbov, Boris , Birungi, Charles , Biryukov, Stan , Blosser, Christopher D , Boneya, Dube Jara , Bou-Orm, Ibrahim R , Brauer, Michael , Breitborde, Nicholas J K , Brenner, Hermann , Brugha, Traolach S , Bulto, Lemma Negesa Bulto , Butt, Zahid A , Cahuana-Hurtado, Lucero , Cárdenas, Rosario , Carrero, Juan Jesus , Castañeda-Orjuela, Carlos A , Catalá-López, Ferrán , Cercy, Kelly , Chang, Hsing-Yi , Charlson, Fiona J , Chimed-Ochir, Odgerel , Chisumpa, Vesper Hichilombwe , Chitheer, Abdulaal A , Christensen, Hanne , Christopher, Devasahayam Jesudas , Cirillo, Massimo , Cohen, Aaron J , Comfort, Haley , Cooper, Cyrus , Coresh, Josef , Cornaby, Leslie , Cortesi, Paolo Angelo , Criqui, Michael H , Crump, John A , Dandona, Lalit , Dandona, Rakhi , Das Neves, José , Davey, Gail , Davitoiu, Dragos V , Davletov, Kairat , de Courten, Barbora , Defo, Barthelemy Kuate , Degenhardt, Louisa , Deiparine, Selina , Dellavalle, Robert P , Deribe, Kebede , Deshpande, Aniruddha , Dharmaratne, Samath D , Ding, Eric L , Djalalinia, Shirin , Do, Huyen Phuc , Dokova, Klara , Doku, David Teye , Donkelaar, Aaron van , Dorsey, E Ray , Driscoll, Tim R , Dubey, Manisha , Duncan, Bruce Bartholow , Duncan, Sarah , Ebrahimi, Hedyeh , El-Khatib, Ziad Ziad , Enayati, Ahmadali , Endries, Aman Yesuf , Ermakov, Sergey Petrovich , Erskine, Holly E , Eshrati, Babak , Eskandarieh, Sharareh , Esteghamati, Alireza , Estep, Kara , Faraon, Emerito Jose Aquino , Farinha, Carla Sofia E Sa , Faro, André , Farzadfar, Farshad , Fay, Kairsten , Feigin, Valery L , Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad , Fernandes, João C , Ferrari, Alize J , Feyissa, Tesfaye Regassa , Filip, Irina , Fischer, Florian , Fitzmaurice, Christina , Flaxman, Abraham D , Foigt, Nataliya , Foreman, Kyle J , Frostad, Joseph J , Fullman, Nancy , Fürst, Thomas , Furtado, Joao M , Ganji, Morsaleh , Garcia-Basteiro, Alberto L , Gebrehiwot, Tsegaye Tewelde , Geleijnse, Johanna M , Geleto, Ayele , Gemechu, Bikila Lencha , Gesesew, Hailay Abrha , Gething, Peter W , Ghajar, Alireza , Gibney, Katherine B , Gill, Paramjit Singh , Gillum, Richard F , Giref, Ababi Zergaw , Gishu, Melkamu Dedefo , Giussani, Giorgia , Godwin, William W , Gona, Philimon N , Goodridge, Amador , Gopalani, Sameer Vali , Goryakin, Yevgeniy , Goulart, Alessandra Carvalho , Graetz, Nicholas , Gugnani, Harish Chander , Guo, Jingwen , Gupta, Rajeev , Gupta, Tanush , Gupta, Vipin , Gutiérrez, Reyna A , Hachinski, Vladimir , Hafezi-Nejad, Nima , Hailu, Gessessew Bugssa , Hamadeh, Randah Ribhi , Hamidi, Samer , Hammami, Mouhanad , Handal, Alexis J , Hankey, Graeme J , Hanson, Sarah Wulf , Harb, Hilda L , Hareri, Habtamu Abera , Hassanvand, Mohammad Sadegh , Havmoeller, Rasmus , Hawley, Caitlin , Hay, Simon I , Hedayati, Mohammad T , Hendrie, Delia , Heredia-Pi, Ileana Beatriz , Hernandez, Julio Cesar Montañez , Hoek, Hans W , Horita, Nobuyuki , Hosgood, H Dean , Hostiuc, Sorin , Hoy, Damian G , Hsairi, Mohamed , Hu, Guoqing , Huang, John J , Huang, Hsiang , Ibrahim, Norlinah Mohamed , Iburg, Kim Moesgaard , Ikeda, Chad , Inoue, Manami , Irvine, Caleb Mackay Salpeter , Jackson, Maria Delores , Jacobsen, Kathryn H , Jahanmehr, Nader , Jakovljevic, Mihajlo B , Jauregui, Alejandra , Javanbakht, Mehdi , Jeemon, Panniyammakal , Johansson, Lars R K , Johnson, Catherine O
Format: Electronic Article Electronic Article
Language: English
Subjects:
ID: ISSN: 0140-6736 ; E-ISSN: 1474-547X ; DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(17)32366-8
Link: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0140673617323668
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recordid: elsevier_sdoi_10_1016_S0140_6736_17_32366_8
title: Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 84 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks, 1990–2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016
format: Article
creator:
  • Gakidou, Emmanuela
  • Afshin, Ashkan
  • Abajobir, Amanuel Alemu
  • Abate, Kalkidan Hassen
  • Abbafati, Cristiana
  • Abbas, Kaja M
  • Abd-Allah, Foad
  • Abdulle, Abdishakur M
  • Abera, Semaw Ferede
  • Aboyans, Victor
  • Abu-Raddad, Laith J
  • Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M E
  • Abyu, Gebre Yitayih
  • Adedeji, Isaac Akinkunmi
  • Adetokunboh, Olatunji
  • Afarideh, Mohsen
  • Agrawal, Anurag
  • Agrawal, Sutapa
  • Ahmadieh, Hamid
  • Ahmed, Muktar Beshir
  • Aichour, Miloud Taki Eddine
  • Aichour, Amani Nidhal
  • Aichour, Ibtihel
  • Akinyemi, Rufus Olusola
  • Akseer, Nadia
  • Alahdab, Fares
  • Al-Aly, Ziyad
  • Alam, Khurshid
  • Alam, Noore
  • Alam, Tahiya
  • Alasfoor, Deena
  • Alene, Kefyalew Addis
  • Ali, Komal
  • Alizadeh-Navaei, Reza
  • Alkerwi, Ala'a
  • Alla, François
  • Allebeck, Peter
  • Al-Raddadi, Rajaa
  • Alsharif, Ubai
  • Altirkawi, Khalid A
  • Alvis-Guzman, Nelson
  • Amare, Azmeraw T
  • Amini, Erfan
  • Ammar, Walid
  • Amoako, Yaw Ampem
  • Ansari, Hossein
  • Antó, Josep M
  • Antonio, Carl Abelardo T
  • Anwari, Palwasha
  • Arian, Nicholas
  • Ärnlöv, Johan
  • Artaman, Al
  • Aryal, Krishna Kumar
  • Asayesh, Hamid
  • Asgedom, Solomon Weldegebreal
  • Atey, Tesfay Mehari
  • Avila-Burgos, Leticia
  • Avokpaho, Euripide Frinel G Arthur
  • Awasthi, Ashish
  • Azzopardi, Peter
  • Bacha, Umar
  • Badawi, Alaa
  • Balakrishnan, Kalpana
  • Ballew, Shoshana H
  • Barac, Aleksandra
  • Barber, Ryan M
  • Barker-Collo, Suzanne L
  • Bärnighausen, Till
  • Barquera, Simon
  • Barregard, Lars
  • Barrero, Lope H
  • Batis, Carolina
  • Battle, Katherine E
  • Baumgarner, Blair R
  • Baune, Bernhard T
  • Beardsley, Justin
  • Bedi, Neeraj
  • Beghi, Ettore
  • Bell, Michelle L
  • Bennett, Derrick A
  • Bennett, James R
  • Bensenor, Isabela M
  • Berhane, Adugnaw
  • Berhe, Derbew Fikadu
  • Bernabé, Eduardo
  • Betsu, Balem Demtsu
  • Beuran, Mircea
  • Beyene, Addisu Shunu
  • Bhansali, Anil
  • Bhutta, Zulfiqar A
  • Bicer, Burcu Kucuk
  • Bikbov, Boris
  • Birungi, Charles
  • Biryukov, Stan
  • Blosser, Christopher D
  • Boneya, Dube Jara
  • Bou-Orm, Ibrahim R
  • Brauer, Michael
  • Breitborde, Nicholas J K
  • Brenner, Hermann
  • Brugha, Traolach S
  • Bulto, Lemma Negesa Bulto
  • Butt, Zahid A
  • Cahuana-Hurtado, Lucero
  • Cárdenas, Rosario
  • Carrero, Juan Jesus
  • Castañeda-Orjuela, Carlos A
  • Catalá-López, Ferrán
  • Cercy, Kelly
  • Chang, Hsing-Yi
  • Charlson, Fiona J
  • Chimed-Ochir, Odgerel
  • Chisumpa, Vesper Hichilombwe
  • Chitheer, Abdulaal A
  • Christensen, Hanne
  • Christopher, Devasahayam Jesudas
  • Cirillo, Massimo
  • Cohen, Aaron J
  • Comfort, Haley
  • Cooper, Cyrus
  • Coresh, Josef
  • Cornaby, Leslie
  • Cortesi, Paolo Angelo
  • Criqui, Michael H
  • Crump, John A
  • Dandona, Lalit
  • Dandona, Rakhi
  • Das Neves, José
  • Davey, Gail
  • Davitoiu, Dragos V
  • Davletov, Kairat
  • de Courten, Barbora
  • Defo, Barthelemy Kuate
  • Degenhardt, Louisa
  • Deiparine, Selina
  • Dellavalle, Robert P
  • Deribe, Kebede
  • Deshpande, Aniruddha
  • Dharmaratne, Samath D
  • Ding, Eric L
  • Djalalinia, Shirin
  • Do, Huyen Phuc
  • Dokova, Klara
  • Doku, David Teye
  • Donkelaar, Aaron van
  • Dorsey, E Ray
  • Driscoll, Tim R
  • Dubey, Manisha
  • Duncan, Bruce Bartholow
  • Duncan, Sarah
  • Ebrahimi, Hedyeh
  • El-Khatib, Ziad Ziad
  • Enayati, Ahmadali
  • Endries, Aman Yesuf
  • Ermakov, Sergey Petrovich
  • Erskine, Holly E
  • Eshrati, Babak
  • Eskandarieh, Sharareh
  • Esteghamati, Alireza
  • Estep, Kara
  • Faraon, Emerito Jose Aquino
  • Farinha, Carla Sofia E Sa
  • Faro, André
  • Farzadfar, Farshad
  • Fay, Kairsten
  • Feigin, Valery L
  • Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad
  • Fernandes, João C
  • Ferrari, Alize J
  • Feyissa, Tesfaye Regassa
  • Filip, Irina
  • Fischer, Florian
  • Fitzmaurice, Christina
  • Flaxman, Abraham D
  • Foigt, Nataliya
  • Foreman, Kyle J
  • Frostad, Joseph J
  • Fullman, Nancy
  • Fürst, Thomas
  • Furtado, Joao M
  • Ganji, Morsaleh
  • Garcia-Basteiro, Alberto L
  • Gebrehiwot, Tsegaye Tewelde
  • Geleijnse, Johanna M
  • Geleto, Ayele
  • Gemechu, Bikila Lencha
  • Gesesew, Hailay Abrha
  • Gething, Peter W
  • Ghajar, Alireza
  • Gibney, Katherine B
  • Gill, Paramjit Singh
  • Gillum, Richard F
  • Giref, Ababi Zergaw
  • Gishu, Melkamu Dedefo
  • Giussani, Giorgia
  • Godwin, William W
  • Gona, Philimon N
  • Goodridge, Amador
  • Gopalani, Sameer Vali
  • Goryakin, Yevgeniy
  • Goulart, Alessandra Carvalho
  • Graetz, Nicholas
  • Gugnani, Harish Chander
  • Guo, Jingwen
  • Gupta, Rajeev
  • Gupta, Tanush
  • Gupta, Vipin
  • Gutiérrez, Reyna A
  • Hachinski, Vladimir
  • Hafezi-Nejad, Nima
  • Hailu, Gessessew Bugssa
  • Hamadeh, Randah Ribhi
  • Hamidi, Samer
  • Hammami, Mouhanad
  • Handal, Alexis J
  • Hankey, Graeme J
  • Hanson, Sarah Wulf
  • Harb, Hilda L
  • Hareri, Habtamu Abera
  • Hassanvand, Mohammad Sadegh
  • Havmoeller, Rasmus
  • Hawley, Caitlin
  • Hay, Simon I
  • Hedayati, Mohammad T
  • Hendrie, Delia
  • Heredia-Pi, Ileana Beatriz
  • Hernandez, Julio Cesar Montañez
  • Hoek, Hans W
  • Horita, Nobuyuki
  • Hosgood, H Dean
  • Hostiuc, Sorin
  • Hoy, Damian G
  • Hsairi, Mohamed
  • Hu, Guoqing
  • Huang, John J
  • Huang, Hsiang
  • Ibrahim, Norlinah Mohamed
  • Iburg, Kim Moesgaard
  • Ikeda, Chad
  • Inoue, Manami
  • Irvine, Caleb Mackay Salpeter
  • Jackson, Maria Delores
  • Jacobsen, Kathryn H
  • Jahanmehr, Nader
  • Jakovljevic, Mihajlo B
  • Jauregui, Alejandra
  • Javanbakht, Mehdi
  • Jeemon, Panniyammakal
  • Johansson, Lars R K
  • Johnson, Catherine O
subjects:
  • Medicine
ispartof: The Lancet, 16 September 2017, Vol.390(10100), pp.1345-1422
description: The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016 (GBD 2016) provides a comprehensive assessment of risk factor exposure and attributable burden of disease. By providing estimates over a long time series, this study can monitor risk exposure trends critical to health surveillance and inform policy debates on the importance of addressing risks in context. We used the comparative risk assessment framework developed for previous iterations of GBD to estimate levels and trends in exposure, attributable deaths, and attributable disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), by age group, sex, year, and location for 84 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks from 1990 to 2016. This study included 481 risk-outcome pairs that met the GBD study criteria for convincing or probable evidence of causation. We extracted relative risk (RR) and exposure estimates from 22 717 randomised controlled trials, cohorts, pooled cohorts, household surveys, census data, satellite data, and other sources, according to the GBD 2016 source counting methods. Using the counterfactual scenario of theoretical minimum risk exposure level (TMREL), we estimated the portion of deaths and DALYs that could be attributed to a given risk. Finally, we explored four drivers of trends in attributable burden: population growth, population ageing, trends in risk exposure, and all other factors combined. Since 1990, exposure increased significantly for 30 risks, did not change significantly for four risks, and decreased significantly for 31 risks. Among risks that are leading causes of burden of disease, child growth failure and household air pollution showed the most significant declines, while metabolic risks, such as body-mass index and high fasting plasma glucose, showed significant increases. In 2016, at Level 3 of the hierarchy, the three leading risk factors in terms of attributable DALYs at the global level for men were smoking (124·1 million DALYs [95% UI 111·2 million to 137·0 million]), high systolic blood pressure (122·2 million DALYs [110·3 million to 133·3 million], and low birthweight and short gestation (83·0 million DALYs [78·3 million to 87·7 million]), and for women, were high systolic blood pressure (89·9 million DALYs [80·9 million to 98·2 million]), high body-mass index (64·8 million DALYs [44·4 million to 87·6 million]), and high fasting plasma glucose (63·8 million DALYs [53·2 million to 76·3 million]). In 2016 in 113 cou
language: eng
source:
identifier: ISSN: 0140-6736 ; E-ISSN: 1474-547X ; DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(17)32366-8
fulltext: fulltext
issn:
  • 0140-6736
  • 01406736
  • 1474-547X
  • 1474547X
url: Link


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titleGlobal, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 84 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks, 1990–2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016
creatorGakidou, Emmanuela ; Afshin, Ashkan ; Abajobir, Amanuel Alemu ; Abate, Kalkidan Hassen ; Abbafati, Cristiana ; Abbas, Kaja M ; Abd-Allah, Foad ; Abdulle, Abdishakur M ; Abera, Semaw Ferede ; Aboyans, Victor ; Abu-Raddad, Laith J ; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M E ; Abyu, Gebre Yitayih ; Adedeji, Isaac Akinkunmi ; Adetokunboh, Olatunji ; Afarideh, Mohsen ; Agrawal, Anurag ; Agrawal, Sutapa ; Ahmadieh, Hamid ; Ahmed, Muktar Beshir ; Aichour, Miloud Taki Eddine ; Aichour, Amani Nidhal ; Aichour, Ibtihel ; Akinyemi, Rufus Olusola ; Akseer, Nadia ; Alahdab, Fares ; Al-Aly, Ziyad ; Alam, Khurshid ; Alam, Noore ; Alam, Tahiya ; Alasfoor, Deena ; Alene, Kefyalew Addis ; Ali, Komal ; Alizadeh-Navaei, Reza ; Alkerwi, Ala'a ; Alla, François ; Allebeck, Peter ; Al-Raddadi, Rajaa ; Alsharif, Ubai ; Altirkawi, Khalid A ; Alvis-Guzman, Nelson ; Amare, Azmeraw T ; Amini, Erfan ; Ammar, Walid ; Amoako, Yaw Ampem ; Ansari, Hossein ; Antó, Josep M ; Antonio, Carl Abelardo T ; Anwari, Palwasha ; Arian, Nicholas ; Ärnlöv, Johan ; Artaman, Al ; Aryal, Krishna Kumar ; Asayesh, Hamid ; Asgedom, Solomon Weldegebreal ; Atey, Tesfay Mehari ; Avila-Burgos, Leticia ; Avokpaho, Euripide Frinel G Arthur ; Awasthi, Ashish ; Azzopardi, Peter ; Bacha, Umar ; Badawi, Alaa ; Balakrishnan, Kalpana ; Ballew, Shoshana H ; Barac, Aleksandra ; Barber, Ryan M ; Barker-Collo, Suzanne L ; Bärnighausen, Till ; Barquera, Simon ; Barregard, Lars ; Barrero, Lope H ; Batis, Carolina ; Battle, Katherine E ; Baumgarner, Blair R ; Baune, Bernhard T ; Beardsley, Justin ; Bedi, Neeraj ; Beghi, Ettore ; Bell, Michelle L ; Bennett, Derrick A ; Bennett, James R ; Bensenor, Isabela M ; Berhane, Adugnaw ; Berhe, Derbew Fikadu ; Bernabé, Eduardo ; Betsu, Balem Demtsu ; Beuran, Mircea ; Beyene, Addisu Shunu ; Bhansali, Anil ; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A ; Bicer, Burcu Kucuk ; Bikbov, Boris ; Birungi, Charles ; Biryukov, Stan ; Blosser, Christopher D ; Boneya, Dube Jara ; Bou-Orm, Ibrahim R ; Brauer, Michael ; Breitborde, Nicholas J K ; Brenner, Hermann ; Brugha, Traolach S ; Bulto, Lemma Negesa Bulto ; Butt, Zahid A ; Cahuana-Hurtado, Lucero ; Cárdenas, Rosario ; Carrero, Juan Jesus ; Castañeda-Orjuela, Carlos A ; Catalá-López, Ferrán ; Cercy, Kelly ; Chang, Hsing-Yi ; Charlson, Fiona J ; Chimed-Ochir, Odgerel ; Chisumpa, Vesper Hichilombwe ; Chitheer, Abdulaal A ; Christensen, Hanne ; Christopher, Devasahayam Jesudas ; Cirillo, Massimo ; Cohen, Aaron J ; Comfort, Haley ; Cooper, Cyrus ; Coresh, Josef ; Cornaby, Leslie ; Cortesi, Paolo Angelo ; Criqui, Michael H ; Crump, John A ; Dandona, Lalit ; Dandona, Rakhi ; Das Neves, José ; Davey, Gail ; Davitoiu, Dragos V ; Davletov, Kairat ; de Courten, Barbora ; Defo, Barthelemy Kuate ; Degenhardt, Louisa ; Deiparine, Selina ; Dellavalle, Robert P ; Deribe, Kebede ; Deshpande, Aniruddha ; Dharmaratne, Samath D ; Ding, Eric L ; Djalalinia, Shirin ; Do, Huyen Phuc ; Dokova, Klara ; Doku, David Teye ; Donkelaar, Aaron van ; Dorsey, E Ray ; Driscoll, Tim R ; Dubey, Manisha ; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow ; Duncan, Sarah ; Ebrahimi, Hedyeh ; El-Khatib, Ziad Ziad ; Enayati, Ahmadali ; Endries, Aman Yesuf ; Ermakov, Sergey Petrovich ; Erskine, Holly E ; Eshrati, Babak ; Eskandarieh, Sharareh ; Esteghamati, Alireza ; Estep, Kara ; Faraon, Emerito Jose Aquino ; Farinha, Carla Sofia E Sa ; Faro, André ; Farzadfar, Farshad ; Fay, Kairsten ; Feigin, Valery L ; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad ; Fernandes, João C ; Ferrari, Alize J ; Feyissa, Tesfaye Regassa ; Filip, Irina ; Fischer, Florian ; Fitzmaurice, Christina ; Flaxman, Abraham D ; Foigt, Nataliya ; Foreman, Kyle J ; Frostad, Joseph J ; Fullman, Nancy ; Fürst, Thomas ; Furtado, Joao M ; Ganji, Morsaleh ; Garcia-Basteiro, Alberto L ; Gebrehiwot, Tsegaye Tewelde ; Geleijnse, Johanna M ; Geleto, Ayele ; Gemechu, Bikila Lencha ; Gesesew, Hailay Abrha ; Gething, Peter W ; Ghajar, Alireza ; Gibney, Katherine B ; Gill, Paramjit Singh ; Gillum, Richard F ; Giref, Ababi Zergaw ; Gishu, Melkamu Dedefo ; Giussani, Giorgia ; Godwin, William W ; Gona, Philimon N ; Goodridge, Amador ; Gopalani, Sameer Vali ; Goryakin, Yevgeniy ; Goulart, Alessandra Carvalho ; Graetz, Nicholas ; Gugnani, Harish Chander ; Guo, Jingwen ; Gupta, Rajeev ; Gupta, Tanush ; Gupta, Vipin ; Gutiérrez, Reyna A ; Hachinski, Vladimir ; Hafezi-Nejad, Nima ; Hailu, Gessessew Bugssa ; Hamadeh, Randah Ribhi ; Hamidi, Samer ; Hammami, Mouhanad ; Handal, Alexis J ; Hankey, Graeme J ; Hanson, Sarah Wulf ; Harb, Hilda L ; Hareri, Habtamu Abera ; Hassanvand, Mohammad Sadegh ; Havmoeller, Rasmus ; Hawley, Caitlin ; Hay, Simon I ; Hedayati, Mohammad T ; Hendrie, Delia ; Heredia-Pi, Ileana Beatriz ; Hernandez, Julio Cesar Montañez ; Hoek, Hans W ; Horita, Nobuyuki ; Hosgood, H Dean ; Hostiuc, Sorin ; Hoy, Damian G ; Hsairi, Mohamed ; Hu, Guoqing ; Huang, John J ; Huang, Hsiang ; Ibrahim, Norlinah Mohamed ; Iburg, Kim Moesgaard ; Ikeda, Chad ; Inoue, Manami ; Irvine, Caleb Mackay Salpeter ; Jackson, Maria Delores ; Jacobsen, Kathryn H ; Jahanmehr, Nader ; Jakovljevic, Mihajlo B ; Jauregui, Alejandra ; Javanbakht, Mehdi ; Jeemon, Panniyammakal ; Johansson, Lars R K ; Johnson, Catherine O
ispartofThe Lancet, 16 September 2017, Vol.390(10100), pp.1345-1422
identifier
subjectMedicine
descriptionThe Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016 (GBD 2016) provides a comprehensive assessment of risk factor exposure and attributable burden of disease. By providing estimates over a long time series, this study can monitor risk exposure trends critical to health surveillance and inform policy debates on the importance of addressing risks in context. We used the comparative risk assessment framework developed for previous iterations of GBD to estimate levels and trends in exposure, attributable deaths, and attributable disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), by age group, sex, year, and location for 84 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks from 1990 to 2016. This study included 481 risk-outcome pairs that met the GBD study criteria for convincing or probable evidence of causation. We extracted relative risk (RR) and exposure estimates from 22 717 randomised controlled trials, cohorts, pooled cohorts, household surveys, census data, satellite data, and other sources, according to the GBD 2016 source counting methods. Using the counterfactual scenario of theoretical minimum risk exposure level (TMREL), we estimated the portion of deaths and DALYs that could be attributed to a given risk. Finally, we explored four drivers of trends in attributable burden: population growth, population ageing, trends in risk exposure, and all other factors combined. Since 1990, exposure increased significantly for 30 risks, did not change significantly for four risks, and decreased significantly for 31 risks. Among risks that are leading causes of burden of disease, child growth failure and household air pollution showed the most significant declines, while metabolic risks, such as body-mass index and high fasting plasma glucose, showed significant increases. In 2016, at Level 3 of the hierarchy, the three leading risk factors in terms of attributable DALYs at the global level for men were smoking (124·1 million DALYs [95% UI 111·2 million to 137·0 million]), high systolic blood pressure (122·2 million DALYs [110·3 million to 133·3 million], and low birthweight and short gestation (83·0 million DALYs [78·3 million to 87·7 million]), and for women, were high systolic blood pressure (89·9 million DALYs [80·9 million to 98·2 million]), high body-mass index (64·8 million DALYs [44·4 million to 87·6 million]), and high fasting plasma glucose (63·8 million DALYs [53·2 million to 76·3 million]). In 2016 in 113 countries, the leading risk factor in terms of attributable DALYs was a metabolic risk factor. Smoking remained among the leading five risk factors for DALYs for 109 countries, while low birthweight and short gestation was the leading risk factor for DALYs in 38 countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. In terms of important drivers of change in trends of burden attributable to risk factors, between 2006 and 2016 exposure to risks explains an 9·3% (6·9–11·6) decline in deaths and a 10·8% (8·3–13·1) decrease in DALYs at the global level, while population ageing accounts for 14·9% (12·7–17·5) of deaths and 6·2% (3·9–8·7) of DALYs, and population growth for 12·4% (10·1–14·9) of deaths and 12·4% (10·1–14·9) of DALYs. The largest contribution of trends in risk exposure to disease burden is seen between ages 1 year and 4 years, where a decline of 27·3% (24·9–29·7) of the change in DALYs between 2006 and 2016 can be attributed to declines in exposure to risks. Increasingly detailed understanding of the trends in risk exposure and the RRs for each risk-outcome pair provide insights into both the magnitude of health loss attributable to risks and how modification of risk exposure has contributed to health trends. Metabolic risks warrant particular policy attention, due to their large contribution to global disease burden, increasing trends, and variable patterns across countries at the same level of development. GBD 2016 findings show that, while it has huge potential to improve health, risk modification has played a relatively small part in the past decade. The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, .
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0Gakidou, Emmanuela
1Afshin, Ashkan
2Abajobir, Amanuel Alemu
3Abate, Kalkidan Hassen
4Abbafati, Cristiana
5Abbas, Kaja M
6Abd-Allah, Foad
7Abdulle, Abdishakur M
8Abera, Semaw Ferede
9Aboyans, Victor
10Abu-Raddad, Laith J
11Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M E
12Abyu, Gebre Yitayih
13Adedeji, Isaac Akinkunmi
14Adetokunboh, Olatunji
15Afarideh, Mohsen
16Agrawal, Anurag
17Agrawal, Sutapa
18Ahmadieh, Hamid
19Ahmed, Muktar Beshir
20Aichour, Miloud Taki Eddine
21Aichour, Amani Nidhal
22Aichour, Ibtihel
23Akinyemi, Rufus Olusola
24Akseer, Nadia
25Alahdab, Fares
26Al-Aly, Ziyad
27Alam, Khurshid
28Alam, Noore
29Alam, Tahiya
30Alasfoor, Deena
31Alene, Kefyalew Addis
32Ali, Komal
33Alizadeh-Navaei, Reza
34Alkerwi, Ala'a
35Alla, François
36Allebeck, Peter
37Al-Raddadi, Rajaa
38Alsharif, Ubai
39Altirkawi, Khalid A
40Alvis-Guzman, Nelson
41Amare, Azmeraw T
42Amini, Erfan
43Ammar, Walid
44Amoako, Yaw Ampem
45Ansari, Hossein
46Antó, Josep M
47Antonio, Carl Abelardo T
48Anwari, Palwasha
49Arian, Nicholas
50Ärnlöv, Johan
51Artaman, Al
52Aryal, Krishna Kumar
53Asayesh, Hamid
54Asgedom, Solomon Weldegebreal
55Atey, Tesfay Mehari
56Avila-Burgos, Leticia
57Avokpaho, Euripide Frinel G Arthur
58Awasthi, Ashish
59Azzopardi, Peter
60Bacha, Umar
61Badawi, Alaa
62Balakrishnan, Kalpana
63Ballew, Shoshana H
64Barac, Aleksandra
65Barber, Ryan M
66Barker-Collo, Suzanne L
67Bärnighausen, Till
68Barquera, Simon
69Barregard, Lars
70Barrero, Lope H
71Batis, Carolina
72Battle, Katherine E
73Baumgarner, Blair R
74Baune, Bernhard T
75Beardsley, Justin
76Bedi, Neeraj
77Beghi, Ettore
78Bell, Michelle L
79Bennett, Derrick A
80Bennett, James R
81Bensenor, Isabela M
82Berhane, Adugnaw
83Berhe, Derbew Fikadu
84Bernabé, Eduardo
85Betsu, Balem Demtsu
86Beuran, Mircea
87Beyene, Addisu Shunu
88Bhansali, Anil
89Bhutta, Zulfiqar A
90Bicer, Burcu Kucuk
91Bikbov, Boris
92Birungi, Charles
93Biryukov, Stan
94Blosser, Christopher D
95Boneya, Dube Jara
96Bou-Orm, Ibrahim R
97Brauer, Michael
98Breitborde, Nicholas J K
99Brenner, Hermann
100...
titleGlobal, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 84 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks, 1990–2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016
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titleGlobal, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 84 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks, 1990–2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016
authorGakidou, Emmanuela ; Afshin, Ashkan ; Abajobir, Amanuel Alemu ; Abate, Kalkidan Hassen ; Abbafati, Cristiana ; Abbas, Kaja M ; Abd-Allah, Foad ; Abdulle, Abdishakur M ; Abera, Semaw Ferede ; Aboyans, Victor ; Abu-Raddad, Laith J ; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M E ; Abyu, Gebre Yitayih ; Adedeji, Isaac Akinkunmi ; Adetokunboh, Olatunji ; Afarideh, Mohsen ; Agrawal, Anurag ; Agrawal, Sutapa ; Ahmadieh, Hamid ; Ahmed, Muktar Beshir ; Aichour, Miloud Taki Eddine ; Aichour, Amani Nidhal ; Aichour, Ibtihel ; Akinyemi, Rufus Olusola ; Akseer, Nadia ; Alahdab, Fares ; Al-Aly, Ziyad ; Alam, Khurshid ; Alam, Noore ; Alam, Tahiya ; Alasfoor, Deena ; Alene, Kefyalew Addis ; Ali, Komal ; Alizadeh-Navaei, Reza ; Alkerwi, Ala'a ; Alla, François ; Allebeck, Peter ; Al-Raddadi, Rajaa ; Alsharif, Ubai ; Altirkawi, Khalid A ; Alvis-Guzman, Nelson ; Amare, Azmeraw T ; Amini, Erfan ; Ammar, Walid ; Amoako, Yaw Ampem ; Ansari, Hossein ; Antó, Josep M ; Antonio, Carl Abelardo T ; Anwari, Palwasha ; Arian, Nicholas ; Ärnlöv, Johan ; Artaman, Al ; Aryal, Krishna Kumar ; Asayesh, Hamid ; Asgedom, Solomon Weldegebreal ; Atey, Tesfay Mehari ; Avila-Burgos, Leticia ; Avokpaho, Euripide Frinel G Arthur ; Awasthi, Ashish ; Azzopardi, Peter ; Bacha, Umar ; Badawi, Alaa ; Balakrishnan, Kalpana ; Ballew, Shoshana H ; Barac, Aleksandra ; Barber, Ryan M ; Barker-Collo, Suzanne L ; Bärnighausen, Till ; Barquera, Simon ; Barregard, Lars ; Barrero, Lope H ; Batis, Carolina ; Battle, Katherine E ; Baumgarner, Blair R ; Baune, Bernhard T ; Beardsley, Justin ; Bedi, Neeraj ; Beghi, Ettore ; Bell, Michelle L ; Bennett, Derrick A ; Bennett, James R ; Bensenor, Isabela M ; Berhane, Adugnaw ; Berhe, Derbew Fikadu ; Bernabé, Eduardo ; Betsu, Balem Demtsu ; Beuran, Mircea ; Beyene, Addisu Shunu ; Bhansali, Anil ; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A ; Bicer, Burcu Kucuk ; Bikbov, Boris ; Birungi, Charles ; Biryukov, Stan ; Blosser, Christopher D ; Boneya, Dube Jara ; Bou-Orm, Ibrahim R ; Brauer, Michael ; Breitborde, Nicholas J K ; Brenner, Hermann ; Brugha, Traolach S ; Bulto, Lemma Negesa Bulto ; Butt, Zahid A ; Cahuana-Hurtado, Lucero ; Cárdenas, Rosario ; Carrero, Juan Jesus ; Castañeda-Orjuela, Carlos A ; Catalá-López, Ferrán ; Cercy, Kelly ; Chang, Hsing-Yi ; Charlson, Fiona J ; Chimed-Ochir, Odgerel ; Chisumpa, Vesper Hichilombwe ; Chitheer, Abdulaal A ; Christensen, Hanne ; Christopher, Devasahayam Jesudas ; Cirillo, Massimo ; Cohen, Aaron J ; Comfort, Haley ; Cooper, Cyrus ; Coresh, Josef ; Cornaby, Leslie ; Cortesi, Paolo Angelo ; Criqui, Michael H ; Crump, John A ; Dandona, Lalit ; Dandona, Rakhi ; Das Neves, José ; Davey, Gail ; Davitoiu, Dragos V ; Davletov, Kairat ; de Courten, Barbora ; Defo, Barthelemy Kuate ; Degenhardt, Louisa ; Deiparine, Selina ; Dellavalle, Robert P ; Deribe, Kebede ; Deshpande, Aniruddha ; Dharmaratne, Samath D ; Ding, Eric L ; Djalalinia, Shirin ; Do, Huyen Phuc ; Dokova, Klara ; Doku, David Teye ; Donkelaar, Aaron van ; Dorsey, E Ray ; Driscoll, Tim R ; Dubey, Manisha ; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow ; Duncan, Sarah ; Ebrahimi, Hedyeh ; El-Khatib, Ziad Ziad ; Enayati, Ahmadali ; Endries, Aman Yesuf ; Ermakov, Sergey Petrovich ; Erskine, Holly E ; Eshrati, Babak ; Eskandarieh, Sharareh ; Esteghamati, Alireza ; Estep, Kara ; Faraon, Emerito Jose Aquino ; Farinha, Carla Sofia E Sa ; Faro, André ; Farzadfar, Farshad ; Fay, Kairsten ; Feigin, Valery L ; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad ; Fernandes, João C ; Ferrari, Alize J ; Feyissa, Tesfaye Regassa ; Filip, Irina ; Fischer, Florian ; Fitzmaurice, Christina ; Flaxman, Abraham D ; Foigt, Nataliya ; Foreman, Kyle J ; Frostad, Joseph J ; Fullman, Nancy ; Fürst, Thomas ; Furtado, Joao M ; Ganji, Morsaleh ; Garcia-Basteiro, Alberto L ; Gebrehiwot, Tsegaye Tewelde ; Geleijnse, Johanna M ; Geleto, Ayele ; Gemechu, Bikila Lencha ; Gesesew, Hailay Abrha ; Gething, Peter W ; Ghajar, Alireza ; Gibney, Katherine B ; Gill, Paramjit Singh ; Gillum, Richard F ; Giref, Ababi Zergaw ; Gishu, Melkamu Dedefo ; Giussani, Giorgia ; Godwin, William W ; Gona, Philimon N ; Goodridge, Amador ; Gopalani, Sameer Vali ; Goryakin, Yevgeniy ; Goulart, Alessandra Carvalho ; Graetz, Nicholas ; Gugnani, Harish Chander ; Guo, Jingwen ; Gupta, Rajeev ; Gupta, Tanush ; Gupta, Vipin ; Gutiérrez, Reyna A ; Hachinski, Vladimir ; Hafezi-Nejad, Nima ; Hailu, Gessessew Bugssa ; Hamadeh, Randah Ribhi ; Hamidi, Samer ; Hammami, Mouhanad ; Handal, Alexis J ; Hankey, Graeme J ; Hanson, Sarah Wulf ; Harb, Hilda L ; Hareri, Habtamu Abera ; Hassanvand, Mohammad Sadegh ; Havmoeller, Rasmus ; Hawley, Caitlin ; Hay, Simon I ; Hedayati, Mohammad T ; Hendrie, Delia ; Heredia-Pi, Ileana Beatriz ; Hernandez, Julio Cesar Montañez ; Hoek, Hans W ; Horita, Nobuyuki ; Hosgood, H Dean ; Hostiuc, Sorin ; Hoy, Damian G ; Hsairi, Mohamed ; Hu, Guoqing ; Huang, John J ; Huang, Hsiang ; Ibrahim, Norlinah Mohamed ; Iburg, Kim Moesgaard ; Ikeda, Chad ; Inoue, Manami ; Irvine, Caleb Mackay Salpeter ; Jackson, Maria Delores ; Jacobsen, Kathryn H ; Jahanmehr, Nader ; Jakovljevic, Mihajlo B ; Jauregui, Alejandra ; Javanbakht, Mehdi ; Jeemon, Panniyammakal ; Johansson, Lars R K ; Johnson, Catherine O
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0Gakidou, Emmanuela
1Afshin, Ashkan
2Abajobir, Amanuel Alemu
3Abate, Kalkidan Hassen
4Abbafati, Cristiana
5Abbas, Kaja M
6Abd-Allah, Foad
7Abdulle, Abdishakur M
8Abera, Semaw Ferede
9Aboyans, Victor
10Abu-Raddad, Laith J
11Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M E
12Abyu, Gebre Yitayih
13Adedeji, Isaac Akinkunmi
14Adetokunboh, Olatunji
15Afarideh, Mohsen
16Agrawal, Anurag
17Agrawal, Sutapa
18Ahmadieh, Hamid
19Ahmed, Muktar Beshir
20Aichour, Miloud Taki Eddine
21Aichour, Amani Nidhal
22Aichour, Ibtihel
23Akinyemi, Rufus Olusola
24Akseer, Nadia
25Alahdab, Fares
26Al-Aly, Ziyad
27Alam, Khurshid
28Alam, Noore
29Alam, Tahiya
30Alasfoor, Deena
31Alene, Kefyalew Addis
32Ali, Komal
33Alizadeh-Navaei, Reza
34Alkerwi, Ala'a
35Alla, François
36Allebeck, Peter
37Al-Raddadi, Rajaa
38Alsharif, Ubai
39Altirkawi, Khalid A
40Alvis-Guzman, Nelson
41Amare, Azmeraw T
42Amini, Erfan
43Ammar, Walid
44Amoako, Yaw Ampem
45Ansari, Hossein
46Antó, Josep M
47Antonio, Carl Abelardo T
48Anwari, Palwasha
49Arian, Nicholas
50Ärnlöv, Johan
51Artaman, Al
52Aryal, Krishna Kumar
53Asayesh, Hamid
54Asgedom, Solomon Weldegebreal
55Atey, Tesfay Mehari
56Avila-Burgos, Leticia
57Avokpaho, Euripide Frinel G Arthur
58Awasthi, Ashish
59Azzopardi, Peter
60Bacha, Umar
61Badawi, Alaa
62Balakrishnan, Kalpana
63Ballew, Shoshana H
64Barac, Aleksandra
65Barber, Ryan M
66Barker-Collo, Suzanne L
67Bärnighausen, Till
68Barquera, Simon
69Barregard, Lars
70Barrero, Lope H
71Batis, Carolina
72Battle, Katherine E
73Baumgarner, Blair R
74Baune, Bernhard T
75Beardsley, Justin
76Bedi, Neeraj
77Beghi, Ettore
78Bell, Michelle L
79Bennett, Derrick A
80Bennett, James R
81Bensenor, Isabela M
82Berhane, Adugnaw
83Berhe, Derbew Fikadu
84Bernabé, Eduardo
85Betsu, Balem Demtsu
86Beuran, Mircea
87Beyene, Addisu Shunu
88Bhansali, Anil
89Bhutta, Zulfiqar A
90Bicer, Burcu Kucuk
91Bikbov, Boris
92Birungi, Charles
93Biryukov, Stan
94Blosser, Christopher D
95Boneya, Dube Jara
96Bou-Orm, Ibrahim R
97Brauer, Michael
98Breitborde, Nicholas J K
99Brenner, Hermann
100...
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45Hossein
46Josep M
47Carl Abelardo T
48Palwasha
49Nicholas
50Johan
51Al
52Krishna Kumar
53Solomon Weldegebreal
54Tesfay Mehari
55Leticia
56Euripide Frinel G Arthur
57Ashish
58Umar
59Alaa
60Kalpana
61Shoshana H
62Aleksandra
63Ryan M
64Suzanne L
65Till
66Simon
67Lars
68Lope H
69Carolina
70Katherine E
71Blair R
72Bernhard T
73Justin
74Neeraj
75Ettore
76Michelle L
77Derrick A
78James R
79Isabela M
80Adugnaw
81Derbew Fikadu
82Eduardo
83Balem Demtsu
84Mircea
85Addisu Shunu
86Anil
87Zulfiqar A
88Burcu Kucuk
89Boris
90Charles
91Stan
92Christopher D
93Dube Jara
94Ibrahim R
95Michael
96Nicholas J K
97Hermann
98Traolach S
99Lemma Negesa Bulto
100...
auinitE
auinit1E
au
0Gakidou, Emmanuela
1Afshin, Ashkan
2Abajobir, Amanuel Alemu
3Abate, Kalkidan Hassen
4Abbafati, Cristiana
5Abbas, Kaja M
6Abd-Allah, Foad
7Abdulle, Abdishakur M
8Abera, Semaw Ferede
9Aboyans, Victor
10Abu-Raddad, Laith J
11Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M E
12Abyu, Gebre Yitayih
13Adedeji, Isaac Akinkunmi
14Adetokunboh, Olatunji
15Afarideh, Mohsen
16Agrawal, Anurag
17Agrawal, Sutapa
18Ahmadieh, Hamid
19Ahmed, Muktar Beshir
20Aichour, Miloud Taki Eddine
21Aichour, Amani Nidhal
22Aichour, Ibtihel
23Akinyemi, Rufus Olusola
24Akseer, Nadia
25Alahdab, Fares
26Al-Aly, Ziyad
27Alam, Khurshid
28Alam, Noore
29Alam, Tahiya
30Alasfoor, Deena
31Alene, Kefyalew Addis
32Ali, Komal
33Alizadeh-Navaei, Reza
34Alkerwi, Ala'a
35Alla, François
36Allebeck, Peter
37Al-Raddadi, Rajaa
38Alsharif, Ubai
39Altirkawi, Khalid A
40Alvis-Guzman, Nelson
41Amare, Azmeraw T
42Amini, Erfan
43Ammar, Walid
44Amoako, Yaw Ampem
45Ansari, Hossein
46Antó, Josep M
47Antonio, Carl Abelardo T
48Anwari, Palwasha
49Arian, Nicholas
50Ärnlöv, Johan
51Artaman, Al
52Aryal, Krishna Kumar
53Asayesh, Hamid
54Asgedom, Solomon Weldegebreal
55Atey, Tesfay Mehari
56Avila-Burgos, Leticia
57Avokpaho, Euripide Frinel G Arthur
58Awasthi, Ashish
59Azzopardi, Peter
60Bacha, Umar
61Badawi, Alaa
62Balakrishnan, Kalpana
63Ballew, Shoshana H
64Barac, Aleksandra
65Barber, Ryan M
66Barker-Collo, Suzanne L
67Bärnighausen, Till
68Barquera, Simon
69Barregard, Lars
70Barrero, Lope H
71Batis, Carolina
72Battle, Katherine E
73Baumgarner, Blair R
74Baune, Bernhard T
75Beardsley, Justin
76Bedi, Neeraj
77Beghi, Ettore
78Bell, Michelle L
79Bennett, Derrick A
80Bennett, James R
81Bensenor, Isabela M
82Berhane, Adugnaw
83Berhe, Derbew Fikadu
84Bernabé, Eduardo
85Betsu, Balem Demtsu
86Beuran, Mircea
87Beyene, Addisu Shunu
88Bhansali, Anil
89Bhutta, Zulfiqar A
90Bicer, Burcu Kucuk
91Bikbov, Boris
92Birungi, Charles
93Biryukov, Stan
94Blosser, Christopher D
95Boneya, Dube Jara
96Bou-Orm, Ibrahim R
97Brauer, Michael
98Breitborde, Nicholas J K
99Brenner, Hermann
100...
atitleGlobal, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 84 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks, 1990–2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016
jtitleThe Lancet
risdate20170916
volume390
issue10100
spage1345
epage1422
pages1345-1422
issn0140-6736
eissn1474-547X
formatjournal
genrearticle
ristypeJOUR
abstract
pubElsevier Ltd
doi10.1016/S0140-6736(17)32366-8
lad01The Lancet
oafree_for_read
orcididdiva-portal.org=authority-person:10837
isbn0004106300000
date2017-09-16