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Background concentrations and source apportionment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in south-eastern Finland

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH compounds) were measured in the PM fraction [from ambient air] at Virolahti, Finland. The sampling site is located in a rural area in the south-eastern corner of Finland, near the Russian border. Altogether, 51 daily and 85 weekly filter samples were collected i... Full description

Journal Title: Atmospheric Environment 2011, Vol.45(20), pp.3391-3399
Main Author: Vestenius, Mika
Other Authors: Leppänen, Sirkka , Anttila, Pia , Kyllönen, Katriina , Hatakka, Juha , Hellén, Heidi , Hyvärinen, Antti-Pekka , Hakola, Hannele
Format: Electronic Article Electronic Article
Language: English
Subjects:
Pah
ID: ISSN: 1352-2310 ; E-ISSN: 1873-2844 ; DOI: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2011.03.050
Link: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1352231011003219
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recordid: elsevier_sdoi_10_1016_j_atmosenv_2011_03_050
title: Background concentrations and source apportionment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in south-eastern Finland
format: Article
creator:
  • Vestenius, Mika
  • Leppänen, Sirkka
  • Anttila, Pia
  • Kyllönen, Katriina
  • Hatakka, Juha
  • Hellén, Heidi
  • Hyvärinen, Antti-Pekka
  • Hakola, Hannele
subjects:
  • Pah
  • Pm 10
  • Air Quality
  • Background Areas
  • Positive Matrix Factorization
  • Engineering
  • Environmental Sciences
ispartof: Atmospheric Environment, 2011, Vol.45(20), pp.3391-3399
description: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH compounds) were measured in the PM fraction [from ambient air] at Virolahti, Finland. The sampling site is located in a rural area in the south-eastern corner of Finland, near the Russian border. Altogether, 51 daily and 85 weekly filter samples were collected in 2007–2008. The yearly average concentration of benzo(a)pyrene at Virolahti in 2007 was 0.21 ng m , which is well below the annual target value of 1 ng m set by the European Union. The positive matrix factorization (PMF) method was applied in source apportionment for daily PAH data combined with other pollutant data. A three-factor solution of the PMF analysis with 28 components was chosen. These three factors were identified as long-range transported secondary particles (F1), combustion (F2) and a sea-salt factor (F3). The conditional probability function (CPF) was used to combine wind direction sectors with the PMF factors. In cases F1 and F2, pollutants mainly originated from the south-east, whereas pollutants in F3 came from the south-western sector. PAHs entered into the combustion factor 2 together with SO , NO , black carbon and potassium. This suggests that the PAHs at Virolahti originated from traffic and industrial pollution, as well as biomass burning. Elevated concentrations occurred throughout the winter period and most frequently originated from the south-eastern sector between 90°–135°. This sector includes, among other transboundary areas, the metropolis of St. Petersburg at a distance of 160 km. ► PAHs in PM10 were collected at Virolahti, Finland. ► Benzo(a)pyrene was relatively high compared to other European background sites. ► PMF method was applied for daily PAH data combined with other pollutant data. ► Major source area of PAHs was in the eastern sector.
language: eng
source:
identifier: ISSN: 1352-2310 ; E-ISSN: 1873-2844 ; DOI: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2011.03.050
fulltext: fulltext
issn:
  • 1352-2310
  • 13522310
  • 1873-2844
  • 18732844
url: Link


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descriptionPolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH compounds) were measured in the PM fraction [from ambient air] at Virolahti, Finland. The sampling site is located in a rural area in the south-eastern corner of Finland, near the Russian border. Altogether, 51 daily and 85 weekly filter samples were collected in 2007–2008. The yearly average concentration of benzo(a)pyrene at Virolahti in 2007 was 0.21 ng m , which is well below the annual target value of 1 ng m set by the European Union. The positive matrix factorization (PMF) method was applied in source apportionment for daily PAH data combined with other pollutant data. A three-factor solution of the PMF analysis with 28 components was chosen. These three factors were identified as long-range transported secondary particles (F1), combustion (F2) and a sea-salt factor (F3). The conditional probability function (CPF) was used to combine wind direction sectors with the PMF factors. In cases F1 and F2, pollutants mainly originated from the south-east, whereas pollutants in F3 came from the south-western sector. PAHs entered into the combustion factor 2 together with SO , NO , black carbon and potassium. This suggests that the PAHs at Virolahti originated from traffic and industrial pollution, as well as biomass burning. Elevated concentrations occurred throughout the winter period and most frequently originated from the south-eastern sector between 90°–135°. This sector includes, among other transboundary areas, the metropolis of St. Petersburg at a distance of 160 km. ► PAHs in PM10 were collected at Virolahti, Finland. ► Benzo(a)pyrene was relatively high compared to other European background sites. ► PMF method was applied for daily PAH data combined with other pollutant data. ► Major source area of PAHs was in the eastern sector.
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