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Long-term low-protein, low-calorie diet and endurance exercise modulate metabolic factors associated with cancer risk

BACKGROUND: Western diets, obesity, and sedentary lifestyles are associated with increased cancer risk. The mechanisms responsible for this increased risk, however, are not clear. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that long-term low protein, low calorie intake and endurance exercise are associated with low... Full description

Journal Title: American journal of clinical nutrition 2006, Vol.84(6), pp.1456-1462
Main Author: Fontana , Luigi
Other Authors: Klein , Samuel , Holloszy , John O.
Format: Electronic Article Electronic Article
Language: English
Subjects:
Men
ID: ISSN: 0002-9165
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recordid: faoagrisUS201301119824
title: Long-term low-protein, low-calorie diet and endurance exercise modulate metabolic factors associated with cancer risk
format: Article
creator:
  • Fontana , Luigi
  • Klein , Samuel
  • Holloszy , John O.
subjects:
  • Neoplasms
  • Exercise
  • Women
  • Running
  • Low Calorie Diet
  • Energy Content
  • Metabolic Studies
  • Special Diets
  • Human Nutrition
  • Adults
  • Low Protein Diet
  • Diet-Related Diseases
  • Blood Chemistry
  • Men
  • Growth Factors
  • Risk Factors
  • Dietary Protein
ispartof: American journal of clinical nutrition, 2006, Vol.84(6), pp.1456-1462
description: BACKGROUND: Western diets, obesity, and sedentary lifestyles are associated with increased cancer risk. The mechanisms responsible for this increased risk, however, are not clear. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that long-term low protein, low calorie intake and endurance exercise are associated with low concentrations of plasma growth factors and hormones that are linked to an increased risk of cancer. DESIGN: Plasma growth factors and hormones were evaluated in 21 sedentary subjects, who had been eating a low-protein, low-calorie diet for 4.4 ± 2.8 y (x ± SD age: 53.0 ± 11 y); 21 endurance runners matched by body mass index (BMI; in kg/m²); and 21 age- and sex-matched sedentary subjects eating Western diets. RESULTS: BMI was lower in the low-protein, low-calorie diet (21.3 ± 3.1) and runner (21.6 ± 1.6) groups than in the Western diet (26.5 ± 2.7; P < 0.005) group. Plasma concentrations of insulin, free sex hormones, leptin, and C-reactive protein were lower and sex hormone-binding globulin was higher in the low-protein, low-calorie diet and runner groups than in the sedentary Western diet group (all P < 0.05). Plasma insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and the concentration ratio of IGF-I to IGF binding protein 3 were lower in the low-protein, low-calorie diet group (139 ± 37 ng/mL and 0.033 ± 0.01, respectively) than in the runner (177 ± 37 ng/mL and 0.044 ± 0.01, respectively) and sedentary Western (201 ± 42 ng/mL and 0.046 ± 0.01, respectively) diet groups (P < 0.005). CONCLUSIONS: Exercise training, decreased adiposity, and long-term consumption of a low-protein, low-calorie diet are associated with low plasma growth factors and hormones that are linked to an increased risk of cancer. Low protein intake may have additional protective effects because it is associated with a decrease in circulating IGF-I independent of body fat mass. ; Includes references ; p. 1456-1462.
language: eng
source:
identifier: ISSN: 0002-9165
fulltext: fulltext
issn:
  • 00029165
  • 0002-9165
url: Link


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titleLong-term low-protein, low-calorie diet and endurance exercise modulate metabolic factors associated with cancer risk
creatorFontana , Luigi ; Klein , Samuel ; Holloszy , John O.
ispartofAmerican journal of clinical nutrition, 2006, Vol.84(6), pp.1456-1462
identifierISSN: 0002-9165
subjectNeoplasms ; Exercise ; Women ; Running ; Low Calorie Diet ; Energy Content ; Metabolic Studies ; Special Diets ; Human Nutrition ; Adults ; Low Protein Diet ; Diet-Related Diseases ; Blood Chemistry ; Men ; Growth Factors ; Risk Factors ; Dietary Protein
descriptionBACKGROUND: Western diets, obesity, and sedentary lifestyles are associated with increased cancer risk. The mechanisms responsible for this increased risk, however, are not clear. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that long-term low protein, low calorie intake and endurance exercise are associated with low concentrations of plasma growth factors and hormones that are linked to an increased risk of cancer. DESIGN: Plasma growth factors and hormones were evaluated in 21 sedentary subjects, who had been eating a low-protein, low-calorie diet for 4.4 ± 2.8 y (x ± SD age: 53.0 ± 11 y); 21 endurance runners matched by body mass index (BMI; in kg/m²); and 21 age- and sex-matched sedentary subjects eating Western diets. RESULTS: BMI was lower in the low-protein, low-calorie diet (21.3 ± 3.1) and runner (21.6 ± 1.6) groups than in the Western diet (26.5 ± 2.7; P < 0.005) group. Plasma concentrations of insulin, free sex hormones, leptin, and C-reactive protein were lower and sex hormone-binding globulin was higher in the low-protein, low-calorie diet and runner groups than in the sedentary Western diet group (all P < 0.05). Plasma insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and the concentration ratio of IGF-I to IGF binding protein 3 were lower in the low-protein, low-calorie diet group (139 ± 37 ng/mL and 0.033 ± 0.01, respectively) than in the runner (177 ± 37 ng/mL and 0.044 ± 0.01, respectively) and sedentary Western (201 ± 42 ng/mL and 0.046 ± 0.01, respectively) diet groups (P < 0.005). CONCLUSIONS: Exercise training, decreased adiposity, and long-term consumption of a low-protein, low-calorie diet are associated with low plasma growth factors and hormones that are linked to an increased risk of cancer. Low protein intake may have additional protective effects because it is associated with a decrease in circulating IGF-I independent of body fat mass. ; Includes references ; p. 1456-1462.
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titleLong-term low-protein, low-calorie diet and endurance exercise modulate metabolic factors associated with cancer risk
descriptionBACKGROUND: Western diets, obesity, and sedentary lifestyles are associated with increased cancer risk. The mechanisms responsible for this increased risk, however, are not clear. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that long-term low protein, low calorie intake and endurance exercise are associated with low concentrations of plasma growth factors and hormones that are linked to an increased risk of cancer. DESIGN: Plasma growth factors and hormones were evaluated in 21 sedentary subjects, who had been eating a low-protein, low-calorie diet for 4.4 ± 2.8 y (x ± SD age: 53.0 ± 11 y); 21 endurance runners matched by body mass index (BMI; in kg/m²); and 21 age- and sex-matched sedentary subjects eating Western diets. RESULTS: BMI was lower in the low-protein, low-calorie diet (21.3 ± 3.1) and runner (21.6 ± 1.6) groups than in the Western diet (26.5 ± 2.7; P < 0.005) group. Plasma concentrations of insulin, free sex hormones, leptin, and C-reactive protein were lower and sex hormone-binding globulin was higher in the low-protein, low-calorie diet and runner groups than in the sedentary Western diet group (all P < 0.05). Plasma insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and the concentration ratio of IGF-I to IGF binding protein 3 were lower in the low-protein, low-calorie diet group (139 ± 37 ng/mL and 0.033 ± 0.01, respectively) than in the runner (177 ± 37 ng/mL and 0.044 ± 0.01, respectively) and sedentary Western (201 ± 42 ng/mL and 0.046 ± 0.01, respectively) diet groups (P < 0.005). CONCLUSIONS: Exercise training, decreased adiposity, and long-term consumption of a low-protein, low-calorie diet are associated with low plasma growth factors and hormones that are linked to an increased risk of cancer. Low protein intake may have additional protective effects because it is associated with a decrease in circulating IGF-I independent of body fat mass. ; Includes references ; p. 1456-1462.
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abstractBACKGROUND: Western diets, obesity, and sedentary lifestyles are associated with increased cancer risk. The mechanisms responsible for this increased risk, however, are not clear. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that long-term low protein, low calorie intake and endurance exercise are associated with low concentrations of plasma growth factors and hormones that are linked to an increased risk of cancer. DESIGN: Plasma growth factors and hormones were evaluated in 21 sedentary subjects, who had been eating a low-protein, low-calorie diet for 4.4 ± 2.8 y (x ± SD age: 53.0 ± 11 y); 21 endurance runners matched by body mass index (BMI; in kg/m²); and 21 age- and sex-matched sedentary subjects eating Western diets. RESULTS: BMI was lower in the low-protein, low-calorie diet (21.3 ± 3.1) and runner (21.6 ± 1.6) groups than in the Western diet (26.5 ± 2.7; P < 0.005) group. Plasma concentrations of insulin, free sex hormones, leptin, and C-reactive protein were lower and sex hormone-binding globulin was higher in the low-protein, low-calorie diet and runner groups than in the sedentary Western diet group (all P < 0.05). Plasma insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and the concentration ratio of IGF-I to IGF binding protein 3 were lower in the low-protein, low-calorie diet group (139 ± 37 ng/mL and 0.033 ± 0.01, respectively) than in the runner (177 ± 37 ng/mL and 0.044 ± 0.01, respectively) and sedentary Western (201 ± 42 ng/mL and 0.046 ± 0.01, respectively) diet groups (P < 0.005). CONCLUSIONS: Exercise training, decreased adiposity, and long-term consumption of a low-protein, low-calorie diet are associated with low plasma growth factors and hormones that are linked to an increased risk of cancer. Low protein intake may have additional protective effects because it is associated with a decrease in circulating IGF-I independent of body fat mass.
pubAmerican Society for Nutrition
doi10.1093/ajcn/84.6.1456
eissn19383207