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Growth performance and sorting characteristics of corn silage-alfalfa haylage diets with or without forage dilution offered to replacement Holstein dairy heifers

Gravid dairy heifers consuming high-quality forage diets are susceptible to excessive weight gains and over-conditioning. One approach for controlling this problem is to dilute diets with low-energy forages, such as straw, that reduce the caloric density and DMI of that diet by heifers. These diluti... Full description

Journal Title: Journal of dairy science 2015, Vol.98(11), pp.8018-8034
Main Author: Coblentz , Wayne K.
Other Authors: Esser , N. M. , Hoffman , P. C. , Akins , M. S.
Format: Electronic Article Electronic Article
Language: English
Subjects:
ID: ISSN: 0022-0302
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recordid: faoagrisUS201600026634
title: Growth performance and sorting characteristics of corn silage-alfalfa haylage diets with or without forage dilution offered to replacement Holstein dairy heifers
format: Article
creator:
  • Coblentz , Wayne K.
  • Esser , N. M.
  • Hoffman , P. C.
  • Akins , M. S.
subjects:
  • Liveweight Gain
  • Dairy Heifers
  • Alfalfa
  • Corn
  • Wheat Straw
  • Low Calorie Diet
  • Growth Performance
  • Corn Silage
  • Haylage
  • Holstein
  • Forage
  • Energy Density
  • Weight Gain
  • Tripsacum Dactyloides
ispartof: Journal of dairy science, 2015, Vol.98(11), pp.8018-8034
description: Gravid dairy heifers consuming high-quality forage diets are susceptible to excessive weight gains and over-conditioning. One approach for controlling this problem is to dilute diets with low-energy forages, such as straw, that reduce the caloric density and DMI of that diet by heifers. These diluting agents are often sortable by dairy heifers, but previous visual evidence has suggested that eastern gamagrass haylage may be a non-sortable alternative. Our objectives were: i) to compare the growth performance of dairy heifers offered a high-quality forage diet (CONTROL) with diets containing 1 of 3 diluting agents [eastern gamagrass haylage (EGG), chopped wheat straw (STRAW), or chopped corn fodder (FODDER)]; and ii) evaluate sorting behaviors of heifers offered these forage diets. Holstein heifers (n = 128) were stratified (32 heifers/block) on the basis of initial BW (heavy, 560 ± 27.7 kg; medium-heavy, 481 ± 17.7 kg; medium-light, 441 ± 22.0 kg; and light, 399 ± 14.4 kg), and then assigned to 1 of 16 identical research pens (4 pens/block; 8 heifers/pen), where each of the 4 research diets were assigned to 1 pen within each block. Diets were offered in a 118-d feeding trial with heifers crowded to 133% of capacity at the feed bunk. Inclusion of low-energy forages was effective in reducing DMI, as well as the energy density of the diet. Concentrations of physically effective fiber (pef) particles did not change during the 24-h period following feeding for either the CONTROL or EGG diets; however, this response for pef particles masked the competing (and cancelling) responses for individual large and medium particles, which heifers sorted with discrimination and preference, respectively. Sorting against pef particles was detected for STRAW, and much more severely for the FODDER diet. Sorting of forage particles by heifers could not be related to heifer performance. Compared to CONTROL (1.16 kg/d), ADG were reduced by dilution in all cases, but was virtually identical between EGG (0.98 kg/d) and FODDER (0.97 kg/d), which exhibited no sorting and extensive sorting of pef, respectively. Furthermore, ADG for STRAW was approximately 0.2 kg/d less than EGG or FODDER, despite exhibiting sorting characteristics intermediate between EGG and FODDER. Diets diluted with low-energy forages were formulated to be isonitrogenous and isocaloric; within that context, STRAW was most effective in reducing DMI and maintaining ADG within typical recommendations for Holstein heif
language: eng
source:
identifier: ISSN: 0022-0302
fulltext: fulltext
issn:
  • 00220302
  • 0022-0302
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titleGrowth performance and sorting characteristics of corn silage-alfalfa haylage diets with or without forage dilution offered to replacement Holstein dairy heifers
creatorCoblentz , Wayne K. ; Esser , N. M. ; Hoffman , P. C. ; Akins , M. S.
ispartofJournal of dairy science, 2015, Vol.98(11), pp.8018-8034
identifierISSN: 0022-0302
subjectLiveweight Gain ; Dairy Heifers ; Alfalfa ; Corn ; Wheat Straw ; Low Calorie Diet ; Growth Performance ; Corn Silage ; Haylage ; Holstein ; Forage ; Energy Density ; Weight Gain ; Tripsacum Dactyloides
descriptionGravid dairy heifers consuming high-quality forage diets are susceptible to excessive weight gains and over-conditioning. One approach for controlling this problem is to dilute diets with low-energy forages, such as straw, that reduce the caloric density and DMI of that diet by heifers. These diluting agents are often sortable by dairy heifers, but previous visual evidence has suggested that eastern gamagrass haylage may be a non-sortable alternative. Our objectives were: i) to compare the growth performance of dairy heifers offered a high-quality forage diet (CONTROL) with diets containing 1 of 3 diluting agents [eastern gamagrass haylage (EGG), chopped wheat straw (STRAW), or chopped corn fodder (FODDER)]; and ii) evaluate sorting behaviors of heifers offered these forage diets. Holstein heifers (n = 128) were stratified (32 heifers/block) on the basis of initial BW (heavy, 560 ± 27.7 kg; medium-heavy, 481 ± 17.7 kg; medium-light, 441 ± 22.0 kg; and light, 399 ± 14.4 kg), and then assigned to 1 of 16 identical research pens (4 pens/block; 8 heifers/pen), where each of the 4 research diets were assigned to 1 pen within each block. Diets were offered in a 118-d feeding trial with heifers crowded to 133% of capacity at the feed bunk. Inclusion of low-energy forages was effective in reducing DMI, as well as the energy density of the diet. Concentrations of physically effective fiber (pef) particles did not change during the 24-h period following feeding for either the CONTROL or EGG diets; however, this response for pef particles masked the competing (and cancelling) responses for individual large and medium particles, which heifers sorted with discrimination and preference, respectively. Sorting against pef particles was detected for STRAW, and much more severely for the FODDER diet. Sorting of forage particles by heifers could not be related to heifer performance. Compared to CONTROL (1.16 kg/d), ADG were reduced by dilution in all cases, but was virtually identical between EGG (0.98 kg/d) and FODDER (0.97 kg/d), which exhibited no sorting and extensive sorting of pef, respectively. Furthermore, ADG for STRAW was approximately 0.2 kg/d less than EGG or FODDER, despite exhibiting sorting characteristics intermediate between EGG and FODDER. Diets diluted with low-energy forages were formulated to be isonitrogenous and isocaloric; within that context, STRAW was most effective in reducing DMI and maintaining ADG within typical recommendations for Holstein heifers. ; p. 8018-8034.
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titleGrowth performance and sorting characteristics of corn silage-alfalfa haylage diets with or without forage dilution offered to replacement Holstein dairy heifers
descriptionGravid dairy heifers consuming high-quality forage diets are susceptible to excessive weight gains and over-conditioning. One approach for controlling this problem is to dilute diets with low-energy forages, such as straw, that reduce the caloric density and DMI of that diet by heifers. These diluting agents are often sortable by dairy heifers, but previous visual evidence has suggested that eastern gamagrass haylage may be a non-sortable alternative. Our objectives were: i) to compare the growth performance of dairy heifers offered a high-quality forage diet (CONTROL) with diets containing 1 of 3 diluting agents [eastern gamagrass haylage (EGG), chopped wheat straw (STRAW), or chopped corn fodder (FODDER)]; and ii) evaluate sorting behaviors of heifers offered these forage diets. Holstein heifers (n = 128) were stratified (32 heifers/block) on the basis of initial BW (heavy, 560 ± 27.7 kg; medium-heavy, 481 ± 17.7 kg; medium-light, 441 ± 22.0 kg; and light, 399 ± 14.4 kg), and then assigned to 1 of 16 identical research pens (4 pens/block; 8 heifers/pen), where each of the 4 research diets were assigned to 1 pen within each block. Diets were offered in a 118-d feeding trial with heifers crowded to 133% of capacity at the feed bunk. Inclusion of low-energy forages was effective in reducing DMI, as well as the energy density of the diet. Concentrations of physically effective fiber (pef) particles did not change during the 24-h period following feeding for either the CONTROL or EGG diets; however, this response for pef particles masked the competing (and cancelling) responses for individual large and medium particles, which heifers sorted with discrimination and preference, respectively. Sorting against pef particles was detected for STRAW, and much more severely for the FODDER diet. Sorting of forage particles by heifers could not be related to heifer performance. Compared to CONTROL (1.16 kg/d), ADG were reduced by dilution in all cases, but was virtually identical between EGG (0.98 kg/d) and FODDER (0.97 kg/d), which exhibited no sorting and extensive sorting of pef, respectively. Furthermore, ADG for STRAW was approximately 0.2 kg/d less than EGG or FODDER, despite exhibiting sorting characteristics intermediate between EGG and FODDER. Diets diluted with low-energy forages were formulated to be isonitrogenous and isocaloric; within that context, STRAW was most effective in reducing DMI and maintaining ADG within typical recommendations for Holstein heifers. ; p. 8018-8034.
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titleGrowth performance and sorting characteristics of corn silage-alfalfa haylage diets with or without forage dilution offered to replacement Holstein dairy heifers
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abstractGravid dairy heifers consuming high-quality forage diets are susceptible to excessive weight gains and over-conditioning. One approach for controlling this problem is to dilute diets with low-energy forages, such as straw, that reduce the caloric density and DMI of that diet by heifers. These diluting agents are often sortable by dairy heifers, but previous visual evidence has suggested that eastern gamagrass haylage may be a non-sortable alternative. Our objectives were: i) to compare the growth performance of dairy heifers offered a high-quality forage diet (CONTROL) with diets containing 1 of 3 diluting agents [eastern gamagrass haylage (EGG), chopped wheat straw (STRAW), or chopped corn fodder (FODDER)]; and ii) evaluate sorting behaviors of heifers offered these forage diets. Holstein heifers (n = 128) were stratified (32 heifers/block) on the basis of initial BW (heavy, 560 ± 27.7 kg; medium-heavy, 481 ± 17.7 kg; medium-light, 441 ± 22.0 kg; and light, 399 ± 14.4 kg), and then assigned to 1 of 16 identical research pens (4 pens/block; 8 heifers/pen), where each of the 4 research diets were assigned to 1 pen within each block. Diets were offered in a 118-d feeding trial with heifers crowded to 133% of capacity at the feed bunk. Inclusion of low-energy forages was effective in reducing DMI, as well as the energy density of the diet. Concentrations of physically effective fiber (pef) particles did not change during the 24-h period following feeding for either the CONTROL or EGG diets; however, this response for pef particles masked the competing (and cancelling) responses for individual large and medium particles, which heifers sorted with discrimination and preference, respectively. Sorting against pef particles was detected for STRAW, and much more severely for the FODDER diet. Sorting of forage particles by heifers could not be related to heifer performance. Compared to CONTROL (1.16 kg/d), ADG were reduced by dilution in all cases, but was virtually identical between EGG (0.98 kg/d) and FODDER (0.97 kg/d), which exhibited no sorting and extensive sorting of pef, respectively. Furthermore, ADG for STRAW was approximately 0.2 kg/d less than EGG or FODDER, despite exhibiting sorting characteristics intermediate between EGG and FODDER. Diets diluted with low-energy forages were formulated to be isonitrogenous and isocaloric; within that context, STRAW was most effective in reducing DMI and maintaining ADG within typical recommendations for Holstein heifers.
doi10.3168/jds.2015-9491
eissn15253198