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Health benefits and consequences of the Eastern Orthodox fasting in monks of Mount Athos: a cross-sectional study.(Original Article)(Interventions and public health nutrition)(Report)

Background/Objectives: Greek Orthodox fasting (OF), which involves 180-200 days of fasting per year, is dictated by the Christian Orthodox religion. For the first time, this cross-sectional study examines the characteristics and the effects of OF on anthropometry, cardiometabolic markers and calcium... Full description

Journal Title: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition June, 2017, Vol.71(6), p.743
Main Author: Karras, S N
Other Authors: Persynaki, A , Petroczi, A , Barkans, E , Mulrooney, H , Kypraiou, M , Tzotzas, T , Tziomalos, K , Kotsa, K , Tsioudas, A A , Pichard, C , Naughton, D P
Format: Electronic Article Electronic Article
Language: English
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ID: ISSN: 0954-3007 ; DOI: 10.1038/ejcn.2017.26
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title: Health benefits and consequences of the Eastern Orthodox fasting in monks of Mount Athos: a cross-sectional study.(Original Article)(Interventions and public health nutrition)(Report)
format: Article
creator:
  • Karras, S N
  • Persynaki, A
  • Petroczi, A
  • Barkans, E
  • Mulrooney, H
  • Kypraiou, M
  • Tzotzas, T
  • Tziomalos, K
  • Kotsa, K
  • Tsioudas, A A
  • Pichard, C
  • Naughton, D P
subjects:
  • Cardiovascular Diseases -- Prevention
  • Fasting -- Health Aspects
  • Monks -- Health Aspects
ispartof: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, June, 2017, Vol.71(6), p.743
description: Background/Objectives: Greek Orthodox fasting (OF), which involves 180-200 days of fasting per year, is dictated by the Christian Orthodox religion. For the first time, this cross-sectional study examines the characteristics and the effects of OF on anthropometry, cardiometabolic markers and calcium homeostasis in Athonian monks (AMs). Subjects/Methods: Daily intakes of energy, macro- and micronutrients of a day during a weekend of Nativity Fast, defined as non-restrictive day (NRD), and a weekday during Great Lent, labeled as restrictive day (RD) were recorded. Results: The daily energy intake of 70 AM (age=38.8[+ or -]9.7 years) was low during both RD and NRD (1265.9[+ or -]84.5 vs 1660[+ or -]81 kcal, respectively, P [less than] 0.001). Paired samples t-test showed statistically significant difference between daily intakes in RD and NRD: carbohydrates (159.6[+ or -]21.8 vs 294.3[+ or -]23.4 g, P [less than] 0.0001) and saturated fat (12.7[+ or -]0.0 vs 16.4[+ or -]0.0 g, P [less than] 0.0001) were lower, whereas protein (89.2[+ or -]1.3 vs 72.35[+ or -]1.3 g, P [less than] 0.001) was higher during RD. A subsample of 50 monks (age=38.7[+ or -]10.6 years) formed a study cohort for cardiometabolic and calcium homeostasis assessment. Body weight (74.3[+ or -]12.9 kg) and body mass index (BMI; 23.8[+ or -]4.1 kg/m[sup.2]) were independent of level of physical activity. Optimal profiles for lipid and glucose parameters (total cholesterol: 183.4[+ or -]41.7 mg/dl, LDL: 120.6[+ or -]37.6 mg/dl, triglycerides: 72.2[+ or -]31.3 mg/dl, HDL: 48.5[+ or -]14.2 mg/dl and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) 1.02[+ or -]0.40) were found. Profound hypovitaminosis D (8.8[+ or -]6.2 ng/ml), high parathyroid hormone (PTH): 115.5[+ or -]48.0 pg/ml with normal serum calcium levels (8.9[+ or -]3.2 mg/dl) was observed. Conclusions: Unaffected by variation in lifestyle factors, the results of this unique study offers clear evidence for the health benefits of the strict Athonian OF through optimal lipid and glucose homeostasis. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2017) 71, 743-749; doi: 10.1038/ejcn.2017.26; published online 22 March 2017
language: English
source:
identifier: ISSN: 0954-3007 ; DOI: 10.1038/ejcn.2017.26
fulltext: fulltext
issn:
  • 0954-3007
  • 09543007
url: Link


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titleHealth benefits and consequences of the Eastern Orthodox fasting in monks of Mount Athos: a cross-sectional study.(Original Article)(Interventions and public health nutrition)(Report)
creatorKarras, S N ; Persynaki, A ; Petroczi, A ; Barkans, E ; Mulrooney, H ; Kypraiou, M ; Tzotzas, T ; Tziomalos, K ; Kotsa, K ; Tsioudas, A A ; Pichard, C ; Naughton, D P
ispartofEuropean Journal of Clinical Nutrition, June, 2017, Vol.71(6), p.743
identifierISSN: 0954-3007 ; DOI: 10.1038/ejcn.2017.26
subjectCardiovascular Diseases -- Prevention ; Fasting -- Health Aspects ; Monks -- Health Aspects
descriptionBackground/Objectives: Greek Orthodox fasting (OF), which involves 180-200 days of fasting per year, is dictated by the Christian Orthodox religion. For the first time, this cross-sectional study examines the characteristics and the effects of OF on anthropometry, cardiometabolic markers and calcium homeostasis in Athonian monks (AMs). Subjects/Methods: Daily intakes of energy, macro- and micronutrients of a day during a weekend of Nativity Fast, defined as non-restrictive day (NRD), and a weekday during Great Lent, labeled as restrictive day (RD) were recorded. Results: The daily energy intake of 70 AM (age=38.8[+ or -]9.7 years) was low during both RD and NRD (1265.9[+ or -]84.5 vs 1660[+ or -]81 kcal, respectively, P [less than] 0.001). Paired samples t-test showed statistically significant difference between daily intakes in RD and NRD: carbohydrates (159.6[+ or -]21.8 vs 294.3[+ or -]23.4 g, P [less than] 0.0001) and saturated fat (12.7[+ or -]0.0 vs 16.4[+ or -]0.0 g, P [less than] 0.0001) were lower, whereas protein (89.2[+ or -]1.3 vs 72.35[+ or -]1.3 g, P [less than] 0.001) was higher during RD. A subsample of 50 monks (age=38.7[+ or -]10.6 years) formed a study cohort for cardiometabolic and calcium homeostasis assessment. Body weight (74.3[+ or -]12.9 kg) and body mass index (BMI; 23.8[+ or -]4.1 kg/m[sup.2]) were independent of level of physical activity. Optimal profiles for lipid and glucose parameters (total cholesterol: 183.4[+ or -]41.7 mg/dl, LDL: 120.6[+ or -]37.6 mg/dl, triglycerides: 72.2[+ or -]31.3 mg/dl, HDL: 48.5[+ or -]14.2 mg/dl and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) 1.02[+ or -]0.40) were found. Profound hypovitaminosis D (8.8[+ or -]6.2 ng/ml), high parathyroid hormone (PTH): 115.5[+ or -]48.0 pg/ml with normal serum calcium levels (8.9[+ or -]3.2 mg/dl) was observed. Conclusions: Unaffected by variation in lifestyle factors, the results of this unique study offers clear evidence for the health benefits of the strict Athonian OF through optimal lipid and glucose homeostasis. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2017) 71, 743-749; doi: 10.1038/ejcn.2017.26; published online 22 March 2017
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11Naughton, D P
titleHealth benefits and consequences of the Eastern Orthodox fasting in monks of Mount Athos: a cross-sectional study.(Original Article)(Interventions and public health nutrition)(Report)
descriptionBackground/Objectives: Greek Orthodox fasting (OF), which involves 180-200 days of fasting per year, is dictated by the Christian Orthodox religion. For the first time, this cross-sectional study examines the characteristics and the effects of OF on anthropometry, cardiometabolic markers and calcium homeostasis in Athonian monks (AMs). Subjects/Methods: Daily intakes of energy, macro- and micronutrients of a day during a weekend of Nativity Fast, defined as non-restrictive day (NRD), and a weekday during Great Lent, labeled as restrictive day (RD) were recorded. Results: The daily energy intake of 70 AM (age=38.8[+ or -]9.7 years) was low during both RD and NRD (1265.9[+ or -]84.5 vs 1660[+ or -]81 kcal, respectively, P [less than] 0.001). Paired samples t-test showed statistically significant difference between daily intakes in RD and NRD: carbohydrates (159.6[+ or -]21.8 vs 294.3[+ or -]23.4 g, P [less than] 0.0001) and saturated fat (12.7[+ or -]0.0 vs 16.4[+ or -]0.0 g, P [less than] 0.0001) were lower, whereas protein (89.2[+ or -]1.3 vs 72.35[+ or -]1.3 g, P [less than] 0.001) was higher during RD. A subsample of 50 monks (age=38.7[+ or -]10.6 years) formed a study cohort for cardiometabolic and calcium homeostasis assessment. Body weight (74.3[+ or -]12.9 kg) and body mass index (BMI; 23.8[+ or -]4.1 kg/m[sup.2]) were independent of level of physical activity. Optimal profiles for lipid and glucose parameters (total cholesterol: 183.4[+ or -]41.7 mg/dl, LDL: 120.6[+ or -]37.6 mg/dl, triglycerides: 72.2[+ or -]31.3 mg/dl, HDL: 48.5[+ or -]14.2 mg/dl and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) 1.02[+ or -]0.40) were found. Profound hypovitaminosis D (8.8[+ or -]6.2 ng/ml), high parathyroid hormone (PTH): 115.5[+ or -]48.0 pg/ml with normal serum calcium levels (8.9[+ or -]3.2 mg/dl) was observed. Conclusions: Unaffected by variation in lifestyle factors, the results of this unique study offers clear evidence for the health benefits of the strict Athonian OF through optimal lipid and glucose homeostasis. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2017) 71, 743-749; doi: 10.1038/ejcn.2017.26; published online 22 March 2017
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titleHealth benefits and consequences of the Eastern Orthodox fasting in monks of Mount Athos: a cross-sectional study.(Original Article)(Interventions and public health nutrition)(Report)
authorKarras, S N ; Persynaki, A ; Petroczi, A ; Barkans, E ; Mulrooney, H ; Kypraiou, M ; Tzotzas, T ; Tziomalos, K ; Kotsa, K ; Tsioudas, A A ; Pichard, C ; Naughton, D P
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abstractBackground/Objectives: Greek Orthodox fasting (OF), which involves 180-200 days of fasting per year, is dictated by the Christian Orthodox religion. For the first time, this cross-sectional study examines the characteristics and the effects of OF on anthropometry, cardiometabolic markers and calcium homeostasis in Athonian monks (AMs). Subjects/Methods: Daily intakes of energy, macro- and micronutrients of a day during a weekend of Nativity Fast, defined as non-restrictive day (NRD), and a weekday during Great Lent, labeled as restrictive day (RD) were recorded. Results: The daily energy intake of 70 AM (age=38.8[+ or -]9.7 years) was low during both RD and NRD (1265.9[+ or -]84.5 vs 1660[+ or -]81 kcal, respectively, P [less than] 0.001). Paired samples t-test showed statistically significant difference between daily intakes in RD and NRD: carbohydrates (159.6[+ or -]21.8 vs 294.3[+ or -]23.4 g, P [less than] 0.0001) and saturated fat (12.7[+ or -]0.0 vs 16.4[+ or -]0.0 g, P [less than] 0.0001) were lower, whereas protein (89.2[+ or -]1.3 vs 72.35[+ or -]1.3 g, P [less than] 0.001) was higher during RD. A subsample of 50 monks (age=38.7[+ or -]10.6 years) formed a study cohort for cardiometabolic and calcium homeostasis assessment. Body weight (74.3[+ or -]12.9 kg) and body mass index (BMI; 23.8[+ or -]4.1 kg/m[sup.2]) were independent of level of physical activity. Optimal profiles for lipid and glucose parameters (total cholesterol: 183.4[+ or -]41.7 mg/dl, LDL: 120.6[+ or -]37.6 mg/dl, triglycerides: 72.2[+ or -]31.3 mg/dl, HDL: 48.5[+ or -]14.2 mg/dl and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) 1.02[+ or -]0.40) were found. Profound hypovitaminosis D (8.8[+ or -]6.2 ng/ml), high parathyroid hormone (PTH): 115.5[+ or -]48.0 pg/ml with normal serum calcium levels (8.9[+ or -]3.2 mg/dl) was observed. Conclusions: Unaffected by variation in lifestyle factors, the results of this unique study offers clear evidence for the health benefits of the strict Athonian OF through optimal lipid and glucose homeostasis. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2017) 71, 743-749; doi: 10.1038/ejcn.2017.26; published online 22 March 2017
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