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From Classification to Causality: Advancing Understanding of Mechanisms of Change in Implementation Science.(Report)(Abstract)

Background The science of implementation has offered little toward understanding how different implementation strategies work. To improve outcomes of implementation efforts, the field needs precise, testable theories that describe the causal pathways through which implementation strategies function.... Full description

Journal Title: Frontiers in Public Health May 7, 2018
Main Author: Lewis, Cara C.
Other Authors: Klasnja, Predrag , Powell, Byron J. , Lyon, Aaron R. , Tuzzio, Leah , Jones, Salene , Walsh - Bailey, Callie , Weiner, Bryan
Format: Electronic Article Electronic Article
Language: English
Subjects:
ID: ISSN: 2296-2565 ; DOI: 10.3389/fpubh.2018.00136
Zum Text:
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recordid: gale_hrca537657480
title: From Classification to Causality: Advancing Understanding of Mechanisms of Change in Implementation Science.(Report)(Abstract)
format: Article
creator:
  • Lewis, Cara C.
  • Klasnja, Predrag
  • Powell, Byron J.
  • Lyon, Aaron R.
  • Tuzzio, Leah
  • Jones, Salene
  • Walsh - Bailey, Callie
  • Weiner, Bryan
subjects:
  • Causation (Philosophy) -- Research
  • Change (Psychology) -- Research
  • Implementation Intentions -- Research
  • Psychological Research
ispartof: Frontiers in Public Health, May 7, 2018
description: Background The science of implementation has offered little toward understanding how different implementation strategies work. To improve outcomes of implementation efforts, the field needs precise, testable theories that describe the causal pathways through which implementation strategies function. In this perspective piece, we describe a four-step approach to developing causal pathway models for implementation strategies. Building causal models First, it is important to ensure that implementation strategies are appropriately specified. Some strategies in published compilations are well defined but may not be specified in terms of its core component that can have a reliable and measureable impact. Second, linkages between strategies and mechanisms need to be generated. Existing compilations do not offer mechanisms by which strategies act, or the processes or events through which an implementation strategy operates to affect desired implementation outcomes. Third, it is critical to identify proximal and distal outcomes the strategy is theorized to impact, with the former being direct, measurable products of the strategy and the latter being one of eight implementation outcomes ( 1 ). Finally, articulating effect modifiers, like preconditions and moderators, allow for an understanding of where, when, and why strategies have an effect on outcomes of interest. Future directions We argue for greater precision in use of terms for factors implicated in implementation processes; development of guidelines for selecting research design and study plans that account for practical constructs and allow for the study of mechanisms; psychometrically strong and pragmatic measures of mechanisms; and more robust curation of evidence for knowledge transfer and use.
language: English
source:
identifier: ISSN: 2296-2565 ; DOI: 10.3389/fpubh.2018.00136
fulltext: fulltext
issn:
  • 2296-2565
  • 22962565
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titleFrom Classification to Causality: Advancing Understanding of Mechanisms of Change in Implementation Science.(Report)(Abstract)
creatorLewis, Cara C. ; Klasnja, Predrag ; Powell, Byron J. ; Lyon, Aaron R. ; Tuzzio, Leah ; Jones, Salene ; Walsh - Bailey, Callie ; Weiner, Bryan
ispartofFrontiers in Public Health, May 7, 2018
identifierISSN: 2296-2565 ; DOI: 10.3389/fpubh.2018.00136
subjectCausation (Philosophy) -- Research ; Change (Psychology) -- Research ; Implementation Intentions -- Research ; Psychological Research
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descriptionBackground The science of implementation has offered little toward understanding how different implementation strategies work. To improve outcomes of implementation efforts, the field needs precise, testable theories that describe the causal pathways through which implementation strategies function. In this perspective piece, we describe a four-step approach to developing causal pathway models for implementation strategies. Building causal models First, it is important to ensure that implementation strategies are appropriately specified. Some strategies in published compilations are well defined but may not be specified in terms of its core component that can have a reliable and measureable impact. Second, linkages between strategies and mechanisms need to be generated. Existing compilations do not offer mechanisms by which strategies act, or the processes or events through which an implementation strategy operates to affect desired implementation outcomes. Third, it is critical to identify proximal and distal outcomes the strategy is theorized to impact, with the former being direct, measurable products of the strategy and the latter being one of eight implementation outcomes ( 1 ). Finally, articulating effect modifiers, like preconditions and moderators, allow for an understanding of where, when, and why strategies have an effect on outcomes of interest. Future directions We argue for greater precision in use of terms for factors implicated in implementation processes; development of guidelines for selecting research design and study plans that account for practical constructs and allow for the study of mechanisms; psychometrically strong and pragmatic measures of mechanisms; and more robust curation of evidence for knowledge transfer and use.
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titleFrom Classification to Causality: Advancing Understanding of Mechanisms of Change in Implementation Science.(Report)(Abstract)
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