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Continuous processing of low-density, microcellular poly(lactic acid) foams with controlled cell morphology and crystallinity

To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ces.2012.02.051 Byline: Jing Wang, Wenli Zhu, Hongtao Zhang, Chul B. Park Keywords: Crystallization; Extrusion; Foam; Carbon dioxide; Rheology; Polylactic acid Abstract: Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) represents perh... Full description

Journal Title: Chemical Engineering Science June 18, 2012, Vol.75, p.390(10)
Main Author: Wang, Jing
Other Authors: Zhu, Wenli , Zhang, Hongtao , Park, Chul B.
Format: Electronic Article Electronic Article
Language: English
Subjects:
Quelle: Cengage Learning, Inc.
ID: ISSN: 0009-2509
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recordid: gale_ofa288730942
title: Continuous processing of low-density, microcellular poly(lactic acid) foams with controlled cell morphology and crystallinity
format: Article
creator:
  • Wang, Jing
  • Zhu, Wenli
  • Zhang, Hongtao
  • Park, Chul B.
subjects:
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Programmable Logic Arrays
  • Lactic Acid
  • Biopolymers
ispartof: Chemical Engineering Science, June 18, 2012, Vol.75, p.390(10)
description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ces.2012.02.051 Byline: Jing Wang, Wenli Zhu, Hongtao Zhang, Chul B. Park Keywords: Crystallization; Extrusion; Foam; Carbon dioxide; Rheology; Polylactic acid Abstract: Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) represents perhaps the most viable environmentally-sustainable alternative to petrochemical-based plastics. This paper reports the continuous processing of PLA foams with a microcellular structure, a high expansion ratio, and varied microcell morphology and crystallinity. The extrusion process, which can be easily scaled-up, takes advantage of the tailored physical properties of PLA and the plasticizing effect of the supercritical blowing agent. Three grades of PLA with different molecular weight and branching topology are used. The processing parameters are optimized based on the well-characterized thermal and rheological properties of PLAs and diffusion properties of PLA/CO.sub.2 mixture. In general, melt strength governs cell morphology, with cell density, closed-cell content, and expansion ratio increasing as a function of both molecular weight and branching density. Influences of shearing and dissolved-CO.sub.2 on crystallization of PLA are characterized and they are believed to induce crystallinity in the foams. In the case of branched PLA, crystallization allows high-expansion-ratio microcellular foams to be stably produced over a wide temperature window. By controlling crystallinity, foams with similar cell morphology but varied mechanical properties and surface gloss are also produced. X-ray diffraction of the foams confirms that crystallization is governed by shearing in the die, and the crystallites are mainly of [alpha]-form. Author Affiliation: Department of Mechanical & Industrial Engineering, University of Toronto, 5 King's College Road, Toronto, Canada M5S 3G8 Article History: Received 12 July 2011; Revised 26 February 2012; Accepted 29 February 2012
language: English
source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
identifier: ISSN: 0009-2509
fulltext: no_fulltext
issn:
  • 0009-2509
  • 00092509
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titleContinuous processing of low-density, microcellular poly(lactic acid) foams with controlled cell morphology and crystallinity
creatorWang, Jing ; Zhu, Wenli ; Zhang, Hongtao ; Park, Chul B.
ispartofChemical Engineering Science, June 18, 2012, Vol.75, p.390(10)
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subjectMechanical Engineering ; Programmable Logic Arrays ; Lactic Acid ; Biopolymers
descriptionTo link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ces.2012.02.051 Byline: Jing Wang, Wenli Zhu, Hongtao Zhang, Chul B. Park Keywords: Crystallization; Extrusion; Foam; Carbon dioxide; Rheology; Polylactic acid Abstract: Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) represents perhaps the most viable environmentally-sustainable alternative to petrochemical-based plastics. This paper reports the continuous processing of PLA foams with a microcellular structure, a high expansion ratio, and varied microcell morphology and crystallinity. The extrusion process, which can be easily scaled-up, takes advantage of the tailored physical properties of PLA and the plasticizing effect of the supercritical blowing agent. Three grades of PLA with different molecular weight and branching topology are used. The processing parameters are optimized based on the well-characterized thermal and rheological properties of PLAs and diffusion properties of PLA/CO.sub.2 mixture. In general, melt strength governs cell morphology, with cell density, closed-cell content, and expansion ratio increasing as a function of both molecular weight and branching density. Influences of shearing and dissolved-CO.sub.2 on crystallization of PLA are characterized and they are believed to induce crystallinity in the foams. In the case of branched PLA, crystallization allows high-expansion-ratio microcellular foams to be stably produced over a wide temperature window. By controlling crystallinity, foams with similar cell morphology but varied mechanical properties and surface gloss are also produced. X-ray diffraction of the foams confirms that crystallization is governed by shearing in the die, and the crystallites are mainly of [alpha]-form. Author Affiliation: Department of Mechanical & Industrial Engineering, University of Toronto, 5 King's College Road, Toronto, Canada M5S 3G8 Article History: Received 12 July 2011; Revised 26 February 2012; Accepted 29 February 2012
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abstractTo link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ces.2012.02.051 Byline: Jing Wang, Wenli Zhu, Hongtao Zhang, Chul B. Park Keywords: Crystallization; Extrusion; Foam; Carbon dioxide; Rheology; Polylactic acid Abstract: Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) represents perhaps the most viable environmentally-sustainable alternative to petrochemical-based plastics. This paper reports the continuous processing of PLA foams with a microcellular structure, a high expansion ratio, and varied microcell morphology and crystallinity. The extrusion process, which can be easily scaled-up, takes advantage of the tailored physical properties of PLA and the plasticizing effect of the supercritical blowing agent. Three grades of PLA with different molecular weight and branching topology are used. The processing parameters are optimized based on the well-characterized thermal and rheological properties of PLAs and diffusion properties of PLA/CO.sub.2 mixture. In general, melt strength governs cell morphology, with cell density, closed-cell content, and expansion ratio increasing as a function of both molecular weight and branching density. Influences of shearing and dissolved-CO.sub.2 on crystallization of PLA are characterized and they are believed to induce crystallinity in the foams. In the case of branched PLA, crystallization allows high-expansion-ratio microcellular foams to be stably produced over a wide temperature window. By controlling crystallinity, foams with similar cell morphology but varied mechanical properties and surface gloss are also produced. X-ray diffraction of the foams confirms that crystallization is governed by shearing in the die, and the crystallites are mainly of [alpha]-form. Author Affiliation: Department of Mechanical & Industrial Engineering, University of Toronto, 5 King's College Road, Toronto, Canada M5S 3G8 Article History: Received 12 July 2011; Revised 26 February 2012; Accepted 29 February 2012
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