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Altered appetite-mediating hormone concentrations precede compensatory overeating after severe, short-term energy deprivation in healthy adults.(Report)(Author abstract)

Background: Adaptive responses of appetite-mediating hormones to negative energy balance are thought to contribute to a counterregulatory response that drives weight regain, but they have not been studied while controlling for reduced diet volume. Objective: In this secondary analysis, we aimed to d... Full description

Journal Title: The Journal of Nutrition 2016, Vol.146(2), p.209(10)
Main Author: O'Connor, Kristie L.
Other Authors: Scisco, Jenna L. , Smith, Tracey J. , Young, Andrew J. , Montain, Scott J. , Price, Lori Lyn , Lieberman, Harris R. , Karl, J.Philip
Format: Electronic Article Electronic Article
Language: English
Subjects:
ID: ISSN: 0022-3166 ; DOI: 10.3945/jn.115.220152
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title: Altered appetite-mediating hormone concentrations precede compensatory overeating after severe, short-term energy deprivation in healthy adults.(Report)(Author abstract)
format: Article
creator:
  • O'Connor, Kristie L.
  • Scisco, Jenna L.
  • Smith, Tracey J.
  • Young, Andrew J.
  • Montain, Scott J.
  • Price, Lori Lyn
  • Lieberman, Harris R.
  • Karl, J.Philip
subjects:
  • Hyperphagia – Physiological Aspects
  • Energy Metabolism – Physiological Aspects
  • Low Calorie Diet – Physiological Aspects
  • Fasting – Physiological Aspects
ispartof: The Journal of Nutrition, 2016, Vol.146(2), p.209(10)
description: Background: Adaptive responses of appetite-mediating hormones to negative energy balance are thought to contribute to a counterregulatory response that drives weight regain, but they have not been studied while controlling for reduced diet volume. Objective: In this secondary analysis, we aimed to determine the effects of short-term, severe energy deprivation (ED) on appetite and appetite-mediating hormone concentrations. Methods: Twenty-one adults with a mean [+ or -] SD age of 21 [+ or -] 3 y and body mass index of 25 [+ or -] 3 kg/[m.sup.2] consumed isovolumetric diets provided over separate 48-h periods while increasing habitual energy expenditure by 1683 [+ or -] 329 kcal/d through light- and moderate-intensity exercise. Energy intake was matched to energy expenditure to maintain energy balance (EB) (-44 [+ or -] 92 kcal/d) or was
language: eng
source:
identifier: ISSN: 0022-3166 ; DOI: 10.3945/jn.115.220152
fulltext: fulltext
issn:
  • 0022-3166
  • 00223166
url: Link


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titleAltered appetite-mediating hormone concentrations precede compensatory overeating after severe, short-term energy deprivation in healthy adults.(Report)(Author abstract)
creatorO'Connor, Kristie L. ; Scisco, Jenna L. ; Smith, Tracey J. ; Young, Andrew J. ; Montain, Scott J. ; Price, Lori Lyn ; Lieberman, Harris R. ; Karl, J.Philip
ispartofThe Journal of Nutrition, 2016, Vol.146(2), p.209(10)
identifierISSN: 0022-3166 ; DOI: 10.3945/jn.115.220152
subjectHyperphagia – Physiological Aspects ; Energy Metabolism – Physiological Aspects ; Low Calorie Diet – Physiological Aspects ; Fasting – Physiological Aspects
descriptionBackground: Adaptive responses of appetite-mediating hormones to negative energy balance are thought to contribute to a counterregulatory response that drives weight regain, but they have not been studied while controlling for reduced diet volume. Objective: In this secondary analysis, we aimed to determine the effects of short-term, severe energy deprivation (ED) on appetite and appetite-mediating hormone concentrations. Methods: Twenty-one adults with a mean [+ or -] SD age of 21 [+ or -] 3 y and body mass index of 25 [+ or -] 3 kg/[m.sup.2] consumed isovolumetric diets provided over separate 48-h periods while increasing habitual energy expenditure by 1683 [+ or -] 329 kcal/d through light- and moderate-intensity exercise. Energy intake was matched to energy expenditure to maintain energy balance (EB) (-44 [+ or -] 92 kcal/d) or was <10% of energy expenditure to generate a -3696 [+ or -] 742-kcal/d energy deficit. Postprandial appetite, glucose, insulin, acyl ghrelin, peptide YY, pancreatic polypeptide (PP), and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) responses and ad libitum energy intake were measured as secondary outcomes after both experimental periods. Results: Fasting insulin (-56% [+ or -] 42%) and acyl ghrelin (-60% [+ or -] 17%) concentrations decreased during ED but not during EB (condition-by-time interaction: P-interaction [less than or equal to] 0.01), whereas fasting leptin concentrations decreased more during ED compared with during EB (-47% [+ or -] 27% compared with -20% [+ or -] 27%; P- interaction = 0.05). Postprandial insulin (57% [+ or -] 63%; P < 0.001), GLP-1 (14% [+ or -] 28%; P = 0.04), and PP (54% [+ or -] 52%; P< 0.001) areas under the curve (AUCs) were higher, whereas the acyl ghrelin AUC was lower (-56% [+ or -] 13%; P< 0.001) after ED compared with after EB. After ED, self-rated appetite was greater, and ad libitum energy intake was 811 kcal/36 h (95% Cl: 184, 1439 kcal/36 h) higher relative to after EB (P = 0.01). Conclusions: Short-term, severe ED suppressed acyl ghrelin concentrations and increased postprandial anorexigenic hormone concentrations. These effects preceded compensatory overeating, suggesting that in adults without obesity, altered sensitivity to appetite-mediating hormones may contribute to an adaptive counterregulatory response during the initial stages of negative EB. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01603550. Keywords: calorie restriction, energy density, satiety, weight loss, gut hormone, intermittent fasting, energy balance doi: 10.3945/jn.115.220152
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titleAltered appetite-mediating hormone concentrations precede compensatory overeating after severe, short-term energy deprivation in healthy adults.(Report)(Author abstract)
descriptionBackground: Adaptive responses of appetite-mediating hormones to negative energy balance are thought to contribute to a counterregulatory response that drives weight regain, but they have not been studied while controlling for reduced diet volume. Objective: In this secondary analysis, we aimed to determine the effects of short-term, severe energy deprivation (ED) on appetite and appetite-mediating hormone concentrations. Methods: Twenty-one adults with a mean [+ or -] SD age of 21 [+ or -] 3 y and body mass index of 25 [+ or -] 3 kg/[m.sup.2] consumed isovolumetric diets provided over separate 48-h periods while increasing habitual energy expenditure by 1683 [+ or -] 329 kcal/d through light- and moderate-intensity exercise. Energy intake was matched to energy expenditure to maintain energy balance (EB) (-44 [+ or -] 92 kcal/d) or was <10% of energy expenditure to generate a -3696 [+ or -] 742-kcal/d energy deficit. Postprandial appetite, glucose, insulin, acyl ghrelin, peptide YY, pancreatic polypeptide (PP), and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) responses and ad libitum energy intake were measured as secondary outcomes after both experimental periods. Results: Fasting insulin (-56% [+ or -] 42%) and acyl ghrelin (-60% [+ or -] 17%) concentrations decreased during ED but not during EB (condition-by-time interaction: P-interaction [less than or equal to] 0.01), whereas fasting leptin concentrations decreased more during ED compared with during EB (-47% [+ or -] 27% compared with -20% [+ or -] 27%; P- interaction = 0.05). Postprandial insulin (57% [+ or -] 63%; P < 0.001), GLP-1 (14% [+ or -] 28%; P = 0.04), and PP (54% [+ or -] 52%; P< 0.001) areas under the curve (AUCs) were higher, whereas the acyl ghrelin AUC was lower (-56% [+ or -] 13%; P< 0.001) after ED compared with after EB. After ED, self-rated appetite was greater, and ad libitum energy intake was 811 kcal/36 h (95% Cl: 184, 1439 kcal/36 h) higher relative to after EB (P = 0.01). Conclusions: Short-term, severe ED suppressed acyl ghrelin concentrations and increased postprandial anorexigenic hormone concentrations. These effects preceded compensatory overeating, suggesting that in adults without obesity, altered sensitivity to appetite-mediating hormones may contribute to an adaptive counterregulatory response during the initial stages of negative EB. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01603550. Keywords: calorie restriction, energy density, satiety, weight loss, gut hormone, intermittent fasting, energy balance doi: 10.3945/jn.115.220152
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abstractBackground: Adaptive responses of appetite-mediating hormones to negative energy balance are thought to contribute to a counterregulatory response that drives weight regain, but they have not been studied while controlling for reduced diet volume. Objective: In this secondary analysis, we aimed to determine the effects of short-term, severe energy deprivation (ED) on appetite and appetite-mediating hormone concentrations. Methods: Twenty-one adults with a mean [+ or -] SD age of 21 [+ or -] 3 y and body mass index of 25 [+ or -] 3 kg/[m.sup.2] consumed isovolumetric diets provided over separate 48-h periods while increasing habitual energy expenditure by 1683 [+ or -] 329 kcal/d through light- and moderate-intensity exercise. Energy intake was matched to energy expenditure to maintain energy balance (EB) (-44 [+ or -] 92 kcal/d) or was <10% of energy expenditure to generate a -3696 [+ or -] 742-kcal/d energy deficit. Postprandial appetite, glucose, insulin, acyl ghrelin, peptide YY, pancreatic polypeptide (PP), and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) responses and ad libitum energy intake were measured as secondary outcomes after both experimental periods. Results: Fasting insulin (-56% [+ or -] 42%) and acyl ghrelin (-60% [+ or -] 17%) concentrations decreased during ED but not during EB (condition-by-time interaction: P-interaction [less than or equal to] 0.01), whereas fasting leptin concentrations decreased more during ED compared with during EB (-47% [+ or -] 27% compared with -20% [+ or -] 27%; P- interaction = 0.05). Postprandial insulin (57% [+ or -] 63%; P < 0.001), GLP-1 (14% [+ or -] 28%; P = 0.04), and PP (54% [+ or -] 52%; P< 0.001) areas under the curve (AUCs) were higher, whereas the acyl ghrelin AUC was lower (-56% [+ or -] 13%; P< 0.001) after ED compared with after EB. After ED, self-rated appetite was greater, and ad libitum energy intake was 811 kcal/36 h (95% Cl: 184, 1439 kcal/36 h) higher relative to after EB (P = 0.01). Conclusions: Short-term, severe ED suppressed acyl ghrelin concentrations and increased postprandial anorexigenic hormone concentrations. These effects preceded compensatory overeating, suggesting that in adults without obesity, altered sensitivity to appetite-mediating hormones may contribute to an adaptive counterregulatory response during the initial stages of negative EB. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01603550. Keywords: calorie restriction, energy density, satiety, weight loss, gut hormone, intermittent fasting, energy balance doi: 10.3945/jn.115.220152
pubAmerican Institute of Nutrition
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