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The Molecular Genetic Architecture of Self-Employment

Economic variables such as income, education, and occupation are known to affect mortality and morbidity, such as cardiovascular disease, and have also been shown to be partly heritable. However, very little is known about which genes influence economic variables, although these genes may have both... Full description

Journal Title: PLOS One 04 April 2013
Main Author: Van Der Loos, Mjhm
Other Authors: Rietveld, Ca , Eklund, N , Koellinger, Pd , Rivadeneira, F , Abecasis, Gr , Ankra - Badu, Ga , Baumeister, Se , Benjamin, Dj , Biffar, R , Blankenberg, S , Boomsma, Di , Cesarini, D , Cucca, F , De Geus, Ejc , Dedoussis, G , Deloukas, P , Dimitriou, M , Eiriksdottir, G , Eriksson, J , Gieger, C , Gudnason, V , Hoehne, B , Holle, R , Hottenga, J - J , Isaacs, A , Jarvelin, M - R , Johannesson, M , Kaakinen, M , Kahonen, M , Kanoni, S , Laaksonen, Ma , Lahti, J , Launer, Lj , Lehtimaki, T , Loitfelder, M , Magnusson, Pke , Naitza, S , Oostra, Ba , Perola, M , Petrovic, K , Quaye, L , Raitakari, O , Ripatti, S , Scheet, P , Schlessinger, D , Schmidt, Co , Schmidt, H , Schmidt, R , Senft, A , Smith, Av , Spector, Td , Surakka, I , Svento, R , Terracciano, A , Tikkanen, E , Van Duijn, Cm , Viikari, J , Voelzke, H , Wichmann, H - E , Wild, Ps , Willems, Sm , Willemsen, G , Van Rooij, Fja , Groenen, Pjf , Uitterlinden, Ag , Hofman, A , Thurik, Ar
Format: Electronic Article Electronic Article
Language: English
Subjects:
Publisher: Public Library of Science
ID: ISBN: 2 ; ISSN: 1932-6203 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0060542
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title: The Molecular Genetic Architecture of Self-Employment
format: Article
creator:
  • Van Der Loos, Mjhm
  • Rietveld, Ca
  • Eklund, N
  • Koellinger, Pd
  • Rivadeneira, F
  • Abecasis, Gr
  • Ankra - Badu, Ga
  • Baumeister, Se
  • Benjamin, Dj
  • Biffar, R
  • Blankenberg, S
  • Boomsma, Di
  • Cesarini, D
  • Cucca, F
  • De Geus, Ejc
  • Dedoussis, G
  • Deloukas, P
  • Dimitriou, M
  • Eiriksdottir, G
  • Eriksson, J
  • Gieger, C
  • Gudnason, V
  • Hoehne, B
  • Holle, R
  • Hottenga, J - J
  • Isaacs, A
  • Jarvelin, M - R
  • Johannesson, M
  • Kaakinen, M
  • Kahonen, M
  • Kanoni, S
  • Laaksonen, Ma
  • Lahti, J
  • Launer, Lj
  • Lehtimaki, T
  • Loitfelder, M
  • Magnusson, Pke
  • Naitza, S
  • Oostra, Ba
  • Perola, M
  • Petrovic, K
  • Quaye, L
  • Raitakari, O
  • Ripatti, S
  • Scheet, P
  • Schlessinger, D
  • Schmidt, Co
  • Schmidt, H
  • Schmidt, R
  • Senft, A
  • Smith, Av
  • Spector, Td
  • Surakka, I
  • Svento, R
  • Terracciano, A
  • Tikkanen, E
  • Van Duijn, Cm
  • Viikari, J
  • Voelzke, H
  • Wichmann, H - E
  • Wild, Ps
  • Willems, Sm
  • Willemsen, G
  • Van Rooij, Fja
  • Groenen, Pjf
  • Uitterlinden, Ag
  • Hofman, A
  • Thurik, Ar
subjects:
  • Science & Technology
  • Multidisciplinary Sciences
  • Science & Technology - Other Topics
  • Multidisciplinary Sciences
  • Genome-Wide Association
  • Coronary Heart-Disease
  • Common Snps Explain
  • Cardiovascular-Disease
  • Socioeconomic-Status
  • Educational-Attainment
  • Missing Heritability
  • Large Proportion
  • Risk-Factors
  • Human Height
  • Employment
  • Female
  • Gene-Environment Interaction
  • Genome-Wide Association Study
  • Genotype
  • Humans
  • Intelligence
  • Male
  • Models, Theoretical
  • Multifactorial Inheritance
  • Personality
  • Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
  • Registries
  • Twins, Dizygotic
  • Twins, Monozygotic
  • Humans
  • Registries
  • Personality
  • Intelligence
  • Twins, Dizygotic
  • Twins, Monozygotic
  • Genotype
  • Multifactorial Inheritance
  • Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
  • Models, Theoretical
  • Employment
  • Female
  • Male
  • Genome-Wide Association Study
  • Gene-Environment Interaction
  • General Science & Technology
  • MD Multidisciplinary
ispartof: PLOS One, 04 April 2013
description: Economic variables such as income, education, and occupation are known to affect mortality and morbidity, such as cardiovascular disease, and have also been shown to be partly heritable. However, very little is known about which genes influence economic variables, although these genes may have both a direct and an indirect effect on health. We report results from the first large-scale collaboration that studies the molecular genetic architecture of an economic variable–entrepreneurship–that was operationalized using self-employment, a widely-available proxy. Our results suggest that common SNPs when considered jointly explain about half of the narrow-sense heritability of self-employment estimated in twin data (σg2/σP2 = 25%, h2 = 55%). However, a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies across sixteen studies comprising 50,627 participants did not identify genome-wide significant SNPs. 58 SNPs with p
language: eng
source:
identifier: ISBN: 2 ; ISSN: 1932-6203 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0060542
fulltext: fulltext_linktorsrc
issn:
  • 19326203
  • 1932-6203
url: Link


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titleThe Molecular Genetic Architecture of Self-Employment
creatorVan Der Loos, Mjhm ; Rietveld, Ca ; Eklund, N ; Koellinger, Pd ; Rivadeneira, F ; Abecasis, Gr ; Ankra - Badu, Ga ; Baumeister, Se ; Benjamin, Dj ; Biffar, R ; Blankenberg, S ; Boomsma, Di ; Cesarini, D ; Cucca, F ; De Geus, Ejc ; Dedoussis, G ; Deloukas, P ; Dimitriou, M ; Eiriksdottir, G ; Eriksson, J ; Gieger, C ; Gudnason, V ; Hoehne, B ; Holle, R ; Hottenga, J - J ; Isaacs, A ; Jarvelin, M - R ; Johannesson, M ; Kaakinen, M ; Kahonen, M ; Kanoni, S ; Laaksonen, Ma ; Lahti, J ; Launer, Lj ; Lehtimaki, T ; Loitfelder, M ; Magnusson, Pke ; Naitza, S ; Oostra, Ba ; Perola, M ; Petrovic, K ; Quaye, L ; Raitakari, O ; Ripatti, S ; Scheet, P ; Schlessinger, D ; Schmidt, Co ; Schmidt, H ; Schmidt, R ; Senft, A ; Smith, Av ; Spector, Td ; Surakka, I ; Svento, R ; Terracciano, A ; Tikkanen, E ; Van Duijn, Cm ; Viikari, J ; Voelzke, H ; Wichmann, H - E ; Wild, Ps ; Willems, Sm ; Willemsen, G ; Van Rooij, Fja ; Groenen, Pjf ; Uitterlinden, Ag ; Hofman, A ; Thurik, Ar
publisherPublic Library of Science
ispartofPLOS One, 04 April 2013
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subjectScience & Technology ; Multidisciplinary Sciences ; Science & Technology - Other Topics ; Multidisciplinary Sciences ; Genome-Wide Association ; Coronary Heart-Disease ; Common Snps Explain ; Cardiovascular-Disease ; Socioeconomic-Status ; Educational-Attainment ; Missing Heritability ; Large Proportion ; Risk-Factors ; Human Height ; Employment ; Female ; Gene-Environment Interaction ; Genome-Wide Association Study ; Genotype ; Humans ; Intelligence ; Male ; Models, Theoretical ; Multifactorial Inheritance ; Personality ; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide ; Registries ; Twins, Dizygotic ; Twins, Monozygotic ; Humans ; Registries ; Personality ; Intelligence ; Twins, Dizygotic ; Twins, Monozygotic ; Genotype ; Multifactorial Inheritance ; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide ; Models, Theoretical ; Employment ; Female ; Male ; Genome-Wide Association Study ; Gene-Environment Interaction ; General Science & Technology ; MD Multidisciplinary
descriptionEconomic variables such as income, education, and occupation are known to affect mortality and morbidity, such as cardiovascular disease, and have also been shown to be partly heritable. However, very little is known about which genes influence economic variables, although these genes may have both a direct and an indirect effect on health. We report results from the first large-scale collaboration that studies the molecular genetic architecture of an economic variable–entrepreneurship–that was operationalized using self-employment, a widely-available proxy. Our results suggest that common SNPs when considered jointly explain about half of the narrow-sense heritability of self-employment estimated in twin data (σg2/σP2 = 25%, h2 = 55%). However, a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies across sixteen studies comprising 50,627 participants did not identify genome-wide significant SNPs. 58 SNPs with p<10−5 were tested in a replication sample (n = 3,271), but none replicated. Furthermore, a gene-based test shows that none of the genes that were previously suggested in the literature to influence entrepreneurship reveal significant associations. Finally, SNP-based genetic scores that use results from the meta-analysis capture less than 0.2% of the variance in self-employment in an independent sample (p≥0.039). Our results are consistent with a highly polygenic molecular genetic architecture of self-employment, with many genetic variants of small effect. Although self-employment is a multi-faceted, heavily environmentally influenced, and biologically distal trait, our results are similar to those for other genetically complex and biologically more proximate outcomes, such as height, intelligence, personality, and several diseases.
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36Magnusson, Pke
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38Oostra, Ba
39Perola, M
40Petrovic, K
41Quaye, L
42Raitakari, O
43Ripatti, S
44Scheet, P
45Schlessinger, D
46Schmidt, Co
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61Willems, Sm
62Willemsen, G
63Van Rooij, Fja
64Groenen, Pjf
65Uitterlinden, Ag
66Hofman, A
67Thurik, Ar
titleThe Molecular Genetic Architecture of Self-Employment
descriptionEconomic variables such as income, education, and occupation are known to affect mortality and morbidity, such as cardiovascular disease, and have also been shown to be partly heritable. However, very little is known about which genes influence economic variables, although these genes may have both a direct and an indirect effect on health. We report results from the first large-scale collaboration that studies the molecular genetic architecture of an economic variable–entrepreneurship–that was operationalized using self-employment, a widely-available proxy. Our results suggest that common SNPs when considered jointly explain about half of the narrow-sense heritability of self-employment estimated in twin data (σg2/σP2 = 25%, h2 = 55%). However, a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies across sixteen studies comprising 50,627 participants did not identify genome-wide significant SNPs. 58 SNPs with p<10−5 were tested in a replication sample (n = 3,271), but none replicated. Furthermore, a gene-based test shows that none of the genes that were previously suggested in the literature to influence entrepreneurship reveal significant associations. Finally, SNP-based genetic scores that use results from the meta-analysis capture less than 0.2% of the variance in self-employment in an independent sample (p≥0.039). Our results are consistent with a highly polygenic molecular genetic architecture of self-employment, with many genetic variants of small effect. Although self-employment is a multi-faceted, heavily environmentally influenced, and biologically distal trait, our results are similar to those for other genetically complex and biologically more proximate outcomes, such as height, intelligence, personality, and several diseases.
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0Science & Technology
1Multidisciplinary Sciences
2Science & Technology - Other Topics
3Genome-Wide Association
4Coronary Heart-Disease
5Common Snps Explain
6Cardiovascular-Disease
7Socioeconomic-Status
8Educational-Attainment
9Missing Heritability
10Large Proportion
11Risk-Factors
12Human Height
13Employment
14Female
15Gene-Environment Interaction
16Genome-Wide Association Study
17Genotype
18Humans
19Intelligence
20Male
21Models, Theoretical
22Multifactorial Inheritance
23Personality
24Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
25Registries
26Twins, Dizygotic
27Twins, Monozygotic
28General Science & Technology
29MD Multidisciplinary
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titleThe Molecular Genetic Architecture of Self-Employment
authorVan Der Loos, Mjhm ; Rietveld, Ca ; Eklund, N ; Koellinger, Pd ; Rivadeneira, F ; Abecasis, Gr ; Ankra - Badu, Ga ; Baumeister, Se ; Benjamin, Dj ; Biffar, R ; Blankenberg, S ; Boomsma, Di ; Cesarini, D ; Cucca, F ; De Geus, Ejc ; Dedoussis, G ; Deloukas, P ; Dimitriou, M ; Eiriksdottir, G ; Eriksson, J ; Gieger, C ; Gudnason, V ; Hoehne, B ; Holle, R ; Hottenga, J - J ; Isaacs, A ; Jarvelin, M - R ; Johannesson, M ; Kaakinen, M ; Kahonen, M ; Kanoni, S ; Laaksonen, Ma ; Lahti, J ; Launer, Lj ; Lehtimaki, T ; Loitfelder, M ; Magnusson, Pke ; Naitza, S ; Oostra, Ba ; Perola, M ; Petrovic, K ; Quaye, L ; Raitakari, O ; Ripatti, S ; Scheet, P ; Schlessinger, D ; Schmidt, Co ; Schmidt, H ; Schmidt, R ; Senft, A ; Smith, Av ; Spector, Td ; Surakka, I ; Svento, R ; Terracciano, A ; Tikkanen, E ; Van Duijn, Cm ; Viikari, J ; Voelzke, H ; Wichmann, H - E ; Wild, Ps ; Willems, Sm ; Willemsen, G ; Van Rooij, Fja ; Groenen, Pjf ; Uitterlinden, Ag ; Hofman, A ; Thurik, Ar
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7Socioeconomic-Status
8Educational-Attainment
9Missing Heritability
10Large Proportion
11Risk-Factors
12Human Height
13Employment
14Female
15Gene-Environment Interaction
16Genome-Wide Association Study
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19Intelligence
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21Models, Theoretical
22Multifactorial Inheritance
23Personality
24Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
25Registries
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29MD Multidisciplinary
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atitleThe Molecular Genetic Architecture of Self-Employment
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abstractEconomic variables such as income, education, and occupation are known to affect mortality and morbidity, such as cardiovascular disease, and have also been shown to be partly heritable. However, very little is known about which genes influence economic variables, although these genes may have both a direct and an indirect effect on health. We report results from the first large-scale collaboration that studies the molecular genetic architecture of an economic variable–entrepreneurship–that was operationalized using self-employment, a widely-available proxy. Our results suggest that common SNPs when considered jointly explain about half of the narrow-sense heritability of self-employment estimated in twin data (σg2/σP2 = 25%, h2 = 55%). However, a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies across sixteen studies comprising 50,627 participants did not identify genome-wide significant SNPs. 58 SNPs with p<10−5 were tested in a replication sample (n = 3,271), but none replicated. Furthermore, a gene-based test shows that none of the genes that were previously suggested in the literature to influence entrepreneurship reveal significant associations. Finally, SNP-based genetic scores that use results from the meta-analysis capture less than 0.2% of the variance in self-employment in an independent sample (p≥0.039). Our results are consistent with a highly polygenic molecular genetic architecture of self-employment, with many genetic variants of small effect. Although self-employment is a multi-faceted, heavily environmentally influenced, and biologically distal trait, our results are similar to those for other genetically complex and biologically more proximate outcomes, such as height, intelligence, personality, and several diseases.
pubPublic Library of Science
doi10.1371/journal.pone.0060542
urlhttp://hdl.handle.net/10044/1/48631$$EView_full_text_in_Spiral_(Access_may_be_restricted)
oafree_for_read
issue4
pagese60542
orcidid0000-0002-3676-0787
volume8
date2013-04-04