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Development of the model of galactic interstellar emission for standard point-source analysis of fermi large area telescope data

Most of the celestial γ rays detected by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope originate from the interstellar medium when energetic cosmic rays interact with interstellar nucleons and photons. Conventional point-source and extended-source studies rely on the mo... Full description

Journal Title: The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series 2016, Vol.223(2), p.26 (23pp)
Main Author: Acero, F.
Other Authors: Ackermann, M. , Ajello, M. , Albert, A. , Baldini, L. , Ballet, J. , Barbiellini, G. , Bastieri, D. , Bellazzini, R. , Bissaldi, E. , Bloom, E. D. , Bonino, R. , Bottacini, E. , Brandt, T. J. , Bregeon, J. , Bruel, P. , Buehler, R. , Buson, S. , Caliandro, G. A. , Cameron, R. A. , Caragiulo, M. , Caraveo, P. A. , Casandjian, J. M. , Cavazzuti, E. , Cecchi, C. , Charles, E. , Chekhtman, A. , Chiang, J. , Chiaro, G. , Ciprini, S. , Claus, R. , Cohen-Tanugi, J. , Conrad, J. , Cuoco, A. , Cutini, S. , D’ammando, F. , Angelis, A. De , Palma, F. De , Desiante, R. , Digel, S. W. , Venere, L. Di , Drell, P. S. , Favuzzi, C. , Fegan, S. J. , Ferrara, E. C. , Focke, W. B. , Franckowiak, A. , Funk, S. , Fusco, P. , Gargano, F. , Gasparrini, D. , Giglietto, N. , Giordano, F. , Giroletti, M. , Glanzman, T. , Godfrey, G. , Grenier, I. A. , Guiriec, S. , Hadasch, D. , Harding, A. K. , Hayashi, K. , Hays, E. , Hewitt, J. W. , Hill, A. B. , Horan, D. , Hou, X. , Jogler, T. , Jóhannesson, G. , Kamae, T. , Kuss, M. , Landriu, D. , Larsson, S. , Latronico, L. , Li, J. , Li, L. , Longo, F. , Loparco, F. , Lovellette, M. N. , Lubrano, P. , Maldera, S. , Malyshev, D. , Manfreda, A. , Martin, P. , Mayer, M. , Mazziotta, M. N. , Mcenery, J. E. , Michelson, P. F. , Mirabal, N. , Mizuno, T. , Monzani, M. E. , Morselli, A. , Nuss, E. , Ohsugi, T. , Omodei, N. , Orienti, M. , Orlando, E. , Ormes, J. F. , Paneque, D. , Pesce-Rollins, M. , Piron, F. , Pivato, G. , Rainò, S. , Rando, R. , Razzano, M. , Razzaque, S. , Reimer, A. , Reimer, O. , Remy, Q. , Renault, N. , Sánchez-Conde, M. , Schaal, M. , Schulz, A. , Sgrò, C. , Siskind, E. J. , Spada, F. , Spandre, G. , Spinelli, P. , Strong, A. W. , Suson, D. J. , Tajima, H. , Takahashi, H. , Thayer, J. B. , Thompson, D. J. , Tibaldo, L. , Tinivella, M. , Torres, D. F. , Tosti, G. , Troja, E. , Vianello, G. , Werner, M. , Wood, K. S. , Wood, M. , Zaharijas, G. , Zimmer, S.
Format: Electronic Article Electronic Article
Language: English
Subjects:
ID: ISSN: 0067-0049 ; E-ISSN: 1538-4365 ; DOI: 10.3847/0067-0049/223/2/26
Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.3847/0067-0049/223/2/26
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title: Development of the model of galactic interstellar emission for standard point-source analysis of fermi large area telescope data
format: Article
creator:
  • Acero, F.
  • Ackermann, M.
  • Ajello, M.
  • Albert, A.
  • Baldini, L.
  • Ballet, J.
  • Barbiellini, G.
  • Bastieri, D.
  • Bellazzini, R.
  • Bissaldi, E.
  • Bloom, E. D.
  • Bonino, R.
  • Bottacini, E.
  • Brandt, T. J.
  • Bregeon, J.
  • Bruel, P.
  • Buehler, R.
  • Buson, S.
  • Caliandro, G. A.
  • Cameron, R. A.
  • Caragiulo, M.
  • Caraveo, P. A.
  • Casandjian, J. M.
  • Cavazzuti, E.
  • Cecchi, C.
  • Charles, E.
  • Chekhtman, A.
  • Chiang, J.
  • Chiaro, G.
  • Ciprini, S.
  • Claus, R.
  • Cohen-Tanugi, J.
  • Conrad, J.
  • Cuoco, A.
  • Cutini, S.
  • D’ammando, F.
  • Angelis, A. De
  • Palma, F. De
  • Desiante, R.
  • Digel, S. W.
  • Venere, L. Di
  • Drell, P. S.
  • Favuzzi, C.
  • Fegan, S. J.
  • Ferrara, E. C.
  • Focke, W. B.
  • Franckowiak, A.
  • Funk, S.
  • Fusco, P.
  • Gargano, F.
  • Gasparrini, D.
  • Giglietto, N.
  • Giordano, F.
  • Giroletti, M.
  • Glanzman, T.
  • Godfrey, G.
  • Grenier, I. A.
  • Guiriec, S.
  • Hadasch, D.
  • Harding, A. K.
  • Hayashi, K.
  • Hays, E.
  • Hewitt, J. W.
  • Hill, A. B.
  • Horan, D.
  • Hou, X.
  • Jogler, T.
  • Jóhannesson, G.
  • Kamae, T.
  • Kuss, M.
  • Landriu, D.
  • Larsson, S.
  • Latronico, L.
  • Li, J.
  • Li, L.
  • Longo, F.
  • Loparco, F.
  • Lovellette, M. N.
  • Lubrano, P.
  • Maldera, S.
  • Malyshev, D.
  • Manfreda, A.
  • Martin, P.
  • Mayer, M.
  • Mazziotta, M. N.
  • Mcenery, J. E.
  • Michelson, P. F.
  • Mirabal, N.
  • Mizuno, T.
  • Monzani, M. E.
  • Morselli, A.
  • Nuss, E.
  • Ohsugi, T.
  • Omodei, N.
  • Orienti, M.
  • Orlando, E.
  • Ormes, J. F.
  • Paneque, D.
  • Pesce-Rollins, M.
  • Piron, F.
  • Pivato, G.
  • Rainò, S.
  • Rando, R.
  • Razzano, M.
  • Razzaque, S.
  • Reimer, A.
  • Reimer, O.
  • Remy, Q.
  • Renault, N.
  • Sánchez-Conde, M.
  • Schaal, M.
  • Schulz, A.
  • Sgrò, C.
  • Siskind, E. J.
  • Spada, F.
  • Spandre, G.
  • Spinelli, P.
  • Strong, A. W.
  • Suson, D. J.
  • Tajima, H.
  • Takahashi, H.
  • Thayer, J. B.
  • Thompson, D. J.
  • Tibaldo, L.
  • Tinivella, M.
  • Torres, D. F.
  • Tosti, G.
  • Troja, E.
  • Vianello, G.
  • Werner, M.
  • Wood, K. S.
  • Wood, M.
  • Zaharijas, G.
  • Zimmer, S.
subjects:
  • Astrophysics - High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena
ispartof: The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, 2016, Vol.223(2), p.26 (23pp)
description: Most of the celestial γ rays detected by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope originate from the interstellar medium when energetic cosmic rays interact with interstellar nucleons and photons. Conventional point-source and extended-source studies rely on the modeling of this diffuse emission for accurate characterization. Here, we describe the development of the Galactic Interstellar Emission Model (GIEM), which is the standard adopted by the LAT Collaboration and is publicly available. This model is based on a linear combination of maps for interstellar gas column density in Galactocentric annuli and for the inverse-Compton emission produced in the Galaxy. In the GIEM, we also include large-scale structures like Loop I and the Fermi bubbles. The measured gas emissivity spectra confirm that the cosmic-ray proton density decreases with Galactocentric distance beyond 5 kpc from the Galactic Center. The measurements also suggest a softening of the proton spectrum with Galactocentric distance. We observe that the Fermi bubbles have boundaries with a shape similar to a catenary at latitudes below 20° and we observe an enhanced emission toward their base extending in the north and south Galactic directions and located within ∼4° of the Galactic Center.
language: eng
source:
identifier: ISSN: 0067-0049 ; E-ISSN: 1538-4365 ; DOI: 10.3847/0067-0049/223/2/26
fulltext: fulltext
issn:
  • 0067-0049
  • 1538-4365
  • 00670049
  • 15384365
url: Link


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titleDevelopment of the model of galactic interstellar emission for standard point-source analysis of fermi large area telescope data
creatorAcero, F. ; Ackermann, M. ; Ajello, M. ; Albert, A. ; Baldini, L. ; Ballet, J. ; Barbiellini, G. ; Bastieri, D. ; Bellazzini, R. ; Bissaldi, E. ; Bloom, E. D. ; Bonino, R. ; Bottacini, E. ; Brandt, T. J. ; Bregeon, J. ; Bruel, P. ; Buehler, R. ; Buson, S. ; Caliandro, G. A. ; Cameron, R. A. ; Caragiulo, M. ; Caraveo, P. A. ; Casandjian, J. M. ; Cavazzuti, E. ; Cecchi, C. ; Charles, E. ; Chekhtman, A. ; Chiang, J. ; Chiaro, G. ; Ciprini, S. ; Claus, R. ; Cohen-Tanugi, J. ; Conrad, J. ; Cuoco, A. ; Cutini, S. ; D’ammando, F. ; Angelis, A. De ; Palma, F. De ; Desiante, R. ; Digel, S. W. ; Venere, L. Di ; Drell, P. S. ; Favuzzi, C. ; Fegan, S. J. ; Ferrara, E. C. ; Focke, W. B. ; Franckowiak, A. ; Funk, S. ; Fusco, P. ; Gargano, F. ; Gasparrini, D. ; Giglietto, N. ; Giordano, F. ; Giroletti, M. ; Glanzman, T. ; Godfrey, G. ; Grenier, I. A. ; Guiriec, S. ; Hadasch, D. ; Harding, A. K. ; Hayashi, K. ; Hays, E. ; Hewitt, J. W. ; Hill, A. B. ; Horan, D. ; Hou, X. ; Jogler, T. ; Jóhannesson, G. ; Kamae, T. ; Kuss, M. ; Landriu, D. ; Larsson, S. ; Latronico, L. ; Li, J. ; Li, L. ; Longo, F. ; Loparco, F. ; Lovellette, M. N. ; Lubrano, P. ; Maldera, S. ; Malyshev, D. ; Manfreda, A. ; Martin, P. ; Mayer, M. ; Mazziotta, M. N. ; Mcenery, J. E. ; Michelson, P. F. ; Mirabal, N. ; Mizuno, T. ; Monzani, M. E. ; Morselli, A. ; Nuss, E. ; Ohsugi, T. ; Omodei, N. ; Orienti, M. ; Orlando, E. ; Ormes, J. F. ; Paneque, D. ; Pesce-Rollins, M. ; Piron, F. ; Pivato, G. ; Rainò, S. ; Rando, R. ; Razzano, M. ; Razzaque, S. ; Reimer, A. ; Reimer, O. ; Remy, Q. ; Renault, N. ; Sánchez-Conde, M. ; Schaal, M. ; Schulz, A. ; Sgrò, C. ; Siskind, E. J. ; Spada, F. ; Spandre, G. ; Spinelli, P. ; Strong, A. W. ; Suson, D. J. ; Tajima, H. ; Takahashi, H. ; Thayer, J. B. ; Thompson, D. J. ; Tibaldo, L. ; Tinivella, M. ; Torres, D. F. ; Tosti, G. ; Troja, E. ; Vianello, G. ; Werner, M. ; Wood, K. S. ; Wood, M. ; Zaharijas, G. ; Zimmer, S.
ispartofThe Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, 2016, Vol.223(2), p.26 (23pp)
identifier
descriptionMost of the celestial γ rays detected by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope originate from the interstellar medium when energetic cosmic rays interact with interstellar nucleons and photons. Conventional point-source and extended-source studies rely on the modeling of this diffuse emission for accurate characterization. Here, we describe the development of the Galactic Interstellar Emission Model (GIEM), which is the standard adopted by the LAT Collaboration and is publicly available. This model is based on a linear combination of maps for interstellar gas column density in Galactocentric annuli and for the inverse-Compton emission produced in the Galaxy. In the GIEM, we also include large-scale structures like Loop I and the Fermi bubbles. The measured gas emissivity spectra confirm that the cosmic-ray proton density decreases with Galactocentric distance beyond 5 kpc from the Galactic Center. The measurements also suggest a softening of the proton spectrum with Galactocentric distance. We observe that the Fermi bubbles have boundaries with a shape similar to a catenary at latitudes below 20° and we observe an enhanced emission toward their base extending in the north and south Galactic directions and located within ∼4° of the Galactic Center.
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0Acero, F.
1Ackermann, M.
2Ajello, M.
3Albert, A.
4Baldini, L.
5Ballet, J.
6Barbiellini, G.
7Bastieri, D.
8Bellazzini, R.
9Bissaldi, E.
10Bloom, E. D.
11Bonino, R.
12Bottacini, E.
13Brandt, T. J.
14Bregeon, J.
15Bruel, P.
16Buehler, R.
17Buson, S.
18Caliandro, G. A.
19Cameron, R. A.
20Caragiulo, M.
21Caraveo, P. A.
22Casandjian, J. M.
23Cavazzuti, E.
24Cecchi, C.
25Charles, E.
26Chekhtman, A.
27Chiang, J.
28Chiaro, G.
29Ciprini, S.
30Claus, R.
31Cohen-Tanugi, J.
32Conrad, J.
33Cuoco, A.
34Cutini, S.
35D’ammando, F.
36Angelis, A. De
37Palma, F. De
38Desiante, R.
39Digel, S. W.
40Venere, L. Di
41Drell, P. S.
42Favuzzi, C.
43Fegan, S. J.
44Ferrara, E. C.
45Focke, W. B.
46Franckowiak, A.
47Funk, S.
48Fusco, P.
49Gargano, F.
50Gasparrini, D.
51Giglietto, N.
52Giordano, F.
53Giroletti, M.
54Glanzman, T.
55Godfrey, G.
56Grenier, I. A.
57Guiriec, S.
58Hadasch, D.
59Harding, A. K.
60Hayashi, K.
61Hays, E.
62Hewitt, J. W.
63Hill, A. B.
64Horan, D.
65Hou, X.
66Jogler, T.
67Jóhannesson, G.
68Kamae, T.
69Kuss, M.
70Landriu, D.
71Larsson, S.
72Latronico, L.
73Li, J.
74Li, L.
75Longo, F.
76Loparco, F.
77Lovellette, M. N.
78Lubrano, P.
79Maldera, S.
80Malyshev, D.
81Manfreda, A.
82Martin, P.
83Mayer, M.
84Mazziotta, M. N.
85Mcenery, J. E.
86Michelson, P. F.
87Mirabal, N.
88Mizuno, T.
89Monzani, M. E.
90Morselli, A.
91Nuss, E.
92Ohsugi, T.
93Omodei, N.
94Orienti, M.
95Orlando, E.
96Ormes, J. F.
97Paneque, D.
98Pesce-Rollins, M.
99Piron, F.
100...
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1Development of the Model of Galactic Interstellar Emission for Standard Point-source Analysis of Fermi Large Area Telescope Data
descriptionMost of the celestial γ rays detected by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope originate from the interstellar medium when energetic cosmic rays interact with interstellar nucleons and photons. Conventional point-source and extended-source studies rely on the modeling of this diffuse emission for accurate characterization. Here, we describe the development of the Galactic Interstellar Emission Model (GIEM), which is the standard adopted by the LAT Collaboration and is publicly available. This model is based on a linear combination of maps for interstellar gas column density in Galactocentric annuli and for the inverse-Compton emission produced in the Galaxy. In the GIEM, we also include large-scale structures like Loop I and the Fermi bubbles. The measured gas emissivity spectra confirm that the cosmic-ray proton density decreases with Galactocentric distance beyond 5 kpc from the Galactic Center. The measurements also suggest a softening of the proton spectrum with Galactocentric distance. We observe that the Fermi bubbles have boundaries with a shape similar to a catenary at latitudes below 20° and we observe an enhanced emission toward their base extending in the north and south Galactic directions and located within ∼4° of the Galactic Center.
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titleDevelopment of the model of galactic interstellar emission for standard point-source analysis of fermi large area telescope data
creationdate20160401
authorAcero, F. ; Ackermann, M. ; Ajello, M. ; Albert, A. ; Baldini, L. ; Ballet, J. ; Barbiellini, G. ; Bastieri, D. ; Bellazzini, R. ; Bissaldi, E. ; Bloom, E. D. ; Bonino, R. ; Bottacini, E. ; Brandt, T. J. ; Bregeon, J. ; Bruel, P. ; Buehler, R. ; Buson, S. ; Caliandro, G. A. ; Cameron, R. A. ; Caragiulo, M. ; Caraveo, P. A. ; Casandjian, J. M. ; Cavazzuti, E. ; Cecchi, C. ; Charles, E. ; Chekhtman, A. ; Chiang, J. ; Chiaro, G. ; Ciprini, S. ; Claus, R. ; Cohen-Tanugi, J. ; Conrad, J. ; Cuoco, A. ; Cutini, S. ; D’ammando, F. ; Angelis, A. De ; Palma, F. De ; Desiante, R. ; Digel, S. W. ; Venere, L. Di ; Drell, P. S. ; Favuzzi, C. ; Fegan, S. J. ; Ferrara, E. C. ; Focke, W. B. ; Franckowiak, A. ; Funk, S. ; Fusco, P. ; Gargano, F. ; Gasparrini, D. ; Giglietto, N. ; Giordano, F. ; Giroletti, M. ; Glanzman, T. ; Godfrey, G. ; Grenier, I. A. ; Guiriec, S. ; Hadasch, D. ; Harding, A. K. ; Hayashi, K. ; Hays, E. ; Hewitt, J. W. ; Hill, A. B. ; Horan, D. ; Hou, X. ; Jogler, T. ; Jóhannesson, G. ; Kamae, T. ; Kuss, M. ; Landriu, D. ; Larsson, S. ; Latronico, L. ; Li, J. ; Li, L. ; Longo, F. ; Loparco, F. ; Lovellette, M. N. ; Lubrano, P. ; Maldera, S. ; Malyshev, D. ; Manfreda, A. ; Martin, P. ; Mayer, M. ; Mazziotta, M. N. ; Mcenery, J. E. ; Michelson, P. F. ; Mirabal, N. ; Mizuno, T. ; Monzani, M. E. ; Morselli, A. ; Nuss, E. ; Ohsugi, T. ; Omodei, N. ; Orienti, M. ; Orlando, E. ; Ormes, J. F. ; Paneque, D. ; Pesce-Rollins, M. ; Piron, F. ; Pivato, G. ; Rainò, S. ; Rando, R. ; Razzano, M. ; Razzaque, S. ; Reimer, A. ; Reimer, O. ; Remy, Q. ; Renault, N. ; Sánchez-Conde, M. ; Schaal, M. ; Schulz, A. ; Sgrò, C. ; Siskind, E. J. ; Spada, F. ; Spandre, G. ; Spinelli, P. ; Strong, A. W. ; Suson, D. J. ; Tajima, H. ; Takahashi, H. ; Thayer, J. B. ; Thompson, D. J. ; Tibaldo, L. ; Tinivella, M. ; Torres, D. F. ; Tosti, G. ; Troja, E. ; Vianello, G. ; Werner, M. ; Wood, K. S. ; Wood, M. ; Zaharijas, G. ; Zimmer, S.
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8Bellazzini, R.
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17Buson, S.
18Caliandro, G. A.
19Cameron, R. A.
20Caragiulo, M.
21Caraveo, P. A.
22Casandjian, J. M.
23Cavazzuti, E.
24Cecchi, C.
25Charles, E.
26Chekhtman, A.
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28Chiaro, G.
29Ciprini, S.
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31Cohen-Tanugi, J.
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35D’ammando, F.
36Angelis, A. De
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38Desiante, R.
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43Fegan, S. J.
44Ferrara, E. C.
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46Franckowiak, A.
47Funk, S.
48Fusco, P.
49Gargano, F.
50Gasparrini, D.
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73Li, J.
74Li, L.
75Longo, F.
76Loparco, F.
77Lovellette, M. N.
78Lubrano, P.
79Maldera, S.
80Malyshev, D.
81Manfreda, A.
82Martin, P.
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89Monzani, M. E.
90Morselli, A.
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92Ohsugi, T.
93Omodei, N.
94Orienti, M.
95Orlando, E.
96Ormes, J. F.
97Paneque, D.
98Pesce-Rollins, M.
99Piron, F.
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46Franckowiak
47Funk
48Fusco
49Gargano
50Gasparrini
51Giglietto
52Giordano
53Giroletti
54Glanzman
55Godfrey
56Grenier
57Guiriec
58Hadasch
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60Hayashi
61Hays
62Hewitt
63Hill
64Horan
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67Jóhannesson
68Kamae
69Kuss
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71Larsson
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74Longo
75Loparco
76Lovellette
77Lubrano
78Maldera
79Malyshev
80Manfreda
81Martin
82Mayer
83Mazziotta
84McEnery
85Michelson
86Mirabal
87Mizuno
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89Morselli
90Nuss
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54Glanzman, T.
55Godfrey, G.
56Grenier, I. A.
57Guiriec, S.
58Hadasch, D.
59Harding, A. K.
60Hayashi, K.
61Hays, E.
62Hewitt, J. W.
63Hill, A. B.
64Horan, D.
65Hou, X.
66Jogler, T.
67Jóhannesson, G.
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69Kuss, M.
70Landriu, D.
71Larsson, S.
72Latronico, L.
73Li, J.
74Li, L.
75Longo, F.
76Loparco, F.
77Lovellette, M. N.
78Lubrano, P.
79Maldera, S.
80Malyshev, D.
81Manfreda, A.
82Martin, P.
83Mayer, M.
84Mazziotta, M. N.
85McEnery, J. E.
86Michelson, P. F.
87Mirabal, N.
88Mizuno, T.
89Monzani, M. E.
90Morselli, A.
91Nuss, E.
92Ohsugi, T.
93Omodei, N.
94Orienti, M.
95Orlando, E.
96Ormes, J. F.
97Paneque, D.
98Pesce-Rollins, M.
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atitleDEVELOPMENT OF THE MODEL OF GALACTIC INTERSTELLAR EMISSION FOR STANDARD POINT-SOURCE ANALYSIS OF FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE DATA
jtitleThe Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series
stitleDEVELOPMENT OF THE MODEL OF GALACTIC INTERSTELLAR EMISSION FOR STANDARD POINT-SOURCE ANALYSIS OF FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE DATA
risdate20160401
volume223
issue2
spage26
pages23
issn0067-0049
eissn1538-4365
formatjournal
genrearticle
ristypeJOUR
abstractMost of the celestial γ rays detected by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope originate from the interstellar medium when energetic cosmic rays interact with interstellar nucleons and photons. Conventional point-source and extended-source studies rely on the modeling of this diffuse emission for accurate characterization. Here, we describe the development of the Galactic Interstellar Emission Model (GIEM), which is the standard adopted by the LAT Collaboration and is publicly available. This model is based on a linear combination of maps for interstellar gas column density in Galactocentric annuli and for the inverse-Compton emission produced in the Galaxy. In the GIEM, we also include large-scale structures like Loop I and the Fermi bubbles. The measured gas emissivity spectra confirm that the cosmic-ray proton density decreases with Galactocentric distance beyond 5 kpc from the Galactic Center. The measurements also suggest a softening of the proton spectrum with Galactocentric distance. We observe that the Fermi bubbles have boundaries with a shape similar to a catenary at latitudes below 20° and we observe an enhanced emission toward their base extending in the north and south Galactic directions and located within ∼4° of the Galactic Center.
doi10.3847/0067-0049/223/2/26
orcidid0000-0002-6584-1703
date2016-04-01