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Two host cytoplasmic effectors are required for pathogenesis of Phytophthora sojae by suppression of host defenses

Phytophthora sojae encodes hundreds of putative host cytoplasmic effectors with conserved FLAK motifs following signal peptides, termed crinkling- and necrosis-inducing proteins (CRN) or Crinkler. Their functions and mechanisms in pathogenesis are mostly unknown. Here, we identify a group of five P.... Full description

Journal Title: Plant physiology January 2011, Vol.155(1), pp.490-501
Main Author: Liu, Tingli
Other Authors: Ye, Wenwu , Ru, Yanyan , Yang, Xinyu , Gu, Biao , Tao, Kai , Lu, Shan , Dong, Suomeng , Zheng, Xiaobo , Shan, Weixing , Wang, Yuanchao , Dou, Daolong
Format: Electronic Article Electronic Article
Language: English
Subjects:
ID: E-ISSN: 1532-2548 ; PMID: 21071601 Version:1 ; DOI: 10.1104/pp.110.166470
Link: http://pubmed.gov/21071601
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recordid: medline21071601
title: Two host cytoplasmic effectors are required for pathogenesis of Phytophthora sojae by suppression of host defenses
format: Article
creator:
  • Liu, Tingli
  • Ye, Wenwu
  • Ru, Yanyan
  • Yang, Xinyu
  • Gu, Biao
  • Tao, Kai
  • Lu, Shan
  • Dong, Suomeng
  • Zheng, Xiaobo
  • Shan, Weixing
  • Wang, Yuanchao
  • Dou, Daolong
subjects:
  • Cytoplasm -- Metabolism
  • Phytophthora -- Pathogenicity
  • Proteins -- Metabolism
  • Soybeans -- Immunology
  • Tobacco -- Immunology
ispartof: Plant physiology, January 2011, Vol.155(1), pp.490-501
description: Phytophthora sojae encodes hundreds of putative host cytoplasmic effectors with conserved FLAK motifs following signal peptides, termed crinkling- and necrosis-inducing proteins (CRN) or Crinkler. Their functions and mechanisms in pathogenesis are mostly unknown. Here, we identify a group of five P. sojae-specific CRN-like genes with high levels of sequence similarity, of which three are putative pseudogenes. Functional analysis shows that the two functional genes encode proteins with predicted nuclear localization signals that induce contrasting responses when expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana and soybean (Glycine max). PsCRN63 induces cell death, while PsCRN115 suppresses cell death elicited by the P. sojae necrosis-inducing protein (PsojNIP) or PsCRN63. Expression of CRN fragments with deleted signal peptides and FLAK motifs demonstrates that the carboxyl-terminal portions of PsCRN63 or PsCRN115 are sufficient for their activities. However, the predicted nuclear localization signal is required for PsCRN63 to induce cell death but not for PsCRN115 to suppress cell death. Furthermore, silencing of the PsCRN63 and PsCRN115 genes in P. sojae stable transformants leads to a reduction of virulence on soybean. Intriguingly, the silenced transformants lose the ability to suppress host cell death and callose deposition on inoculated plants. These results suggest a role for CRN effectors in the suppression of host defense responses.
language: eng
source:
identifier: E-ISSN: 1532-2548 ; PMID: 21071601 Version:1 ; DOI: 10.1104/pp.110.166470
fulltext: fulltext
issn:
  • 15322548
  • 1532-2548
url: Link


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titleTwo host cytoplasmic effectors are required for pathogenesis of Phytophthora sojae by suppression of host defenses
creatorLiu, Tingli ; Ye, Wenwu ; Ru, Yanyan ; Yang, Xinyu ; Gu, Biao ; Tao, Kai ; Lu, Shan ; Dong, Suomeng ; Zheng, Xiaobo ; Shan, Weixing ; Wang, Yuanchao ; Dou, Daolong
ispartofPlant physiology, January 2011, Vol.155(1), pp.490-501
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subjectCytoplasm -- Metabolism ; Phytophthora -- Pathogenicity ; Proteins -- Metabolism ; Soybeans -- Immunology ; Tobacco -- Immunology
descriptionPhytophthora sojae encodes hundreds of putative host cytoplasmic effectors with conserved FLAK motifs following signal peptides, termed crinkling- and necrosis-inducing proteins (CRN) or Crinkler. Their functions and mechanisms in pathogenesis are mostly unknown. Here, we identify a group of five P. sojae-specific CRN-like genes with high levels of sequence similarity, of which three are putative pseudogenes. Functional analysis shows that the two functional genes encode proteins with predicted nuclear localization signals that induce contrasting responses when expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana and soybean (Glycine max). PsCRN63 induces cell death, while PsCRN115 suppresses cell death elicited by the P. sojae necrosis-inducing protein (PsojNIP) or PsCRN63. Expression of CRN fragments with deleted signal peptides and FLAK motifs demonstrates that the carboxyl-terminal portions of PsCRN63 or PsCRN115 are sufficient for their activities. However, the predicted nuclear localization signal is required for PsCRN63 to induce cell death but not for PsCRN115 to suppress cell death. Furthermore, silencing of the PsCRN63 and PsCRN115 genes in P. sojae stable transformants leads to a reduction of virulence on soybean. Intriguingly, the silenced transformants lose the ability to suppress host cell death and callose deposition on inoculated plants. These results suggest a role for CRN effectors in the suppression of host defense responses.
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abstractPhytophthora sojae encodes hundreds of putative host cytoplasmic effectors with conserved FLAK motifs following signal peptides, termed crinkling- and necrosis-inducing proteins (CRN) or Crinkler. Their functions and mechanisms in pathogenesis are mostly unknown. Here, we identify a group of five P. sojae-specific CRN-like genes with high levels of sequence similarity, of which three are putative pseudogenes. Functional analysis shows that the two functional genes encode proteins with predicted nuclear localization signals that induce contrasting responses when expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana and soybean (Glycine max). PsCRN63 induces cell death, while PsCRN115 suppresses cell death elicited by the P. sojae necrosis-inducing protein (PsojNIP) or PsCRN63. Expression of CRN fragments with deleted signal peptides and FLAK motifs demonstrates that the carboxyl-terminal portions of PsCRN63 or PsCRN115 are sufficient for their activities. However, the predicted nuclear localization signal is required for PsCRN63 to induce cell death but not for PsCRN115 to suppress cell death. Furthermore, silencing of the PsCRN63 and PsCRN115 genes in P. sojae stable transformants leads to a reduction of virulence on soybean. Intriguingly, the silenced transformants lose the ability to suppress host cell death and callose deposition on inoculated plants. These results suggest a role for CRN effectors in the suppression of host defense responses.
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