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Gamma-ray flares from the Crab Nebula

A young and energetic pulsar powers the well-known Crab Nebula. Here, we describe two separate gamma-ray (photon energy greater than 100 mega-electron volts) flares from this source detected by the Large Area Telescope on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. The first flare occurred in Februar... Full description

Journal Title: Science (New York N.Y.), 11 February 2011, Vol.331(6018), pp.739-42
Main Author: Abdo, A A
Other Authors: Ackermann, M , Ajello, M , Allafort, A , Baldini, L , Ballet, J , Barbiellini, G , Bastieri, D , Bechtol, K , Bellazzini, R , Berenji, B , Blandford, R D , Bloom, E D , Bonamente, E , Borgland, A W , Bouvier, A , Brandt, T J , Bregeon, J , Brez, A , Brigida, M , Bruel, P , Buehler, R , Buson, S , Caliandro, G A , Cameron, R A , Cannon, A , Caraveo, P A , Casandjian, J M , Çelik, Ö , Charles, E , Chekhtman, A , Cheung, C C , Chiang, J , Ciprini, S , Claus, R , Cohen-Tanugi, J , Costamante, L , Cutini, S , D'Ammando, F , Dermer, C D , De Angelis, A , De Luca, A , De Palma, F , Digel, S W , Do Couto E Silva, E , Drell, P S , Drlica-Wagner, A , Dubois, R , Dumora, D , Favuzzi, C , Fegan, S J , Ferrara, E C , Focke, W B , Fortin, P , Frailis, M , Fukazawa, Y , Funk, S , Fusco, P , Gargano, F , Gasparrini, D , Gehrels, N , Germani, S , Giglietto, N , Giordano, F , Giroletti, M , Glanzman, T , Godfrey, G , Grenier, I A , Grondin, M-H , Grove, J E , Guiriec, S , Hadasch, D , Hanabata, Y , Harding, A K , Hayashi, K , Hayashida, M , Hays, E , Horan, D , Itoh, R , Jóhannesson, G , Johnson, A S , Johnson, T J , Khangulyan, D , Kamae, T , Katagiri, H , Kataoka, J , Kerr, M , Knödlseder, J , Kuss, M , Lande, J , Latronico, L , Lee, S-H , Lemoine-Goumard, M , Longo, F , Loparco, F , Lubrano, P , Madejski, G M , Makeev, A , Marelli, M , Mazziotta, M N , Mcenery, J E , Michelson, P F , Mitthumsiri, W , Mizuno, T , Moiseev, A A , Monte, C , Monzani, M E , Morselli, A , Moskalenko, I V , Murgia, S , Nakamori, T , Naumann-Godo, M , Nolan, P L , Norris, J P , Nuss, E , Ohsugi, T , Okumura, A , Omodei, N , Ormes, J F , Ozaki, M , Paneque, D , Parent, D , Pelassa, V , Pepe, M , Pesce-Rollins, M , Pierbattista, M , Piron, F , Porter, T A , Rainò, S , Rando, R , Ray, P S , Razzano, M , Reimer, A , Reimer, O , Reposeur, T , Ritz, S , Romani, R W , Sadrozinski, H F-W , Sanchez, D , Saz Parkinson, P M , Scargle, J D , Schalk, T L , Sgrò, C , Siskind, E J , Smith, P D , Spandre, G , Spinelli, P , Strickman, M S , Suson, D J , Takahashi, H , Takahashi, T , Tanaka, T , Thayer, J B , Thompson, D J , Tibaldo, L , Torres, D F , Tosti, G , Tramacere, A , Troja, E , Uchiyama, Y , Vandenbroucke, J , Vasileiou, V , Vianello, G , Vitale, V , Wang, P , Wood, K S , Yang, Z , Ziegler, M
Format: Electronic Article Electronic Article
Language: English
Subjects:
ID: E-ISSN: 1095-9203 ; PMID: 21212321 Version:1 ; DOI: 10.1126/science.1199705
Link: http://pubmed.gov/21212321
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title: Gamma-ray flares from the Crab Nebula
format: Article
creator:
  • Abdo, A A
  • Ackermann, M
  • Ajello, M
  • Allafort, A
  • Baldini, L
  • Ballet, J
  • Barbiellini, G
  • Bastieri, D
  • Bechtol, K
  • Bellazzini, R
  • Berenji, B
  • Blandford, R D
  • Bloom, E D
  • Bonamente, E
  • Borgland, A W
  • Bouvier, A
  • Brandt, T J
  • Bregeon, J
  • Brez, A
  • Brigida, M
  • Bruel, P
  • Buehler, R
  • Buson, S
  • Caliandro, G A
  • Cameron, R A
  • Cannon, A
  • Caraveo, P A
  • Casandjian, J M
  • Çelik, Ö
  • Charles, E
  • Chekhtman, A
  • Cheung, C C
  • Chiang, J
  • Ciprini, S
  • Claus, R
  • Cohen-Tanugi, J
  • Costamante, L
  • Cutini, S
  • D'Ammando, F
  • Dermer, C D
  • De Angelis, A
  • De Luca, A
  • De Palma, F
  • Digel, S W
  • Do Couto E Silva, E
  • Drell, P S
  • Drlica-Wagner, A
  • Dubois, R
  • Dumora, D
  • Favuzzi, C
  • Fegan, S J
  • Ferrara, E C
  • Focke, W B
  • Fortin, P
  • Frailis, M
  • Fukazawa, Y
  • Funk, S
  • Fusco, P
  • Gargano, F
  • Gasparrini, D
  • Gehrels, N
  • Germani, S
  • Giglietto, N
  • Giordano, F
  • Giroletti, M
  • Glanzman, T
  • Godfrey, G
  • Grenier, I A
  • Grondin, M-H
  • Grove, J E
  • Guiriec, S
  • Hadasch, D
  • Hanabata, Y
  • Harding, A K
  • Hayashi, K
  • Hayashida, M
  • Hays, E
  • Horan, D
  • Itoh, R
  • Jóhannesson, G
  • Johnson, A S
  • Johnson, T J
  • Khangulyan, D
  • Kamae, T
  • Katagiri, H
  • Kataoka, J
  • Kerr, M
  • Knödlseder, J
  • Kuss, M
  • Lande, J
  • Latronico, L
  • Lee, S-H
  • Lemoine-Goumard, M
  • Longo, F
  • Loparco, F
  • Lubrano, P
  • Madejski, G M
  • Makeev, A
  • Marelli, M
  • Mazziotta, M N
  • Mcenery, J E
  • Michelson, P F
  • Mitthumsiri, W
  • Mizuno, T
  • Moiseev, A A
  • Monte, C
  • Monzani, M E
  • Morselli, A
  • Moskalenko, I V
  • Murgia, S
  • Nakamori, T
  • Naumann-Godo, M
  • Nolan, P L
  • Norris, J P
  • Nuss, E
  • Ohsugi, T
  • Okumura, A
  • Omodei, N
  • Ormes, J F
  • Ozaki, M
  • Paneque, D
  • Parent, D
  • Pelassa, V
  • Pepe, M
  • Pesce-Rollins, M
  • Pierbattista, M
  • Piron, F
  • Porter, T A
  • Rainò, S
  • Rando, R
  • Ray, P S
  • Razzano, M
  • Reimer, A
  • Reimer, O
  • Reposeur, T
  • Ritz, S
  • Romani, R W
  • Sadrozinski, H F-W
  • Sanchez, D
  • Saz Parkinson, P M
  • Scargle, J D
  • Schalk, T L
  • Sgrò, C
  • Siskind, E J
  • Smith, P D
  • Spandre, G
  • Spinelli, P
  • Strickman, M S
  • Suson, D J
  • Takahashi, H
  • Takahashi, T
  • Tanaka, T
  • Thayer, J B
  • Thompson, D J
  • Tibaldo, L
  • Torres, D F
  • Tosti, G
  • Tramacere, A
  • Troja, E
  • Uchiyama, Y
  • Vandenbroucke, J
  • Vasileiou, V
  • Vianello, G
  • Vitale, V
  • Wang, P
  • Wood, K S
  • Yang, Z
  • Ziegler, M
subjects:
  • Gamma Ray Astronomy -- Research
  • Crab Nebula -- Natural History
ispartof: Science (New York, N.Y.), 11 February 2011, Vol.331(6018), pp.739-42
description: A young and energetic pulsar powers the well-known Crab Nebula. Here, we describe two separate gamma-ray (photon energy greater than 100 mega-electron volts) flares from this source detected by the Large Area Telescope on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. The first flare occurred in February 2009 and lasted approximately 16 days. The second flare was detected in September 2010 and lasted approximately 4 days. During these outbursts, the gamma-ray flux from the nebula increased by factors of four and six, respectively. The brevity of the flares implies that the gamma rays were emitted via synchrotron radiation from peta-electron-volt (10(15) electron volts) electrons in a region smaller than 1.4 × 10(-2) parsecs. These are the highest-energy particles that can be associated with a discrete astronomical source, and they pose challenges to particle acceleration theory.
language: eng
source:
identifier: E-ISSN: 1095-9203 ; PMID: 21212321 Version:1 ; DOI: 10.1126/science.1199705
fulltext: fulltext
issn:
  • 10959203
  • 1095-9203
url: Link


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creatorAbdo, A A ; Ackermann, M ; Ajello, M ; Allafort, A ; Baldini, L ; Ballet, J ; Barbiellini, G ; Bastieri, D ; Bechtol, K ; Bellazzini, R ; Berenji, B ; Blandford, R D ; Bloom, E D ; Bonamente, E ; Borgland, A W ; Bouvier, A ; Brandt, T J ; Bregeon, J ; Brez, A ; Brigida, M ; Bruel, P ; Buehler, R ; Buson, S ; Caliandro, G A ; Cameron, R A ; Cannon, A ; Caraveo, P A ; Casandjian, J M ; Çelik, Ö ; Charles, E ; Chekhtman, A ; Cheung, C C ; Chiang, J ; Ciprini, S ; Claus, R ; Cohen-Tanugi, J ; Costamante, L ; Cutini, S ; D'Ammando, F ; Dermer, C D ; De Angelis, A ; De Luca, A ; De Palma, F ; Digel, S W ; Do Couto E Silva, E ; Drell, P S ; Drlica-Wagner, A ; Dubois, R ; Dumora, D ; Favuzzi, C ; Fegan, S J ; Ferrara, E C ; Focke, W B ; Fortin, P ; Frailis, M ; Fukazawa, Y ; Funk, S ; Fusco, P ; Gargano, F ; Gasparrini, D ; Gehrels, N ; Germani, S ; Giglietto, N ; Giordano, F ; Giroletti, M ; Glanzman, T ; Godfrey, G ; Grenier, I A ; Grondin, M-H ; Grove, J E ; Guiriec, S ; Hadasch, D ; Hanabata, Y ; Harding, A K ; Hayashi, K ; Hayashida, M ; Hays, E ; Horan, D ; Itoh, R ; Jóhannesson, G ; Johnson, A S ; Johnson, T J ; Khangulyan, D ; Kamae, T ; Katagiri, H ; Kataoka, J ; Kerr, M ; Knödlseder, J ; Kuss, M ; Lande, J ; Latronico, L ; Lee, S-H ; Lemoine-Goumard, M ; Longo, F ; Loparco, F ; Lubrano, P ; Madejski, G M ; Makeev, A ; Marelli, M ; Mazziotta, M N ; Mcenery, J E ; Michelson, P F ; Mitthumsiri, W ; Mizuno, T ; Moiseev, A A ; Monte, C ; Monzani, M E ; Morselli, A ; Moskalenko, I V ; Murgia, S ; Nakamori, T ; Naumann-Godo, M ; Nolan, P L ; Norris, J P ; Nuss, E ; Ohsugi, T ; Okumura, A ; Omodei, N ; Ormes, J F ; Ozaki, M ; Paneque, D ; Parent, D ; Pelassa, V ; Pepe, M ; Pesce-Rollins, M ; Pierbattista, M ; Piron, F ; Porter, T A ; Rainò, S ; Rando, R ; Ray, P S ; Razzano, M ; Reimer, A ; Reimer, O ; Reposeur, T ; Ritz, S ; Romani, R W ; Sadrozinski, H F-W ; Sanchez, D ; Saz Parkinson, P M ; Scargle, J D ; Schalk, T L ; Sgrò, C ; Siskind, E J ; Smith, P D ; Spandre, G ; Spinelli, P ; Strickman, M S ; Suson, D J ; Takahashi, H ; Takahashi, T ; Tanaka, T ; Thayer, J B ; Thompson, D J ; Tibaldo, L ; Torres, D F ; Tosti, G ; Tramacere, A ; Troja, E ; Uchiyama, Y ; Vandenbroucke, J ; Vasileiou, V ; Vianello, G ; Vitale, V ; Wang, P ; Wood, K S ; Yang, Z ; Ziegler, M
ispartofScience (New York, N.Y.), 11 February 2011, Vol.331(6018), pp.739-42
identifier
descriptionA young and energetic pulsar powers the well-known Crab Nebula. Here, we describe two separate gamma-ray (photon energy greater than 100 mega-electron volts) flares from this source detected by the Large Area Telescope on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. The first flare occurred in February 2009 and lasted approximately 16 days. The second flare was detected in September 2010 and lasted approximately 4 days. During these outbursts, the gamma-ray flux from the nebula increased by factors of four and six, respectively. The brevity of the flares implies that the gamma rays were emitted via synchrotron radiation from peta-electron-volt (10(15) electron volts) electrons in a region smaller than 1.4 × 10(-2) parsecs. These are the highest-energy particles that can be associated with a discrete astronomical source, and they pose challenges to particle acceleration theory.
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subjectGamma Ray Astronomy -- Research ; Crab Nebula -- Natural History;
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1Ackermann, M
2Ajello, M
3Allafort, A
4Baldini, L
5Ballet, J
6Barbiellini, G
7Bastieri, D
8Bechtol, K
9Bellazzini, R
10Berenji, B
11Blandford, R D
12Bloom, E D
13Bonamente, E
14Borgland, A W
15Bouvier, A
16Brandt, T J
17Bregeon, J
18Brez, A
19Brigida, M
20Bruel, P
21Buehler, R
22Buson, S
23Caliandro, G A
24Cameron, R A
25Cannon, A
26Caraveo, P A
27Casandjian, J M
28Çelik, Ö
29Charles, E
30Chekhtman, A
31Cheung, C C
32Chiang, J
33Ciprini, S
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35Cohen-Tanugi, J
36Costamante, L
37Cutini, S
38D'Ammando, F
39Dermer, C D
40de Angelis, A
41de Luca, A
42de Palma, F
43Digel, S W
44do Couto e Silva, E
45Drell, P S
46Drlica-Wagner, A
47Dubois, R
48Dumora, D
49Favuzzi, C
50Fegan, S J
51Ferrara, E C
52Focke, W B
53Fortin, P
54Frailis, M
55Fukazawa, Y
56Funk, S
57Fusco, P
58Gargano, F
59Gasparrini, D
60Gehrels, N
61Germani, S
62Giglietto, N
63Giordano, F
64Giroletti, M
65Glanzman, T
66Godfrey, G
67Grenier, I A
68Grondin, M-H
69Grove, J E
70Guiriec, S
71Hadasch, D
72Hanabata, Y
73Harding, A K
74Hayashi, K
75Hayashida, M
76Hays, E
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79Jóhannesson, G
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81Johnson, T J
82Khangulyan, D
83Kamae, T
84Katagiri, H
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86Kerr, M
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90Latronico, L
91Lee, S-H
92Lemoine-Goumard, M
93Longo, F
94Loparco, F
95Lubrano, P
96Madejski, G M
97Makeev, A
98Marelli, M
99Mazziotta, M N
100...
titleGamma-ray flares from the Crab Nebula
descriptionA young and energetic pulsar powers the well-known Crab Nebula. Here, we describe two separate gamma-ray (photon energy greater than 100 mega-electron volts) flares from this source detected by the Large Area Telescope on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. The first flare occurred in February 2009 and lasted approximately 16 days. The second flare was detected in September 2010 and lasted approximately 4 days. During these outbursts, the gamma-ray flux from the nebula increased by factors of four and six, respectively. The brevity of the flares implies that the gamma rays were emitted via synchrotron radiation from peta-electron-volt (10(15) electron volts) electrons in a region smaller than 1.4 × 10(-2) parsecs. These are the highest-energy particles that can be associated with a discrete astronomical source, and they pose challenges to particle acceleration theory.
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titleGamma-ray flares from the Crab Nebula
authorAbdo, A A ; Ackermann, M ; Ajello, M ; Allafort, A ; Baldini, L ; Ballet, J ; Barbiellini, G ; Bastieri, D ; Bechtol, K ; Bellazzini, R ; Berenji, B ; Blandford, R D ; Bloom, E D ; Bonamente, E ; Borgland, A W ; Bouvier, A ; Brandt, T J ; Bregeon, J ; Brez, A ; Brigida, M ; Bruel, P ; Buehler, R ; Buson, S ; Caliandro, G A ; Cameron, R A ; Cannon, A ; Caraveo, P A ; Casandjian, J M ; Çelik, Ö ; Charles, E ; Chekhtman, A ; Cheung, C C ; Chiang, J ; Ciprini, S ; Claus, R ; Cohen-Tanugi, J ; Costamante, L ; Cutini, S ; D'Ammando, F ; Dermer, C D ; De Angelis, A ; De Luca, A ; De Palma, F ; Digel, S W ; Do Couto E Silva, E ; Drell, P S ; Drlica-Wagner, A ; Dubois, R ; Dumora, D ; Favuzzi, C ; Fegan, S J ; Ferrara, E C ; Focke, W B ; Fortin, P ; Frailis, M ; Fukazawa, Y ; Funk, S ; Fusco, P ; Gargano, F ; Gasparrini, D ; Gehrels, N ; Germani, S ; Giglietto, N ; Giordano, F ; Giroletti, M ; Glanzman, T ; Godfrey, G ; Grenier, I A ; Grondin, M-H ; Grove, J E ; Guiriec, S ; Hadasch, D ; Hanabata, Y ; Harding, A K ; Hayashi, K ; Hayashida, M ; Hays, E ; Horan, D ; Itoh, R ; Jóhannesson, G ; Johnson, A S ; Johnson, T J ; Khangulyan, D ; Kamae, T ; Katagiri, H ; Kataoka, J ; Kerr, M ; Knödlseder, J ; Kuss, M ; Lande, J ; Latronico, L ; Lee, S-H ; Lemoine-Goumard, M ; Longo, F ; Loparco, F ; Lubrano, P ; Madejski, G M ; Makeev, A ; Marelli, M ; Mazziotta, M N ; Mcenery, J E ; Michelson, P F ; Mitthumsiri, W ; Mizuno, T ; Moiseev, A A ; Monte, C ; Monzani, M E ; Morselli, A ; Moskalenko, I V ; Murgia, S ; Nakamori, T ; Naumann-Godo, M ; Nolan, P L ; Norris, J P ; Nuss, E ; Ohsugi, T ; Okumura, A ; Omodei, N ; Ormes, J F ; Ozaki, M ; Paneque, D ; Parent, D ; Pelassa, V ; Pepe, M ; Pesce-Rollins, M ; Pierbattista, M ; Piron, F ; Porter, T A ; Rainò, S ; Rando, R ; Ray, P S ; Razzano, M ; Reimer, A ; Reimer, O ; Reposeur, T ; Ritz, S ; Romani, R W ; Sadrozinski, H F-W ; Sanchez, D ; Saz Parkinson, P M ; Scargle, J D ; Schalk, T L ; Sgrò, C ; Siskind, E J ; Smith, P D ; Spandre, G ; Spinelli, P ; Strickman, M S ; Suson, D J ; Takahashi, H ; Takahashi, T ; Tanaka, T ; Thayer, J B ; Thompson, D J ; Tibaldo, L ; Torres, D F ; Tosti, G ; Tramacere, A ; Troja, E ; Uchiyama, Y ; Vandenbroucke, J ; Vasileiou, V ; Vianello, G ; Vitale, V ; Wang, P ; Wood, K S ; Yang, Z ; Ziegler, M
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93Longo, F
94Loparco, F
95Lubrano, P
96Madejski, G M
97Makeev, A
98Marelli, M
99Mazziotta, M N
100...
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63Giordano
64Giroletti
65Glanzman
66Godfrey
67Grenier
68Grondin
69Grove
70Guiriec
71Hadasch
72Hanabata
73Harding
74Hayashi
75Hayashida
76Hays
77Horan
78Itoh
79Jóhannesson
80Johnson
81Khangulyan
82Kamae
83Katagiri
84Kataoka
85Kerr
86Knödlseder
87Kuss
88Lande
89Latronico
90Lee
91Lemoine-Goumard
92Longo
93Loparco
94Lubrano
95Madejski
96Makeev
97Marelli
98Mazziotta
99Mcenery
100...
aufirst
0A A
1M
2A
3L
4J
5G
6D
7K
8R
9B
10R D
11E D
12E
13A W
14T J
15P
16S
17G A
18R A
19P A
20J M
21Ö
22C C
23F
24C D
25S W
26P S
27C
28S J
29E C
30W B
31Y
32N
33T
34I A
35M-H
36J E
37A K
38A S
39H
40S-H
41G M
42M N
43P F
44W
45M E
46I V
47P L
48J P
49J F
50V
51T A
52O
53R W
54H F-W
55P M
56J D
57T L
58E J
59P D
60M S
61D J
62J B
63D F
64K S
65Z
au
0Abdo, A A
1Ackermann, M
2Ajello, M
3Allafort, A
4Baldini, L
5Ballet, J
6Barbiellini, G
7Bastieri, D
8Bechtol, K
9Bellazzini, R
10Berenji, B
11Blandford, R D
12Bloom, E D
13Bonamente, E
14Borgland, A W
15Bouvier, A
16Brandt, T J
17Bregeon, J
18Brez, A
19Brigida, M
20Bruel, P
21Buehler, R
22Buson, S
23Caliandro, G A
24Cameron, R A
25Cannon, A
26Caraveo, P A
27Casandjian, J M
28Çelik, Ö
29Charles, E
30Chekhtman, A
31Cheung, C C
32Chiang, J
33Ciprini, S
34Claus, R
35Cohen-Tanugi, J
36Costamante, L
37Cutini, S
38D'Ammando, F
39Dermer, C D
40de Angelis, A
41de Luca, A
42de Palma, F
43Digel, S W
44Do Couto E Silva, E
45Drell, P S
46Drlica-Wagner, A
47Dubois, R
48Dumora, D
49Favuzzi, C
50Fegan, S J
51Ferrara, E C
52Focke, W B
53Fortin, P
54Frailis, M
55Fukazawa, Y
56Funk, S
57Fusco, P
58Gargano, F
59Gasparrini, D
60Gehrels, N
61Germani, S
62Giglietto, N
63Giordano, F
64Giroletti, M
65Glanzman, T
66Godfrey, G
67Grenier, I A
68Grondin, M-H
69Grove, J E
70Guiriec, S
71Hadasch, D
72Hanabata, Y
73Harding, A K
74Hayashi, K
75Hayashida, M
76Hays, E
77Horan, D
78Itoh, R
79Jóhannesson, G
80Johnson, A S
81Johnson, T J
82Khangulyan, D
83Kamae, T
84Katagiri, H
85Kataoka, J
86Kerr, M
87Knödlseder, J
88Kuss, M
89Lande, J
90Latronico, L
91Lee, S-H
92Lemoine-Goumard, M
93Longo, F
94Loparco, F
95Lubrano, P
96Madejski, G M
97Makeev, A
98Marelli, M
99Mazziotta, M N
100...
atitleGamma-ray flares from the Crab Nebula
jtitleScience (New York, N.Y.)
risdate20110211
volume331
issue6018
spage739
pages739-742
eissn1095-9203
formatjournal
genrearticle
ristypeJOUR
abstractA young and energetic pulsar powers the well-known Crab Nebula. Here, we describe two separate gamma-ray (photon energy greater than 100 mega-electron volts) flares from this source detected by the Large Area Telescope on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. The first flare occurred in February 2009 and lasted approximately 16 days. The second flare was detected in September 2010 and lasted approximately 4 days. During these outbursts, the gamma-ray flux from the nebula increased by factors of four and six, respectively. The brevity of the flares implies that the gamma rays were emitted via synchrotron radiation from peta-electron-volt (10(15) electron volts) electrons in a region smaller than 1.4 × 10(-2) parsecs. These are the highest-energy particles that can be associated with a discrete astronomical source, and they pose challenges to particle acceleration theory.
doi10.1126/science.1199705
pmid21212321
orcidid0000-0001-6885-7156
issn00368075
oafree_for_read
date2011-02-11