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Axogenic mechanism enhances retinal ganglion cell excitability during early progression in glaucoma

Diseases of the brain involve early axon dysfunction that often precedes outright degeneration. Pruning of dendrites and their synapses represents a potential driver of axonopathy by reducing activity. Optic nerve degeneration in glaucoma, the world's leading cause of irreversible blindness, involve... Full description

Journal Title: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 06 March 2018, Vol.115(10), pp.E2393-E2402
Main Author: Risner, Michael L
Other Authors: Pasini, Silvia , Cooper, Melissa L , Lambert, Wendi S , Calkins, David J
Format: Electronic Article Electronic Article
Language: English
Subjects:
ID: E-ISSN: 1091-6490 ; PMID: 29463759 Version:1 ; DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1714888115
Link: http://pubmed.gov/29463759
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recordid: medline29463759
title: Axogenic mechanism enhances retinal ganglion cell excitability during early progression in glaucoma
format: Article
creator:
  • Risner, Michael L
  • Pasini, Silvia
  • Cooper, Melissa L
  • Lambert, Wendi S
  • Calkins, David J
subjects:
  • Axonopathy
  • Dendritic Pruning
  • Glaucoma
  • Neurodegeneration
  • Retinal Ganglion Cells
  • Axons -- Physiology
  • Glaucoma -- Physiopathology
  • Retinal Ganglion Cells -- Physiology
ispartof: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 06 March 2018, Vol.115(10), pp.E2393-E2402
description: Diseases of the brain involve early axon dysfunction that often precedes outright degeneration. Pruning of dendrites and their synapses represents a potential driver of axonopathy by reducing activity. Optic nerve degeneration in glaucoma, the world's leading cause of irreversible blindness, involves early stress to retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons from sensitivity to intraocular pressure (IOP). This sensitivity also influences survival of RGC dendrites and excitatory synapses in the retina. Here we tested in individual RGCs identified by type the relationship between dendritic organization and axon signaling to light following modest, short-term elevations in pressure. We found dendritic pruning occurred early, by 2 wk of elevation, and independent of whether the RGC responded to light onset (ON cells) or offset (OFF cells). Pruning was similarly independent of ON and OFF in the DBA/2J mouse, a chronic glaucoma model. Paradoxically, all RGCs, even those with significant pruning, demonstrated a transient increase in axon firing in response to the preferred light stimulus that occurred on a backdrop of generally enhanced excitability. The increased response was not through conventional presynaptic signaling, but rather depended on voltage-sensitive sodium channels that increased transiently in the axon. Pruning, axon dysfunction, and deficits in visual acuity did not progress between 2 and 4 wk of elevation. These results suggest neurodegeneration in glaucoma involves an early axogenic response that counters IOP-related stress to excitatory dendritic architecture to slow progression and maintain signaling to the brain. Thus, short-term exposure to elevated IOP may precondition the neural system to further insult.
language: eng
source:
identifier: E-ISSN: 1091-6490 ; PMID: 29463759 Version:1 ; DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1714888115
fulltext: fulltext
issn:
  • 10916490
  • 1091-6490
url: Link


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titleAxogenic mechanism enhances retinal ganglion cell excitability during early progression in glaucoma
creatorRisner, Michael L ; Pasini, Silvia ; Cooper, Melissa L ; Lambert, Wendi S ; Calkins, David J
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subjectAxonopathy ; Dendritic Pruning ; Glaucoma ; Neurodegeneration ; Retinal Ganglion Cells ; Axons -- Physiology ; Glaucoma -- Physiopathology ; Retinal Ganglion Cells -- Physiology
descriptionDiseases of the brain involve early axon dysfunction that often precedes outright degeneration. Pruning of dendrites and their synapses represents a potential driver of axonopathy by reducing activity. Optic nerve degeneration in glaucoma, the world's leading cause of irreversible blindness, involves early stress to retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons from sensitivity to intraocular pressure (IOP). This sensitivity also influences survival of RGC dendrites and excitatory synapses in the retina. Here we tested in individual RGCs identified by type the relationship between dendritic organization and axon signaling to light following modest, short-term elevations in pressure. We found dendritic pruning occurred early, by 2 wk of elevation, and independent of whether the RGC responded to light onset (ON cells) or offset (OFF cells). Pruning was similarly independent of ON and OFF in the DBA/2J mouse, a chronic glaucoma model. Paradoxically, all RGCs, even those with significant pruning, demonstrated a transient increase in axon firing in response to the preferred light stimulus that occurred on a backdrop of generally enhanced excitability. The increased response was not through conventional presynaptic signaling, but rather depended on voltage-sensitive sodium channels that increased transiently in the axon. Pruning, axon dysfunction, and deficits in visual acuity did not progress between 2 and 4 wk of elevation. These results suggest neurodegeneration in glaucoma involves an early axogenic response that counters IOP-related stress to excitatory dendritic architecture to slow progression and maintain signaling to the brain. Thus, short-term exposure to elevated IOP may precondition the neural system to further insult.
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titleAxogenic mechanism enhances retinal ganglion cell excitability during early progression in glaucoma
descriptionDiseases of the brain involve early axon dysfunction that often precedes outright degeneration. Pruning of dendrites and their synapses represents a potential driver of axonopathy by reducing activity. Optic nerve degeneration in glaucoma, the world's leading cause of irreversible blindness, involves early stress to retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons from sensitivity to intraocular pressure (IOP). This sensitivity also influences survival of RGC dendrites and excitatory synapses in the retina. Here we tested in individual RGCs identified by type the relationship between dendritic organization and axon signaling to light following modest, short-term elevations in pressure. We found dendritic pruning occurred early, by 2 wk of elevation, and independent of whether the RGC responded to light onset (ON cells) or offset (OFF cells). Pruning was similarly independent of ON and OFF in the DBA/2J mouse, a chronic glaucoma model. Paradoxically, all RGCs, even those with significant pruning, demonstrated a transient increase in axon firing in response to the preferred light stimulus that occurred on a backdrop of generally enhanced excitability. The increased response was not through conventional presynaptic signaling, but rather depended on voltage-sensitive sodium channels that increased transiently in the axon. Pruning, axon dysfunction, and deficits in visual acuity did not progress between 2 and 4 wk of elevation. These results suggest neurodegeneration in glaucoma involves an early axogenic response that counters IOP-related stress to excitatory dendritic architecture to slow progression and maintain signaling to the brain. Thus, short-term exposure to elevated IOP may precondition the neural system to further insult.
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abstractDiseases of the brain involve early axon dysfunction that often precedes outright degeneration. Pruning of dendrites and their synapses represents a potential driver of axonopathy by reducing activity. Optic nerve degeneration in glaucoma, the world's leading cause of irreversible blindness, involves early stress to retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons from sensitivity to intraocular pressure (IOP). This sensitivity also influences survival of RGC dendrites and excitatory synapses in the retina. Here we tested in individual RGCs identified by type the relationship between dendritic organization and axon signaling to light following modest, short-term elevations in pressure. We found dendritic pruning occurred early, by 2 wk of elevation, and independent of whether the RGC responded to light onset (ON cells) or offset (OFF cells). Pruning was similarly independent of ON and OFF in the DBA/2J mouse, a chronic glaucoma model. Paradoxically, all RGCs, even those with significant pruning, demonstrated a transient increase in axon firing in response to the preferred light stimulus that occurred on a backdrop of generally enhanced excitability. The increased response was not through conventional presynaptic signaling, but rather depended on voltage-sensitive sodium channels that increased transiently in the axon. Pruning, axon dysfunction, and deficits in visual acuity did not progress between 2 and 4 wk of elevation. These results suggest neurodegeneration in glaucoma involves an early axogenic response that counters IOP-related stress to excitatory dendritic architecture to slow progression and maintain signaling to the brain. Thus, short-term exposure to elevated IOP may precondition the neural system to further insult.
doi10.1073/pnas.1714888115
pmid29463759
issn00278424
date2018-03-06