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Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 84 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks, 1990–2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016

Background The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016 (GBD 2016) provides a comprehensive assessment of risk factor exposure and attributable burden of disease. By providing estimates over a long time series, this study can monitor risk exposure trends critical to health su... Full description

Journal Title: The Lancet Global Health 2017, Vol.390(10100), pp.1345-109x
Main Author: Abajobir, Amanuel Alemu
Other Authors: Abate, Kalkidan Hassen , Abbafati, Cristiana , Abbas, Kaja M. , Abd-Allah, Foad , Abdulle, Abdishakur M. , Abera, Semaw Ferede , Aboyans, Victor , Abu-Raddad, Laith J. , Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M E , Abyu, Gebre Yitayih , Adedeji, Isaac Akinkunmi , Adetokunboh, Olatunji , Afarideh, Mohsen , Afshin, Ashkan , Agrawal, Anurag , Agrawal, Sutapa , Ahmadieh, Hamid , Ahmed, Muktar Beshir , Aichour, Miloud Taki Eddine , Aichour, Amani Nidhal , Aichour, Ibtihel , Akinyemi, Rufus Olusola , Akseer, Nadia , Alahdab, Fares , Al-Aly, Ziyad , Alam, Khurshid , Alam, Noore , Alam, Tahiya , Alasfoor, Deena , Alene, Kefyalew Addis , Ali, Komal , Alizadeh-Navaei, Reza , Alkerwi, Ala'a , Alla, François , Allebeck, Peter , Al-Raddadi, Rajaa , Alsharif, Ubai , Altirkawi, Khalid A. , Alvis-Guzman, Nelson , Amare, Azmeraw T , Amini, Erfan , Ammar, Walid , Amoako, Yaw Ampem , Ansari, Hossein , Antó, Josep M. , Antonio, Carl Abelardo T , Anwari, Palwasha , Arian, Nicholas , Ärnlöv, Johan , Artaman, Al , Aryal, Krishna Kumar , Asayesh, Hamid , Asgedom, Solomon Weldegebreal , Atey, Tesfay Mehari , Avila-Burgos, Leticia , Avokpaho, Euripide Frinel G.Arthur , Awasthi, Ashish , Azzopardi, Peter , Bacha, Umar , Badawi, Alaa , Balakrishnan, Kalpana , Ballew, Shoshana H. , Barac, Aleksandra , Barber, Ryan M , Barker-Collo, Suzanne L , Bärnighausen, Till , Barquera, Simon , Barregard, Lars , Barrero, Lope H , Batis, Carolina , Battle, Katherine E. , Baumgarner, Blair R. , Baune, Bernhard T. , Beardsley, Justin , Bedi, Neeraj , Beghi, Ettore , Bell, Michelle L , Bennett, Derrick A , Bennett, James R. , Bensenor, Isabela M. , Berhane, Adugnaw , Berhe, Derbew Fikadu , Bernabé, Eduardo , Betsu, Balem Demtsu , Beuran, Mircea , Beyene, Addisu Shunu , Bhansali, Anil , Bhutta, Zulfiqar A , Bicer, Burcu Kucuk , Bikbov, Boris , Birungi, Charles , Biryukov, Stan , Blosser, Christopher D. , Boneya, Dube Jara , Bou-Orm, Ibrahim R. , Brauer, Michael , Breitborde, Nicholas J.K. , Brenner, Hermann , Brugha, Traolach S , Bulto, Lemma Negesa Bulto , Butt, Zahid A. , Cahuana-Hurtado, Lucero , Cárdenas, Rosario , Carrero, Juan Jesus , Castañeda-Orjuela, Carlos A , Catalá-López, Ferrán , Cercy, Kelly , Chang, Hsing Yi , Charlson, Fiona J , Chimed-Ochir, Odgerel , Chisumpa, Vesper Hichilombwe , Chitheer, Abdulaal A. , Christensen, Hanne , Christopher, Devasahayam Jesudas , Cirillo, Massimo , Cohen, Aaron J , Comfort, Haley , Cooper, Cyrus , Coresh, Josef , Cornaby, Leslie , Cortesi, Paolo Angelo , Criqui, Michael H , Crump, John A , Dandona, Lalit , Dandona, Rakhi , das Neves, José , Davey, Gail , Davitoiu, Dragos V , Davletov, Kairat , de Courten, Barbora , Defo, Barthelemy Kuate , Degenhardt, Louisa , Deiparine, Selina , Dellavalle, Robert P , Deribe, Kebede , Deshpande, Aniruddha , Dharmaratne, Samath D , Ding, Eric L , Djalalinia, Shirin , Do, Huyen Phuc , Dokova, Klara , Doku, David Teye , Donkelaar, Aaron van , Dorsey, E Ray , Driscoll, Tim R , Dubey, Manisha , Duncan, Bruce Bartholow , Duncan, Sarah , Ebrahimi, Hedyeh , El-Khatib, Ziad Ziad , Enayati, Ahmadali , Endries, Aman Yesuf , Ermakov, Sergey Petrovich , Erskine, Holly E , Eshrati, Babak , Eskandarieh, Sharareh , Esteghamati, Alireza , Estep, Kara , Faraon, Emerito Jose Aquino , Farinha, Carla Sofia e.Sa , Faro, André , Farzadfar, Farshad , Fay, Kairsten , Feigin, Valery L , Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad , Fernandes, João C. , Ferrari, Alize J , Feyissa, Tesfaye Regassa , Filip, Irina , Fischer, Florian , Fitzmaurice, Christina , Flaxman, Abraham D , Foigt, Nataliya , Foreman, Kyle J , Frostad, Joseph J , Fullman, Nancy , Fürst, Thomas , Furtado, Joao M. , Gakidou, Emmanuela , Ganji, Morsaleh , Garcia-Basteiro, Alberto L. , Gebrehiwot, Tsegaye Tewelde , Geleijnse, Johanna M. , Geleto, Ayele , Gemechu, Bikila Lencha , Gesesew, Hailay Abrha , Gething, Peter W. , Ghajar, Alireza , Gibney, Katherine B , Gill, Paramjit Singh , Gillum, Richard F , Giref, Ababi Zergaw , Gishu, Melkamu Dedefo , Giussani, Giorgia , Godwin, William W. , Gona, Philimon N. , Goodridge, Amador , Gopalani, Sameer Vali , Goryakin, Yevgeniy , Goulart, Alessandra Carvalho , Graetz, Nicholas , Gugnani, Harish Chander , Guo, Jingwen , Gupta, Rajeev , Gupta, Tanush , Gupta, Vipin , Gutiérrez, Reyna A , Hachinski, Vladimir , Hafezi-Nejad, Nima , Hailu, Gessessew Bugssa , Hamadeh, Randah Ribhi , Hamidi, Samer , Hammami, Mouhanad , Handal, Alexis J. , Hankey, Graeme J. , Hanson, Sarah Wulf , Harb, Hilda L , Hareri, Habtamu Abera , Hassanvand, Mohammad Sadegh , Havmoeller, Rasmus , Hawley, Caitlin , Hay, Simon I , Hedayati, Mohammad T , Hendrie, Delia , Heredia-Pi, Ileana Beatriz , Hernandez, Julio Cesar Montañez , Hoek, Hans W , Horita, Nobuyuki , Hosgood, H. Dean , Hostiuc, Sorin , Hoy, Damian G , Hsairi, Mohamed , Hu, Guoqing , Huang, John J , Huang, Hsiang , Ibrahim, Norlinah Mohamed , Iburg, Kim Moesgaard , Ikeda, Chad , Inoue, Manami , Irvine, Caleb Mackay Salpeter , Jackson, Maria Delores , Jacobsen, Kathryn H , Jahanmehr, Nader , Jakovljevic, Mihajlo B. , Jauregui, Alejandra , Javanbakht, Mehdi , Jeemon, Panniyammakal , Johansson, Lars R.K. , Johnson, Catherine O.
Format: Electronic Article Electronic Article
Language: English
Quelle: NARCIS (National Academic Research and Collaborations Information System)
ID: ISSN: ; ISSN: 2214-109X
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recordid: narcisuu:oai:dspace.library.uu.nl:1874/359886
title: Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 84 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks, 1990–2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016
format: Article
creator:
  • Abajobir, Amanuel Alemu
  • Abate, Kalkidan Hassen
  • Abbafati, Cristiana
  • Abbas, Kaja M.
  • Abd-Allah, Foad
  • Abdulle, Abdishakur M.
  • Abera, Semaw Ferede
  • Aboyans, Victor
  • Abu-Raddad, Laith J.
  • Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M E
  • Abyu, Gebre Yitayih
  • Adedeji, Isaac Akinkunmi
  • Adetokunboh, Olatunji
  • Afarideh, Mohsen
  • Afshin, Ashkan
  • Agrawal, Anurag
  • Agrawal, Sutapa
  • Ahmadieh, Hamid
  • Ahmed, Muktar Beshir
  • Aichour, Miloud Taki Eddine
  • Aichour, Amani Nidhal
  • Aichour, Ibtihel
  • Akinyemi, Rufus Olusola
  • Akseer, Nadia
  • Alahdab, Fares
  • Al-Aly, Ziyad
  • Alam, Khurshid
  • Alam, Noore
  • Alam, Tahiya
  • Alasfoor, Deena
  • Alene, Kefyalew Addis
  • Ali, Komal
  • Alizadeh-Navaei, Reza
  • Alkerwi, Ala'a
  • Alla, François
  • Allebeck, Peter
  • Al-Raddadi, Rajaa
  • Alsharif, Ubai
  • Altirkawi, Khalid A.
  • Alvis-Guzman, Nelson
  • Amare, Azmeraw T
  • Amini, Erfan
  • Ammar, Walid
  • Amoako, Yaw Ampem
  • Ansari, Hossein
  • Antó, Josep M.
  • Antonio, Carl Abelardo T
  • Anwari, Palwasha
  • Arian, Nicholas
  • Ärnlöv, Johan
  • Artaman, Al
  • Aryal, Krishna Kumar
  • Asayesh, Hamid
  • Asgedom, Solomon Weldegebreal
  • Atey, Tesfay Mehari
  • Avila-Burgos, Leticia
  • Avokpaho, Euripide Frinel G.Arthur
  • Awasthi, Ashish
  • Azzopardi, Peter
  • Bacha, Umar
  • Badawi, Alaa
  • Balakrishnan, Kalpana
  • Ballew, Shoshana H.
  • Barac, Aleksandra
  • Barber, Ryan M
  • Barker-Collo, Suzanne L
  • Bärnighausen, Till
  • Barquera, Simon
  • Barregard, Lars
  • Barrero, Lope H
  • Batis, Carolina
  • Battle, Katherine E.
  • Baumgarner, Blair R.
  • Baune, Bernhard T.
  • Beardsley, Justin
  • Bedi, Neeraj
  • Beghi, Ettore
  • Bell, Michelle L
  • Bennett, Derrick A
  • Bennett, James R.
  • Bensenor, Isabela M.
  • Berhane, Adugnaw
  • Berhe, Derbew Fikadu
  • Bernabé, Eduardo
  • Betsu, Balem Demtsu
  • Beuran, Mircea
  • Beyene, Addisu Shunu
  • Bhansali, Anil
  • Bhutta, Zulfiqar A
  • Bicer, Burcu Kucuk
  • Bikbov, Boris
  • Birungi, Charles
  • Biryukov, Stan
  • Blosser, Christopher D.
  • Boneya, Dube Jara
  • Bou-Orm, Ibrahim R.
  • Brauer, Michael
  • Breitborde, Nicholas J.K.
  • Brenner, Hermann
  • Brugha, Traolach S
  • Bulto, Lemma Negesa Bulto
  • Butt, Zahid A.
  • Cahuana-Hurtado, Lucero
  • Cárdenas, Rosario
  • Carrero, Juan Jesus
  • Castañeda-Orjuela, Carlos A
  • Catalá-López, Ferrán
  • Cercy, Kelly
  • Chang, Hsing Yi
  • Charlson, Fiona J
  • Chimed-Ochir, Odgerel
  • Chisumpa, Vesper Hichilombwe
  • Chitheer, Abdulaal A.
  • Christensen, Hanne
  • Christopher, Devasahayam Jesudas
  • Cirillo, Massimo
  • Cohen, Aaron J
  • Comfort, Haley
  • Cooper, Cyrus
  • Coresh, Josef
  • Cornaby, Leslie
  • Cortesi, Paolo Angelo
  • Criqui, Michael H
  • Crump, John A
  • Dandona, Lalit
  • Dandona, Rakhi
  • das Neves, José
  • Davey, Gail
  • Davitoiu, Dragos V
  • Davletov, Kairat
  • de Courten, Barbora
  • Defo, Barthelemy Kuate
  • Degenhardt, Louisa
  • Deiparine, Selina
  • Dellavalle, Robert P
  • Deribe, Kebede
  • Deshpande, Aniruddha
  • Dharmaratne, Samath D
  • Ding, Eric L
  • Djalalinia, Shirin
  • Do, Huyen Phuc
  • Dokova, Klara
  • Doku, David Teye
  • Donkelaar, Aaron van
  • Dorsey, E Ray
  • Driscoll, Tim R
  • Dubey, Manisha
  • Duncan, Bruce Bartholow
  • Duncan, Sarah
  • Ebrahimi, Hedyeh
  • El-Khatib, Ziad Ziad
  • Enayati, Ahmadali
  • Endries, Aman Yesuf
  • Ermakov, Sergey Petrovich
  • Erskine, Holly E
  • Eshrati, Babak
  • Eskandarieh, Sharareh
  • Esteghamati, Alireza
  • Estep, Kara
  • Faraon, Emerito Jose Aquino
  • Farinha, Carla Sofia e.Sa
  • Faro, André
  • Farzadfar, Farshad
  • Fay, Kairsten
  • Feigin, Valery L
  • Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad
  • Fernandes, João C.
  • Ferrari, Alize J
  • Feyissa, Tesfaye Regassa
  • Filip, Irina
  • Fischer, Florian
  • Fitzmaurice, Christina
  • Flaxman, Abraham D
  • Foigt, Nataliya
  • Foreman, Kyle J
  • Frostad, Joseph J
  • Fullman, Nancy
  • Fürst, Thomas
  • Furtado, Joao M.
  • Gakidou, Emmanuela
  • Ganji, Morsaleh
  • Garcia-Basteiro, Alberto L.
  • Gebrehiwot, Tsegaye Tewelde
  • Geleijnse, Johanna M.
  • Geleto, Ayele
  • Gemechu, Bikila Lencha
  • Gesesew, Hailay Abrha
  • Gething, Peter W.
  • Ghajar, Alireza
  • Gibney, Katherine B
  • Gill, Paramjit Singh
  • Gillum, Richard F
  • Giref, Ababi Zergaw
  • Gishu, Melkamu Dedefo
  • Giussani, Giorgia
  • Godwin, William W.
  • Gona, Philimon N.
  • Goodridge, Amador
  • Gopalani, Sameer Vali
  • Goryakin, Yevgeniy
  • Goulart, Alessandra Carvalho
  • Graetz, Nicholas
  • Gugnani, Harish Chander
  • Guo, Jingwen
  • Gupta, Rajeev
  • Gupta, Tanush
  • Gupta, Vipin
  • Gutiérrez, Reyna A
  • Hachinski, Vladimir
  • Hafezi-Nejad, Nima
  • Hailu, Gessessew Bugssa
  • Hamadeh, Randah Ribhi
  • Hamidi, Samer
  • Hammami, Mouhanad
  • Handal, Alexis J.
  • Hankey, Graeme J.
  • Hanson, Sarah Wulf
  • Harb, Hilda L
  • Hareri, Habtamu Abera
  • Hassanvand, Mohammad Sadegh
  • Havmoeller, Rasmus
  • Hawley, Caitlin
  • Hay, Simon I
  • Hedayati, Mohammad T
  • Hendrie, Delia
  • Heredia-Pi, Ileana Beatriz
  • Hernandez, Julio Cesar Montañez
  • Hoek, Hans W
  • Horita, Nobuyuki
  • Hosgood, H. Dean
  • Hostiuc, Sorin
  • Hoy, Damian G
  • Hsairi, Mohamed
  • Hu, Guoqing
  • Huang, John J
  • Huang, Hsiang
  • Ibrahim, Norlinah Mohamed
  • Iburg, Kim Moesgaard
  • Ikeda, Chad
  • Inoue, Manami
  • Irvine, Caleb Mackay Salpeter
  • Jackson, Maria Delores
  • Jacobsen, Kathryn H
  • Jahanmehr, Nader
  • Jakovljevic, Mihajlo B.
  • Jauregui, Alejandra
  • Javanbakht, Mehdi
  • Jeemon, Panniyammakal
  • Johansson, Lars R.K.
  • Johnson, Catherine O.
ispartof: The Lancet Global Health, 2017, Vol.390(10100), pp.1345-109x
description: Background The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016 (GBD 2016) provides a comprehensive assessment of risk factor exposure and attributable burden of disease. By providing estimates over a long time series, this study can monitor risk exposure trends critical to health surveillance and inform policy debates on the importance of addressing risks in context. Methods We used the comparative risk assessment framework developed for previous iterations of GBD to estimate levels and trends in exposure, attributable deaths, and attributable disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), by age group, sex, year, and location for 84 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks from 1990 to 2016. This study included 481 risk-outcome pairs that met the GBD study criteria for convincing or probable evidence of causation. We extracted relative risk (RR) and exposure estimates from 22 717 randomised controlled trials, cohorts, pooled cohorts, household surveys, census data, satellite data, and other sources, according to the GBD 2016 source counting methods. Using the counterfactual scenario of theoretical minimum risk exposure level (TMREL), we estimated the portion of deaths and DALYs that could be attributed to a given risk. Finally, we explored four drivers of trends in attributable burden: population growth, population ageing, trends in risk exposure, and all other factors combined. Findings Since 1990, exposure increased significantly for 30 risks, did not change significantly for four risks, and decreased significantly for 31 risks. Among risks that are leading causes of burden of disease, child growth failure and household air pollution showed the most significant declines, while metabolic risks, such as body-mass index and high fasting plasma glucose, showed significant increases. In 2016, at Level 3 of the hierarchy, the three leading risk factors in terms of attributable DALYs at the global level for men were smoking (124·1 million DALYs [95% UI 111·2 million to 137·0 million]), high systolic blood pressure (122·2 million DALYs [110·3 million to 133·3 million], and low birthweight and short gestation (83·0 million DALYs [78·3 million to 87·7 million]), and for women, were high systolic blood pressure (89·9 million DALYs [80·9 million to 98·2 million]), high body-mass index (64·8 million DALYs [44·4 million to 87·6 million]), and high fasting plasma glucose (63·8 million DALYs [53·2 million to 76·3 m
language: eng
source: NARCIS (National Academic Research and Collaborations Information System)
identifier: ISSN: ; ISSN: 2214-109X
fulltext: fulltext_linktorsrc
issn:
  • 2214-109x
url: Link


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titleGlobal, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 84 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks, 1990–2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016
creatorAbajobir, Amanuel Alemu ; Abate, Kalkidan Hassen ; Abbafati, Cristiana ; Abbas, Kaja M. ; Abd-Allah, Foad ; Abdulle, Abdishakur M. ; Abera, Semaw Ferede ; Aboyans, Victor ; Abu-Raddad, Laith J. ; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M E ; Abyu, Gebre Yitayih ; Adedeji, Isaac Akinkunmi ; Adetokunboh, Olatunji ; Afarideh, Mohsen ; Afshin, Ashkan ; Agrawal, Anurag ; Agrawal, Sutapa ; Ahmadieh, Hamid ; Ahmed, Muktar Beshir ; Aichour, Miloud Taki Eddine ; Aichour, Amani Nidhal ; Aichour, Ibtihel ; Akinyemi, Rufus Olusola ; Akseer, Nadia ; Alahdab, Fares ; Al-Aly, Ziyad ; Alam, Khurshid ; Alam, Noore ; Alam, Tahiya ; Alasfoor, Deena ; Alene, Kefyalew Addis ; Ali, Komal ; Alizadeh-Navaei, Reza ; Alkerwi, Ala'a ; Alla, François ; Allebeck, Peter ; Al-Raddadi, Rajaa ; Alsharif, Ubai ; Altirkawi, Khalid A. ; Alvis-Guzman, Nelson ; Amare, Azmeraw T ; Amini, Erfan ; Ammar, Walid ; Amoako, Yaw Ampem ; Ansari, Hossein ; Antó, Josep M. ; Antonio, Carl Abelardo T ; Anwari, Palwasha ; Arian, Nicholas ; Ärnlöv, Johan ; Artaman, Al ; Aryal, Krishna Kumar ; Asayesh, Hamid ; Asgedom, Solomon Weldegebreal ; Atey, Tesfay Mehari ; Avila-Burgos, Leticia ; Avokpaho, Euripide Frinel G.Arthur ; Awasthi, Ashish ; Azzopardi, Peter ; Bacha, Umar ; Badawi, Alaa ; Balakrishnan, Kalpana ; Ballew, Shoshana H. ; Barac, Aleksandra ; Barber, Ryan M ; Barker-Collo, Suzanne L ; Bärnighausen, Till ; Barquera, Simon ; Barregard, Lars ; Barrero, Lope H ; Batis, Carolina ; Battle, Katherine E. ; Baumgarner, Blair R. ; Baune, Bernhard T. ; Beardsley, Justin ; Bedi, Neeraj ; Beghi, Ettore ; Bell, Michelle L ; Bennett, Derrick A ; Bennett, James R. ; Bensenor, Isabela M. ; Berhane, Adugnaw ; Berhe, Derbew Fikadu ; Bernabé, Eduardo ; Betsu, Balem Demtsu ; Beuran, Mircea ; Beyene, Addisu Shunu ; Bhansali, Anil ; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A ; Bicer, Burcu Kucuk ; Bikbov, Boris ; Birungi, Charles ; Biryukov, Stan ; Blosser, Christopher D. ; Boneya, Dube Jara ; Bou-Orm, Ibrahim R. ; Brauer, Michael ; Breitborde, Nicholas J.K. ; Brenner, Hermann ; Brugha, Traolach S ; Bulto, Lemma Negesa Bulto ; Butt, Zahid A. ; Cahuana-Hurtado, Lucero ; Cárdenas, Rosario ; Carrero, Juan Jesus ; Castañeda-Orjuela, Carlos A ; Catalá-López, Ferrán ; Cercy, Kelly ; Chang, Hsing Yi ; Charlson, Fiona J ; Chimed-Ochir, Odgerel ; Chisumpa, Vesper Hichilombwe ; Chitheer, Abdulaal A. ; Christensen, Hanne ; Christopher, Devasahayam Jesudas ; Cirillo, Massimo ; Cohen, Aaron J ; Comfort, Haley ; Cooper, Cyrus ; Coresh, Josef ; Cornaby, Leslie ; Cortesi, Paolo Angelo ; Criqui, Michael H ; Crump, John A ; Dandona, Lalit ; Dandona, Rakhi ; das Neves, José ; Davey, Gail ; Davitoiu, Dragos V ; Davletov, Kairat ; de Courten, Barbora ; Defo, Barthelemy Kuate ; Degenhardt, Louisa ; Deiparine, Selina ; Dellavalle, Robert P ; Deribe, Kebede ; Deshpande, Aniruddha ; Dharmaratne, Samath D ; Ding, Eric L ; Djalalinia, Shirin ; Do, Huyen Phuc ; Dokova, Klara ; Doku, David Teye ; Donkelaar, Aaron van ; Dorsey, E Ray ; Driscoll, Tim R ; Dubey, Manisha ; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow ; Duncan, Sarah ; Ebrahimi, Hedyeh ; El-Khatib, Ziad Ziad ; Enayati, Ahmadali ; Endries, Aman Yesuf ; Ermakov, Sergey Petrovich ; Erskine, Holly E ; Eshrati, Babak ; Eskandarieh, Sharareh ; Esteghamati, Alireza ; Estep, Kara ; Faraon, Emerito Jose Aquino ; Farinha, Carla Sofia e.Sa ; Faro, André ; Farzadfar, Farshad ; Fay, Kairsten ; Feigin, Valery L ; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad ; Fernandes, João C. ; Ferrari, Alize J ; Feyissa, Tesfaye Regassa ; Filip, Irina ; Fischer, Florian ; Fitzmaurice, Christina ; Flaxman, Abraham D ; Foigt, Nataliya ; Foreman, Kyle J ; Frostad, Joseph J ; Fullman, Nancy ; Fürst, Thomas ; Furtado, Joao M. ; Gakidou, Emmanuela ; Ganji, Morsaleh ; Garcia-Basteiro, Alberto L. ; Gebrehiwot, Tsegaye Tewelde ; Geleijnse, Johanna M. ; Geleto, Ayele ; Gemechu, Bikila Lencha ; Gesesew, Hailay Abrha ; Gething, Peter W. ; Ghajar, Alireza ; Gibney, Katherine B ; Gill, Paramjit Singh ; Gillum, Richard F ; Giref, Ababi Zergaw ; Gishu, Melkamu Dedefo ; Giussani, Giorgia ; Godwin, William W. ; Gona, Philimon N. ; Goodridge, Amador ; Gopalani, Sameer Vali ; Goryakin, Yevgeniy ; Goulart, Alessandra Carvalho ; Graetz, Nicholas ; Gugnani, Harish Chander ; Guo, Jingwen ; Gupta, Rajeev ; Gupta, Tanush ; Gupta, Vipin ; Gutiérrez, Reyna A ; Hachinski, Vladimir ; Hafezi-Nejad, Nima ; Hailu, Gessessew Bugssa ; Hamadeh, Randah Ribhi ; Hamidi, Samer ; Hammami, Mouhanad ; Handal, Alexis J. ; Hankey, Graeme J. ; Hanson, Sarah Wulf ; Harb, Hilda L ; Hareri, Habtamu Abera ; Hassanvand, Mohammad Sadegh ; Havmoeller, Rasmus ; Hawley, Caitlin ; Hay, Simon I ; Hedayati, Mohammad T ; Hendrie, Delia ; Heredia-Pi, Ileana Beatriz ; Hernandez, Julio Cesar Montañez ; Hoek, Hans W ; Horita, Nobuyuki ; Hosgood, H. Dean ; Hostiuc, Sorin ; Hoy, Damian G ; Hsairi, Mohamed ; Hu, Guoqing ; Huang, John J ; Huang, Hsiang ; Ibrahim, Norlinah Mohamed ; Iburg, Kim Moesgaard ; Ikeda, Chad ; Inoue, Manami ; Irvine, Caleb Mackay Salpeter ; Jackson, Maria Delores ; Jacobsen, Kathryn H ; Jahanmehr, Nader ; Jakovljevic, Mihajlo B. ; Jauregui, Alejandra ; Javanbakht, Mehdi ; Jeemon, Panniyammakal ; Johansson, Lars R.K. ; Johnson, Catherine O.
ispartofThe Lancet Global Health, 2017, Vol.390(10100), pp.1345-109x
identifierISSN: ; ISSN: 2214-109X
descriptionBackground The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016 (GBD 2016) provides a comprehensive assessment of risk factor exposure and attributable burden of disease. By providing estimates over a long time series, this study can monitor risk exposure trends critical to health surveillance and inform policy debates on the importance of addressing risks in context. Methods We used the comparative risk assessment framework developed for previous iterations of GBD to estimate levels and trends in exposure, attributable deaths, and attributable disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), by age group, sex, year, and location for 84 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks from 1990 to 2016. This study included 481 risk-outcome pairs that met the GBD study criteria for convincing or probable evidence of causation. We extracted relative risk (RR) and exposure estimates from 22 717 randomised controlled trials, cohorts, pooled cohorts, household surveys, census data, satellite data, and other sources, according to the GBD 2016 source counting methods. Using the counterfactual scenario of theoretical minimum risk exposure level (TMREL), we estimated the portion of deaths and DALYs that could be attributed to a given risk. Finally, we explored four drivers of trends in attributable burden: population growth, population ageing, trends in risk exposure, and all other factors combined. Findings Since 1990, exposure increased significantly for 30 risks, did not change significantly for four risks, and decreased significantly for 31 risks. Among risks that are leading causes of burden of disease, child growth failure and household air pollution showed the most significant declines, while metabolic risks, such as body-mass index and high fasting plasma glucose, showed significant increases. In 2016, at Level 3 of the hierarchy, the three leading risk factors in terms of attributable DALYs at the global level for men were smoking (124·1 million DALYs [95% UI 111·2 million to 137·0 million]), high systolic blood pressure (122·2 million DALYs [110·3 million to 133·3 million], and low birthweight and short gestation (83·0 million DALYs [78·3 million to 87·7 million]), and for women, were high systolic blood pressure (89·9 million DALYs [80·9 million to 98·2 million]), high body-mass index (64·8 million DALYs [44·4 million to 87·6 million]), and high fasting plasma glucose (63·8 million DALYs [53·2 million to 76·3 million]). In 2016 in 113 countries, the leading risk factor in terms of attributable DALYs was a metabolic risk factor. Smoking remained among the leading five risk factors for DALYs for 109 countries, while low birthweight and short gestation was the leading risk factor for DALYs in 38 countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. In terms of important drivers of change in trends of burden attributable to risk factors, between 2006 and 2016 exposure to risks explains an 9·3% (6·9–11·6) decline in deaths and a 10·8% (8·3–13·1) decrease in DALYs at the global level, while population ageing accounts for 14·9% (12·7–17·5) of deaths and 6·2% (3·9–8·7) of DALYs, and population growth for 12·4% (10·1–14·9) of deaths and 12·4% (10·1–14·9) of DALYs. The largest contribution of trends in risk exposure to disease burden is seen between ages 1 year and 4 years, where a decline of 27·3% (24·9–29·7) of the change in DALYs between 2006 and 2016 can be attributed to declines in exposure to risks. Interpretation Increasingly detailed understanding of the trends in risk exposure and the RRs for each risk-outcome pair provide insights into both the magnitude of health loss attributable to risks and how modification of risk exposure has contributed to health trends. Metabolic risks warrant particular policy attention, due to their large contribution to global disease burden, increasing trends, and variable patterns across countries at the same level of development. GBD 2016 findings show that, while it has huge potential to improve health, risk modification has played a relatively small part in the past decade. Funding The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Bloomberg Philanthropies.
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0Abajobir, Amanuel Alemu
1Abate, Kalkidan Hassen
2Abbafati, Cristiana
3Abbas, Kaja M.
4Abd-Allah, Foad
5Abdulle, Abdishakur M.
6Abera, Semaw Ferede
7Aboyans, Victor
8Abu-Raddad, Laith J.
9Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M E
10Abyu, Gebre Yitayih
11Adedeji, Isaac Akinkunmi
12Adetokunboh, Olatunji
13Afarideh, Mohsen
14Afshin, Ashkan
15Agrawal, Anurag
16Agrawal, Sutapa
17Ahmadieh, Hamid
18Ahmed, Muktar Beshir
19Aichour, Miloud Taki Eddine
20Aichour, Amani Nidhal
21Aichour, Ibtihel
22Akinyemi, Rufus Olusola
23Akseer, Nadia
24Alahdab, Fares
25Al-Aly, Ziyad
26Alam, Khurshid
27Alam, Noore
28Alam, Tahiya
29Alasfoor, Deena
30Alene, Kefyalew Addis
31Ali, Komal
32Alizadeh-Navaei, Reza
33Alkerwi, Ala'a
34Alla, François
35Allebeck, Peter
36Al-Raddadi, Rajaa
37Alsharif, Ubai
38Altirkawi, Khalid A.
39Alvis-Guzman, Nelson
40Amare, Azmeraw T
41Amini, Erfan
42Ammar, Walid
43Amoako, Yaw Ampem
44Ansari, Hossein
45Antó, Josep M.
46Antonio, Carl Abelardo T
47Anwari, Palwasha
48Arian, Nicholas
49Ärnlöv, Johan
50Artaman, Al
51Aryal, Krishna Kumar
52Asayesh, Hamid
53Asgedom, Solomon Weldegebreal
54Atey, Tesfay Mehari
55Avila-Burgos, Leticia
56Avokpaho, Euripide Frinel G.Arthur
57Awasthi, Ashish
58Azzopardi, Peter
59Bacha, Umar
60Badawi, Alaa
61Balakrishnan, Kalpana
62Ballew, Shoshana H.
63Barac, Aleksandra
64Barber, Ryan M
65Barker-Collo, Suzanne L
66Bärnighausen, Till
67Barquera, Simon
68Barregard, Lars
69Barrero, Lope H
70Batis, Carolina
71Battle, Katherine E.
72Baumgarner, Blair R.
73Baune, Bernhard T.
74Beardsley, Justin
75Bedi, Neeraj
76Beghi, Ettore
77Bell, Michelle L
78Bennett, Derrick A
79Bennett, James R.
80Bensenor, Isabela M.
81Berhane, Adugnaw
82Berhe, Derbew Fikadu
83Bernabé, Eduardo
84Betsu, Balem Demtsu
85Beuran, Mircea
86Beyene, Addisu Shunu
87Bhansali, Anil
88Bhutta, Zulfiqar A
89Bicer, Burcu Kucuk
90Bikbov, Boris
91Birungi, Charles
92Biryukov, Stan
93Blosser, Christopher D.
94Boneya, Dube Jara
95Bou-Orm, Ibrahim R.
96Brauer, Michael
97Breitborde, Nicholas J.K.
98Brenner, Hermann
99Brugha, Traolach S
100...
titleGlobal, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 84 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks, 1990–2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016
descriptionBackground The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016 (GBD 2016) provides a comprehensive assessment of risk factor exposure and attributable burden of disease. By providing estimates over a long time series, this study can monitor risk exposure trends critical to health surveillance and inform policy debates on the importance of addressing risks in context. Methods We used the comparative risk assessment framework developed for previous iterations of GBD to estimate levels and trends in exposure, attributable deaths, and attributable disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), by age group, sex, year, and location for 84 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks from 1990 to 2016. This study included 481 risk-outcome pairs that met the GBD study criteria for convincing or probable evidence of causation. We extracted relative risk (RR) and exposure estimates from 22 717 randomised controlled trials, cohorts, pooled cohorts, household surveys, census data, satellite data, and other sources, according to the GBD 2016 source counting methods. Using the counterfactual scenario of theoretical minimum risk exposure level (TMREL), we estimated the portion of deaths and DALYs that could be attributed to a given risk. Finally, we explored four drivers of trends in attributable burden: population growth, population ageing, trends in risk exposure, and all other factors combined. Findings Since 1990, exposure increased significantly for 30 risks, did not change significantly for four risks, and decreased significantly for 31 risks. Among risks that are leading causes of burden of disease, child growth failure and household air pollution showed the most significant declines, while metabolic risks, such as body-mass index and high fasting plasma glucose, showed significant increases. In 2016, at Level 3 of the hierarchy, the three leading risk factors in terms of attributable DALYs at the global level for men were smoking (124·1 million DALYs [95% UI 111·2 million to 137·0 million]), high systolic blood pressure (122·2 million DALYs [110·3 million to 133·3 million], and low birthweight and short gestation (83·0 million DALYs [78·3 million to 87·7 million]), and for women, were high systolic blood pressure (89·9 million DALYs [80·9 million to 98·2 million]), high body-mass index (64·8 million DALYs [44·4 million to 87·6 million]), and high fasting plasma glucose (63·8 million DALYs [53·2 million to 76·3 million]). In 2016 in 113 countries, the leading risk factor in terms of attributable DALYs was a metabolic risk factor. Smoking remained among the leading five risk factors for DALYs for 109 countries, while low birthweight and short gestation was the leading risk factor for DALYs in 38 countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. In terms of important drivers of change in trends of burden attributable to risk factors, between 2006 and 2016 exposure to risks explains an 9·3% (6·9–11·6) decline in deaths and a 10·8% (8·3–13·1) decrease in DALYs at the global level, while population ageing accounts for 14·9% (12·7–17·5) of deaths and 6·2% (3·9–8·7) of DALYs, and population growth for 12·4% (10·1–14·9) of deaths and 12·4% (10·1–14·9) of DALYs. The largest contribution of trends in risk exposure to disease burden is seen between ages 1 year and 4 years, where a decline of 27·3% (24·9–29·7) of the change in DALYs between 2006 and 2016 can be attributed to declines in exposure to risks. Interpretation Increasingly detailed understanding of the trends in risk exposure and the RRs for each risk-outcome pair provide insights into both the magnitude of health loss attributable to risks and how modification of risk exposure has contributed to health trends. Metabolic risks warrant particular policy attention, due to their large contribution to global disease burden, increasing trends, and variable patterns across countries at the same level of development. GBD 2016 findings show that, while it has huge potential to improve health, risk modification has played a relatively small part in the past decade. Funding The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Bloomberg Philanthropies.
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2NARCIS (Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences)
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titleGlobal, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 84 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks, 1990–2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016
authorAbajobir, Amanuel Alemu ; Abate, Kalkidan Hassen ; Abbafati, Cristiana ; Abbas, Kaja M. ; Abd-Allah, Foad ; Abdulle, Abdishakur M. ; Abera, Semaw Ferede ; Aboyans, Victor ; Abu-Raddad, Laith J. ; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M E ; Abyu, Gebre Yitayih ; Adedeji, Isaac Akinkunmi ; Adetokunboh, Olatunji ; Afarideh, Mohsen ; Afshin, Ashkan ; Agrawal, Anurag ; Agrawal, Sutapa ; Ahmadieh, Hamid ; Ahmed, Muktar Beshir ; Aichour, Miloud Taki Eddine ; Aichour, Amani Nidhal ; Aichour, Ibtihel ; Akinyemi, Rufus Olusola ; Akseer, Nadia ; Alahdab, Fares ; Al-Aly, Ziyad ; Alam, Khurshid ; Alam, Noore ; Alam, Tahiya ; Alasfoor, Deena ; Alene, Kefyalew Addis ; Ali, Komal ; Alizadeh-Navaei, Reza ; Alkerwi, Ala'a ; Alla, François ; Allebeck, Peter ; Al-Raddadi, Rajaa ; Alsharif, Ubai ; Altirkawi, Khalid A. ; Alvis-Guzman, Nelson ; Amare, Azmeraw T ; Amini, Erfan ; Ammar, Walid ; Amoako, Yaw Ampem ; Ansari, Hossein ; Antó, Josep M. ; Antonio, Carl Abelardo T ; Anwari, Palwasha ; Arian, Nicholas ; Ärnlöv, Johan ; Artaman, Al ; Aryal, Krishna Kumar ; Asayesh, Hamid ; Asgedom, Solomon Weldegebreal ; Atey, Tesfay Mehari ; Avila-Burgos, Leticia ; Avokpaho, Euripide Frinel G.Arthur ; Awasthi, Ashish ; Azzopardi, Peter ; Bacha, Umar ; Badawi, Alaa ; Balakrishnan, Kalpana ; Ballew, Shoshana H. ; Barac, Aleksandra ; Barber, Ryan M ; Barker-Collo, Suzanne L ; Bärnighausen, Till ; Barquera, Simon ; Barregard, Lars ; Barrero, Lope H ; Batis, Carolina ; Battle, Katherine E. ; Baumgarner, Blair R. ; Baune, Bernhard T. ; Beardsley, Justin ; Bedi, Neeraj ; Beghi, Ettore ; Bell, Michelle L ; Bennett, Derrick A ; Bennett, James R. ; Bensenor, Isabela M. ; Berhane, Adugnaw ; Berhe, Derbew Fikadu ; Bernabé, Eduardo ; Betsu, Balem Demtsu ; Beuran, Mircea ; Beyene, Addisu Shunu ; Bhansali, Anil ; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A ; Bicer, Burcu Kucuk ; Bikbov, Boris ; Birungi, Charles ; Biryukov, Stan ; Blosser, Christopher D. ; Boneya, Dube Jara ; Bou-Orm, Ibrahim R. ; Brauer, Michael ; Breitborde, Nicholas J.K. ; Brenner, Hermann ; Brugha, Traolach S ; Bulto, Lemma Negesa Bulto ; Butt, Zahid A. ; Cahuana-Hurtado, Lucero ; Cárdenas, Rosario ; Carrero, Juan Jesus ; Castañeda-Orjuela, Carlos A ; Catalá-López, Ferrán ; Cercy, Kelly ; Chang, Hsing Yi ; Charlson, Fiona J ; Chimed-Ochir, Odgerel ; Chisumpa, Vesper Hichilombwe ; Chitheer, Abdulaal A. ; Christensen, Hanne ; Christopher, Devasahayam Jesudas ; Cirillo, Massimo ; Cohen, Aaron J ; Comfort, Haley ; Cooper, Cyrus ; Coresh, Josef ; Cornaby, Leslie ; Cortesi, Paolo Angelo ; Criqui, Michael H ; Crump, John A ; Dandona, Lalit ; Dandona, Rakhi ; das Neves, José ; Davey, Gail ; Davitoiu, Dragos V ; Davletov, Kairat ; de Courten, Barbora ; Defo, Barthelemy Kuate ; Degenhardt, Louisa ; Deiparine, Selina ; Dellavalle, Robert P ; Deribe, Kebede ; Deshpande, Aniruddha ; Dharmaratne, Samath D ; Ding, Eric L ; Djalalinia, Shirin ; Do, Huyen Phuc ; Dokova, Klara ; Doku, David Teye ; Donkelaar, Aaron van ; Dorsey, E Ray ; Driscoll, Tim R ; Dubey, Manisha ; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow ; Duncan, Sarah ; Ebrahimi, Hedyeh ; El-Khatib, Ziad Ziad ; Enayati, Ahmadali ; Endries, Aman Yesuf ; Ermakov, Sergey Petrovich ; Erskine, Holly E ; Eshrati, Babak ; Eskandarieh, Sharareh ; Esteghamati, Alireza ; Estep, Kara ; Faraon, Emerito Jose Aquino ; Farinha, Carla Sofia e.Sa ; Faro, André ; Farzadfar, Farshad ; Fay, Kairsten ; Feigin, Valery L ; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad ; Fernandes, João C. ; Ferrari, Alize J ; Feyissa, Tesfaye Regassa ; Filip, Irina ; Fischer, Florian ; Fitzmaurice, Christina ; Flaxman, Abraham D ; Foigt, Nataliya ; Foreman, Kyle J ; Frostad, Joseph J ; Fullman, Nancy ; Fürst, Thomas ; Furtado, Joao M. ; Gakidou, Emmanuela ; Ganji, Morsaleh ; Garcia-Basteiro, Alberto L. ; Gebrehiwot, Tsegaye Tewelde ; Geleijnse, Johanna M. ; Geleto, Ayele ; Gemechu, Bikila Lencha ; Gesesew, Hailay Abrha ; Gething, Peter W. ; Ghajar, Alireza ; Gibney, Katherine B ; Gill, Paramjit Singh ; Gillum, Richard F ; Giref, Ababi Zergaw ; Gishu, Melkamu Dedefo ; Giussani, Giorgia ; Godwin, William W. ; Gona, Philimon N. ; Goodridge, Amador ; Gopalani, Sameer Vali ; Goryakin, Yevgeniy ; Goulart, Alessandra Carvalho ; Graetz, Nicholas ; Gugnani, Harish Chander ; Guo, Jingwen ; Gupta, Rajeev ; Gupta, Tanush ; Gupta, Vipin ; Gutiérrez, Reyna A ; Hachinski, Vladimir ; Hafezi-Nejad, Nima ; Hailu, Gessessew Bugssa ; Hamadeh, Randah Ribhi ; Hamidi, Samer ; Hammami, Mouhanad ; Handal, Alexis J. ; Hankey, Graeme J. ; Hanson, Sarah Wulf ; Harb, Hilda L ; Hareri, Habtamu Abera ; Hassanvand, Mohammad Sadegh ; Havmoeller, Rasmus ; Hawley, Caitlin ; Hay, Simon I ; Hedayati, Mohammad T ; Hendrie, Delia ; Heredia-Pi, Ileana Beatriz ; Hernandez, Julio Cesar Montañez ; Hoek, Hans W ; Horita, Nobuyuki ; Hosgood, H. Dean ; Hostiuc, Sorin ; Hoy, Damian G ; Hsairi, Mohamed ; Hu, Guoqing ; Huang, John J ; Huang, Hsiang ; Ibrahim, Norlinah Mohamed ; Iburg, Kim Moesgaard ; Ikeda, Chad ; Inoue, Manami ; Irvine, Caleb Mackay Salpeter ; Jackson, Maria Delores ; Jacobsen, Kathryn H ; Jahanmehr, Nader ; Jakovljevic, Mihajlo B. ; Jauregui, Alejandra ; Javanbakht, Mehdi ; Jeemon, Panniyammakal ; Johansson, Lars R.K. ; Johnson, Catherine O.
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0Abajobir, Amanuel Alemu
1Abate, Kalkidan Hassen
2Abbafati, Cristiana
3Abbas, Kaja M.
4Abd-Allah, Foad
5Abdulle, Abdishakur M.
6Abera, Semaw Ferede
7Aboyans, Victor
8Abu-Raddad, Laith J.
9Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M E
10Abyu, Gebre Yitayih
11Adedeji, Isaac Akinkunmi
12Adetokunboh, Olatunji
13Afarideh, Mohsen
14Afshin, Ashkan
15Agrawal, Anurag
16Agrawal, Sutapa
17Ahmadieh, Hamid
18Ahmed, Muktar Beshir
19Aichour, Miloud Taki Eddine
20Aichour, Amani Nidhal
21Aichour, Ibtihel
22Akinyemi, Rufus Olusola
23Akseer, Nadia
24Alahdab, Fares
25Al-Aly, Ziyad
26Alam, Khurshid
27Alam, Noore
28Alam, Tahiya
29Alasfoor, Deena
30Alene, Kefyalew Addis
31Ali, Komal
32Alizadeh-Navaei, Reza
33Alkerwi, Ala'a
34Alla, François
35Allebeck, Peter
36Al-Raddadi, Rajaa
37Alsharif, Ubai
38Altirkawi, Khalid A.
39Alvis-Guzman, Nelson
40Amare, Azmeraw T
41Amini, Erfan
42Ammar, Walid
43Amoako, Yaw Ampem
44Ansari, Hossein
45Antó, Josep M.
46Antonio, Carl Abelardo T
47Anwari, Palwasha
48Arian, Nicholas
49Ärnlöv, Johan
50Artaman, Al
51Aryal, Krishna Kumar
52Asayesh, Hamid
53Asgedom, Solomon Weldegebreal
54Atey, Tesfay Mehari
55Avila-Burgos, Leticia
56Avokpaho, Euripide Frinel G.Arthur
57Awasthi, Ashish
58Azzopardi, Peter
59Bacha, Umar
60Badawi, Alaa
61Balakrishnan, Kalpana
62Ballew, Shoshana H.
63Barac, Aleksandra
64Barber, Ryan M
65Barker-Collo, Suzanne L
66Bärnighausen, Till
67Barquera, Simon
68Barregard, Lars
69Barrero, Lope H
70Batis, Carolina
71Battle, Katherine E.
72Baumgarner, Blair R.
73Baune, Bernhard T.
74Beardsley, Justin
75Bedi, Neeraj
76Beghi, Ettore
77Bell, Michelle L
78Bennett, Derrick A
79Bennett, James R.
80Bensenor, Isabela M.
81Berhane, Adugnaw
82Berhe, Derbew Fikadu
83Bernabé, Eduardo
84Betsu, Balem Demtsu
85Beuran, Mircea
86Beyene, Addisu Shunu
87Bhansali, Anil
88Bhutta, Zulfiqar A
89Bicer, Burcu Kucuk
90Bikbov, Boris
91Birungi, Charles
92Biryukov, Stan
93Blosser, Christopher D.
94Boneya, Dube Jara
95Bou-Orm, Ibrahim R.
96Brauer, Michael
97Breitborde, Nicholas J.K.
98Brenner, Hermann
99Brugha, Traolach S
100...
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0Abajobir, Amanuel Alemu
1Abate, Kalkidan Hassen
2Abbafati, Cristiana
3Abbas, Kaja M.
4Abd-Allah, Foad
5Abdulle, Abdishakur M.
6Abera, Semaw Ferede
7Aboyans, Victor
8Abu-Raddad, Laith J.
9Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M E
10Abyu, Gebre Yitayih
11Adedeji, Isaac Akinkunmi
12Adetokunboh, Olatunji
13Afarideh, Mohsen
14Afshin, Ashkan
15Agrawal, Anurag
16Agrawal, Sutapa
17Ahmadieh, Hamid
18Ahmed, Muktar Beshir
19Aichour, Miloud Taki Eddine
20Aichour, Amani Nidhal
21Aichour, Ibtihel
22Akinyemi, Rufus Olusola
23Akseer, Nadia
24Alahdab, Fares
25Al-Aly, Ziyad
26Alam, Khurshid
27Alam, Noore
28Alam, Tahiya
29Alasfoor, Deena
30Alene, Kefyalew Addis
31Ali, Komal
32Alizadeh-Navaei, Reza
33Alkerwi, Ala'a
34Alla, François
35Allebeck, Peter
36Al-Raddadi, Rajaa
37Alsharif, Ubai
38Altirkawi, Khalid A.
39Alvis-Guzman, Nelson
40Amare, Azmeraw T
41Amini, Erfan
42Ammar, Walid
43Amoako, Yaw Ampem
44Ansari, Hossein
45Antó, Josep M.
46Antonio, Carl Abelardo T
47Anwari, Palwasha
48Arian, Nicholas
49Ärnlöv, Johan
50Artaman, Al
51Aryal, Krishna Kumar
52Asayesh, Hamid
53Asgedom, Solomon Weldegebreal
54Atey, Tesfay Mehari
55Avila-Burgos, Leticia
56Avokpaho, Euripide Frinel G.Arthur
57Awasthi, Ashish
58Azzopardi, Peter
59Bacha, Umar
60Badawi, Alaa
61Balakrishnan, Kalpana
62Ballew, Shoshana H.
63Barac, Aleksandra
64Barber, Ryan M
65Barker-Collo, Suzanne L
66Bärnighausen, Till
67Barquera, Simon
68Barregard, Lars
69Barrero, Lope H
70Batis, Carolina
71Battle, Katherine E.
72Baumgarner, Blair R.
73Baune, Bernhard T.
74Beardsley, Justin
75Bedi, Neeraj
76Beghi, Ettore
77Bell, Michelle L
78Bennett, Derrick A
79Bennett, James R.
80Bensenor, Isabela M.
81Berhane, Adugnaw
82Berhe, Derbew Fikadu
83Bernabé, Eduardo
84Betsu, Balem Demtsu
85Beuran, Mircea
86Beyene, Addisu Shunu
87Bhansali, Anil
88Bhutta, Zulfiqar A
89Bicer, Burcu Kucuk
90Bikbov, Boris
91Birungi, Charles
92Biryukov, Stan
93Blosser, Christopher D.
94Boneya, Dube Jara
95Bou-Orm, Ibrahim R.
96Brauer, Michael
97Breitborde, Nicholas J.K.
98Brenner, Hermann
99Brugha, Traolach S
100...
atitleGlobal, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 84 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks, 1990–2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016
jtitleThe Lancet Global Health
risdate20170916
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issue10100
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date2017-09-16