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Beyond Established and Novel Risk Factors: Lifestyle Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease

Dyslipidemia, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus have been appropriately highlighted as established predictors of cardiovascular disease. These risk factors have become preeminent targets for influencing cardiovascular risk; their assessment, treatment, and monitoring are major emphases of clinical... Full description

Journal Title: Circulation 2008, Vol.117(23), pp.3031-3038
Main Author: Mozaffarian, W.F., Dariush
Other Authors: Wilson, B., Peter , Kannel, B., William
Format: Electronic Article Electronic Article
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ID: ISSN: 0009-7322 ; DOI: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.107.738732
Link: http://ovidsp.ovid.com/ovidweb.cgi?T=JS&NEWS=n&CSC=Y&PAGE=fulltext&D=ovft&AN=00003017-200806100-00012
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recordid: ovid00003017-200806100-00012
title: Beyond Established and Novel Risk Factors: Lifestyle Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease
format: Article
creator:
  • Mozaffarian, W.F., Dariush
  • Wilson, B., Peter
  • Kannel, B., William
subjects:
  • Medicine
  • Anatomy & Physiology
ispartof: Circulation, 2008, Vol.117(23), pp.3031-3038
description: Dyslipidemia, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus have been appropriately highlighted as established predictors of cardiovascular disease. These risk factors have become preeminent targets for influencing cardiovascular risk; their assessment, treatment, and monitoring are major emphases of clinical care, research investigation, treatment guidelines, organization position papers, and measures of physician and hospital performance. Notably, lifestyle risk factors, including dietary habits, physical inactivity, smoking, and adiposity, strongly influence the established cardiovascular risk factors and also affect novel pathways of risk such as inflammation/oxidative stress, endothelial function, thrombosis/coagulation, and arrhythmia. Furthermore, modest alterations of these lifestyle risk factors are achievable and have substantial effects on cardiovascular risk. Thus, basic lifestyle habits should be considered fundamental risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Although efforts to combat established and novel risk factors with pharmacological treatments are important and should continue, we call for a systematic rebalancing of current research, clinical care, and policy efforts to focus more on lifestyle. The rising costs of healthcare and the epidemics of overweight and obesity highlight the inadequacies of our current strategy. Substantially more resources should be directed toward research on lifestyle risk factors, their determinants, and effective interventions to change them. The clinical evaluation and treatment of dietary, physical activity, and smoking habits must become as routine and familiar as assessment of blood pressure, cholesterol, and glucose levels. Major policy initiatives and reimbursement guidelines must also be rebalanced to emphasize lifestyle risk factors. Cardiovascular diseases are leading causes of death and disability among men and women in nearly all nations.1 Identification of persons at higher or lower risk for cardiovascular events is important to facilitate effective use of resources and interventions to reduce disease burden among individuals and in society. Each of the established risk factors for cardiovascular disease—age, gender, dyslipidemia, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and smoking—have been appropriately highlighted …
language:
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identifier: ISSN: 0009-7322 ; DOI: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.107.738732
fulltext: fulltext
issn:
  • 0009-7322
  • 00097322
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descriptionDyslipidemia, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus have been appropriately highlighted as established predictors of cardiovascular disease. These risk factors have become preeminent targets for influencing cardiovascular risk; their assessment, treatment, and monitoring are major emphases of clinical care, research investigation, treatment guidelines, organization position papers, and measures of physician and hospital performance. Notably, lifestyle risk factors, including dietary habits, physical inactivity, smoking, and adiposity, strongly influence the established cardiovascular risk factors and also affect novel pathways of risk such as inflammation/oxidative stress, endothelial function, thrombosis/coagulation, and arrhythmia. Furthermore, modest alterations of these lifestyle risk factors are achievable and have substantial effects on cardiovascular risk. Thus, basic lifestyle habits should be considered fundamental risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Although efforts to combat established and novel risk factors with pharmacological treatments are important and should continue, we call for a systematic rebalancing of current research, clinical care, and policy efforts to focus more on lifestyle. The rising costs of healthcare and the epidemics of overweight and obesity highlight the inadequacies of our current strategy. Substantially more resources should be directed toward research on lifestyle risk factors, their determinants, and effective interventions to change them. The clinical evaluation and treatment of dietary, physical activity, and smoking habits must become as routine and familiar as assessment of blood pressure, cholesterol, and glucose levels. Major policy initiatives and reimbursement guidelines must also be rebalanced to emphasize lifestyle risk factors. Cardiovascular diseases are leading causes of death and disability among men and women in nearly all nations.1 Identification of persons at higher or lower risk for cardiovascular events is important to facilitate effective use of resources and interventions to reduce disease burden among individuals and in society. Each of the established risk factors for cardiovascular disease—age, gender, dyslipidemia, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and smoking—have been appropriately highlighted …
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