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Effects of walnut consumption on blood lipids and other cardiovascular risk factors: an updated meta-analysis and systematic review of controlled trials

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND Intervention studies suggest that incorporating walnuts into the diet may improve blood lipids without promoting weight gain. OBJECTIVE We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled trials evaluating the effects of walnut consumption on blood lipids and other c... Full description

Journal Title: The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2018, Vol. 108(1), pp.174-187
Main Author: Guasch - Ferré, Marta
Other Authors: Li, Jun , Hu, Frank B , Salas - Salvadó, Jordi , Tobias, Deirdre K
Format: Electronic Article Electronic Article
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ID: ISSN: 0002-9165 ; E-ISSN: 1938-3207 ; DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy091
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recordid: oxford10.1093/ajcn/nqy091
title: Effects of walnut consumption on blood lipids and other cardiovascular risk factors: an updated meta-analysis and systematic review of controlled trials
format: Article
creator:
  • Guasch - Ferré, Marta
  • Li, Jun
  • Hu, Frank B
  • Salas - Salvadó, Jordi
  • Tobias, Deirdre K
subjects:
  • Walnuts
  • Blood Lipids
  • Apolipoprotein
  • Body Weight
  • Meta - Analysis
ispartof: The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2018, Vol. 108(1), pp.174-187
description: ABSTRACT BACKGROUND Intervention studies suggest that incorporating walnuts into the diet may improve blood lipids without promoting weight gain. OBJECTIVE We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled trials evaluating the effects of walnut consumption on blood lipids and other cardiovascular risk factors. Design We conducted a comprehensive search of PubMed and EMBASE databases (from database inception to January 2018) of clinical trials comparing walnut-enriched diets with control diets. We performed random-effects meta-analyses comparing walnut-enriched and control diets for changes in pre-post intervention in blood lipids (mmol/L), apolipoproteins (mg/dL), body weight (kg), and blood pressure (mm Hg). RESULTS Twenty-six clinical trials with a total of 1059 participants were included. The following weighted mean differences (WMDs) in reductions were obtained for walnut-enriched diets compared with control groups: −6.99 mg/dL (95% CI: −9.39, −4.58 mg/dL; P 
language:
source:
identifier: ISSN: 0002-9165 ; E-ISSN: 1938-3207 ; DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy091
fulltext: fulltext
issn:
  • 0002-9165
  • 00029165
  • 1938-3207
  • 19383207
url: Link


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titleEffects of walnut consumption on blood lipids and other cardiovascular risk factors: an updated meta-analysis and systematic review of controlled trials
creatorGuasch - Ferré, Marta ; Li, Jun ; Hu, Frank B ; Salas - Salvadó, Jordi ; Tobias, Deirdre K
ispartofThe American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2018, Vol. 108(1), pp.174-187
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subjectWalnuts ; Blood Lipids ; Apolipoprotein ; Body Weight ; Meta - Analysis
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descriptionABSTRACT BACKGROUND Intervention studies suggest that incorporating walnuts into the diet may improve blood lipids without promoting weight gain. OBJECTIVE We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled trials evaluating the effects of walnut consumption on blood lipids and other cardiovascular risk factors. Design We conducted a comprehensive search of PubMed and EMBASE databases (from database inception to January 2018) of clinical trials comparing walnut-enriched diets with control diets. We performed random-effects meta-analyses comparing walnut-enriched and control diets for changes in pre-post intervention in blood lipids (mmol/L), apolipoproteins (mg/dL), body weight (kg), and blood pressure (mm Hg). RESULTS Twenty-six clinical trials with a total of 1059 participants were included. The following weighted mean differences (WMDs) in reductions were obtained for walnut-enriched diets compared with control groups: −6.99 mg/dL (95% CI: −9.39, −4.58 mg/dL; P < 0.001) (3.25% greater reduction) for total blood cholesterol (TC) and −5.51 mg/dL (95% CI: −7.72, −3.29 mg/dL; P < 0.001) (3.73% greater reduction) for low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. Triglyceride concentrations were also reduced in walnut-enriched diets compared with control [WMD = −4.69 (95% CI: −8.93, −0.45); P = 0.03; 5.52% greater reduction]. More pronounced reductions in blood lipids were observed when walnut interventions were compared with American and Western diets [WMD for TC = −12.30 (95% CI: −23.17, −1.43) and for LDL = −8.28 (95% CI: −13.04, −3.51); P < 0.001]. Apolipoprotein B (mg/dL) was also reduced significantly more on walnut-enriched diets compared with control groups [WMD = −3.74 (95% CI: −6.51, −0.97); P = 0.008] and a trend towards a reduction was observed for apolipoprotein A [WMD = −2.91 (95% CI: −5.98, 0.08); P = 0.057]. Walnut-enriched diets did not lead to significant differences in weight change (kg) compared with control diets [WMD = −0.12 (95% CI: −2.12, 1.88); P = 0.90], systolic blood pressure (mm Hg) [WMD = −0.72 (95% CI: −2.75, 1.30); P = 0.48], or diastolic blood pressure (mm Hg) [WMD = −0.10 (95% CI: −1.49, 1.30); P = 0.88]. Conclusions Incorporating walnuts into the diet improved blood lipid profile without adversely affecting body weight or blood pressure.
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